Manchester is a major city and metropolitan borough in Greater Manchester, with a population of 514,414 as of 2013. It lies within the United Kingdoms second-most populous urban area, with a population of 2.55 million, Manchester is fringed by the Cheshire Plain to the south, the Pennines to the north and east and an arc of towns with which it forms a continuous conurbation. The local authority is Manchester City Council and it was historically a part of Lancashire, although areas of Cheshire south of the River Mersey were incorporated during the 20th century. Throughout the Middle Ages Manchester remained a township but began to expand at an astonishing rate around the turn of the 19th century. Manchesters unplanned urbanisation was brought on by a boom in textile manufacture during the Industrial Revolution, Manchester achieved city status in 1853. The Manchester Ship Canal opened in 1894, creating the Port of Manchester and its fortunes declined after the Second World War, owing to deindustrialisation.
The city centre was devastated in a bombing in 1996, but it led to extensive investment, in 2014, the Globalization and World Cities Research Network ranked Manchester as a beta world city, the highest-ranked British city apart from London. Manchester is the third-most visited city in the UK and it is notable for its architecture, musical exports, media links and engineering output, social impact, sports clubs and transport connections. Manchester Liverpool Road railway station was the worlds first inter-city passenger railway station and in the city scientists first split the atom, the name Manchester originates from the Latin name Mamucium or its variant Mancunium and the citizens are still referred to as Mancunians. These are generally thought to represent a Latinisation of an original Brittonic name, both meanings are preserved in languages derived from Common Brittonic, mam meaning breast in Irish and mother in Welsh. The suffix -chester is a survival of Old English ceaster and their territory extended across the fertile lowland of what is now Salford and Stretford.
Central Manchester has been settled since this time. A stabilised fragment of foundations of the version of the Roman fort is visible in Castlefield. After the Roman withdrawal and Saxon conquest, the focus of settlement shifted to the confluence of the Irwell, much of the wider area was laid waste in the subsequent Harrying of the North. Thomas de la Warre, lord of the manor and constructed a church for the parish in 1421. The church is now Manchester Cathedral, the premises of the college house Chethams School of Music. The library, which opened in 1653 and is open to the public today, is the oldest free public reference library in the United Kingdom. Manchester is mentioned as having a market in 1282, around the 14th century, Manchester received an influx of Flemish weavers, sometimes credited as the foundation of the regions textile industry
Maine Road was a football stadium in Moss Side, England, that was home to Manchester City F. C. from 1923 to 2003. It hosted FA Cup semi-finals, Charity Shield matches, a League Cup final and England matches and, because of its high capacity, gained the nickname Wembley of the North. The following season Manchester City moved to the City of Manchester Stadium in East Manchester, two sites in Belle Vue, East Manchester were suggested, but neither was deemed sufficient. To many City fans east Manchester was regarded as Citys home, but the site was just 8 acres and an available lease of 50 years was deemed too short by the club, so it was decided that City would move to Moss Side. The move to a stadium at Maine Road was backed by manager Ernest Mangnall. Many were disappointed when a site in south Manchester was chosen, a City director, John Ayrton, resigned from the Board in the decade and helped to form a breakaway club, Manchester Central F. C. which played at Belle Vue. A sixteen and a quarter acre former brickworks on Maine Road was purchased for £5,500, during construction, the stadium was reputedly cursed by a gypsy when officials evicted a gypsy camp from the area.
This curse was allegedly removed on 28 December 1998, the gypsy curse is likely to be an urban myth, as such stories are endemic to a number of football league grounds. Construction took 300 days, the total cost £100,000, the initial layout of the ground consisted of one covered stand with a seating capacity of 10,000, and uncovered terracing on the other three sides, with gentle curves connecting the corners. The first match at Maine Road took place on 25 August 1923 when 58,159 fans watched the home side beat Sheffield United 2–1. The first changes to the ground took place in 1931, when the corner between the Main Stand and the Platt Lane end at the south of the ground was rebuilt to incorporate a roof. This renovation was the first of many, as Maine Roads layout, in 1934, the second highest attendance at an English football game at a club ground was recorded at Maine Road. The first was the 1913 FA Cup Final, hosted by Crystal Palace with a crowd of 121,919, the Maine Road match was between Manchester City and Stoke City in front of 84,569 fans in the 6th round of the FA Cup on 3 March 1934.
Queues formed four hours before the match, and one journalist stated that Maine Road was packed two hours before kick-off, a decision was taken to close the turnstiles with an attendance at approximately 85,000,3000 short of what was thought to be the maximum capacity. Supporters witnessed a visiting Stoke team which included Stanley Matthews and Citys team boasted players, Frank Swift, Fred Tilson, Sam Cowan, the match was won 1–0 by Manchester City. This is the home attendance for a domestic match and the record home attendance at a club ground. Changes at the Platt Lane end took place in 1935, extending the terracing and providing a roof for the full stand and this marked the peak capacity of the ground, estimated at around 88,000. Further changes were planned, but suspended when Manchester City were relegated from Division One in 1938, the stadium was shared by Manchester United after the Second World War as Manchester Uniteds Old Trafford ground had been damaged during the Manchester Blitz
However, serious injuries and loss of form meant that most of these players did not build on their initial success and the term Fergies Fledglings had fallen out of use by the following season. Beardsmore and Robins made over 50 appearances each for Manchester United but were unable to hold down places in the first team, Robins did score a winning goal against Nottingham Forest in the Third Round of the 1990 FA Cup. Martin scored the goal in the 1990 FA Cup final replay against Crystal Palace. Mark Robins was the member of the original batch of fledglings to enjoy any major success with other clubs. A second wave of players emerged at Manchester United in the early to mid-1990s. This group proved worthier than the generation in comparisons with the Busby Babes in terms of the success they achieved as relatively young footballers. Each one was developed by Manchester United from a early age. Many of these players were part of the Manchester United team that won the 1992 FA Youth Cup, including future United regulars David Beckham, Nicky Butt, Ryan Giggs and Gary Neville.
Following a 3–1 opening day defeat to Aston Villa, pundit Alan Hansen commented on Match of the Day Youll never win anything with kids. The young side, with an age of just 24. This was followed up by a 1–0 win over Liverpool in the 1996 FA Cup Final to secure the Double, a period of great success followed, the most outstanding triumph being The Treble in 1999. Many of the so-called Class of 92 became regulars for both club and country during this time, David Beckham, Nicky Butt and Phil Neville moved on in 2003,2004 and 2005 respectively, with Beckham captaining England from 2000 to 2006. All three have since retired, with Butt returning to United as member of the coaching staff, upon the announcement, Sir Alex Ferguson described Neville as the greatest English right back of his generation. Neville is the second most capped defender, after Bill Foulkes. Neville received a match in 2011, attended by five other Fergie Fledglings, Giggs, Butt. Ryan Giggs and Paul Scholes both played their entire Premiership careers for Manchester United, Giggs has now won more trophies than any other player in football history.
Coming on as a substitute in the 2008 UEFA Champions League final, the previous holder was Sir Bobby Charlton, the longest serving of the Busby Babes. Giggs went on to hold the post of assistant manager of Manchester United but left the club during the summer of 2016
The FA Cup, known officially as The Football Association Challenge Cup, is an annual knockout association football competition in mens domestic English football. First played during the 1871–72 season, it is the oldest association football competition in the world and it is organised by and named after The Football Association. For sponsorship reasons, from 2015 through to 2018 it is known as The Emirates FA Cup. A concurrent womens tournament is held, the FA Womens Cup. A record 763 clubs competed in 2011–12, the tournament consists of 12 randomly drawn rounds followed by the semi-finals and the final. The last entrants are the Premier League and Championship clubs, into the draw for the Third Round Proper, in the modern era, only one non-league team has ever reached the quarter finals, and teams below Level 2 have never reached the final. As a result, as well as who wins, significant focus is given to those minnows who progress furthest, especially if they achieve an unlikely giant-killing victory.
Winners receive the FA Cup trophy, of which there have two designs and five actual cups, the latest is a 2014 replica of the second design. Winners qualify for European football and a place in the FA Community Shield match, in 1863, the newly founded Football Association published the Laws of the Game of Association Football, unifying the various different rules in use before then. On 20 July 1871, in the offices of The Sportsman newspaper, the inaugural FA Cup tournament kicked off in November 1871. After thirteen games in all, Wanderers were crowned the winners in the final, Wanderers retained the trophy the following year. The modern cup was beginning to be established by the 1888–89 season, following the 1914–15 edition, the competition was suspended due to the First World War, and did not resume until 1919–20. The 1922–23 competition saw the first final to be played in the newly opened Wembley Stadium, due to the outbreak of World War II, the competition was not played between the 1938–39 and 1945–46 editions.
Having previously featured replays, the modern day practice of ensuring the semi-final and final matches finish on the day, was introduced from 2000 onwards. Redevelopment of Wembley saw the final played outside of England for the first time, the final returned to Wembley in 2007, followed by the semi-finals from 2008. The competition is open to any club down to Level 10 of the English football league system which meets the eligibility criteria, all clubs in the top four levels are automatically eligible. Clubs in the six levels are eligible provided they have played in either the FA Cup. Newly formed clubs, such as F. C. United of Manchester in 2005–06 and 2006–07, all clubs entering the competition must have a suitable stadium
South China AA
South China Athletic Association is a professional football team which plays in Hong Kong Stadium. The football team plays in the league of Hong Kong. It is the club with most honours in Hong Kong having won a record 41 First Division League titles. They have won a record 31 Senior Shields, a record 10 FA Cups and 3 League Cups, nicknamed Shaolin Temple and Caroliners, South China AA has produced many great Hong Kong footballers over the years. In November 2007, the club entered into a charity partnership with Hong Kong Red Cross, the partnership is a pioneer between a sports association and a humanitarian organisation in Hong Kong. The Chinese Football Team was founded in 1904 by a group of Chinese students in Hong Kong, including Mok Hing and Tong Fuk Cheung, in 1910, the team was renamed as South China Football Club. In the 1917 Far Eastern Games and 1919 Far Eastern Games and it is the only team in Hong Kong sports history to have accomplished this feat. China lost in the final to the Philippines in the first to be held, in 1913, on that occasion China was a joint winner with Japan.
Throughout these tournaments, the majority of the China team was composed of SCAA players, in 1920, South China which began as a club called the South China Athletic Association founded by Mok Hing. Around 1920–1922, the formally adopted the present name of South China Athletic Association. Since its foundation, South China had an all-Chinese Policy that only fielded Chinese players, even their foreign players were overseas Chinese players such as Edmund Wee, Chow Chee Keong, Chan Kwok Leung, etc. Up until the 1980s, the policy was very successful, but when professional football took off in Hong Kong, the club could not cope with the influx of foreign players and performed poorly at the beginning of the 1981–1982 season. On 2 November 1981, the club voted to end its over 60-year old All-Chinese policy, although the club was able to avoid relegation that season, it was not incident-free. On 6 June 1982, after the club drew an all-important match with Caroline Hill FC, the riot was the largest civil disorder in Hong Kong since the leftist riot in 1967.
As they failed to beat Citizen in the last game of the 2005–06 season, however, on 14 June 2006, the Hong Kong Football Association approved a request from South China to remain in the first division with the promise of strengthening their squad. Staying true to their word, South China heavily strengthened their squad, the team has reached the semi-finals of the 2009–10 AFC Cup. South China has reinvented their image and have partnered with several organisations, in 2007, South China has enter into a partnership with Hong Kong Red Cross. Nicky Butt and Mateja Kežman played for South China during the 2010–11 season of the Hong Kong First Division League, the team had captured all the 4 main trophies in seasons 1987–88 and 1990–91
Éric Daniel Pierre Cantona is a French actor and former international footballer for the French national team. He wore the number 7 shirt at Manchester United with his upturned collar. Cantona is affectionately nicknamed by Manchester United fans as King Eric, set against his achievements in football was a poor disciplinary record for much of his career, including a 1995 conviction for an assault on a fan. His disciplinary record, was improved after he returned from the eight-month suspension. In 2010, he débuted as an actor in Face au Paradis. An inaugural inductee into the English Football Hall of Fame in 2002, on 19 January 2011, Cantona joined the revived New York Cosmos as Director of Soccer. Cantona was born in Marseille, to Albert Cantona, a nurse and a painter, and Éléonore Raurich, the site was chosen in the mid-1950s by Cantonas paternal grandmother, whose husband, was a stonemason. By the time Cantona was born in 1966, the cave had become little more than a room in the familys house.
Cantona has two brothers, Jean-Marie, who is four years older, and Joël, who is 17 months younger, Cantona came from a family of immigrants, his paternal grandfather, had emigrated to Marseille from Sardinia, while his mothers parents had been Catalan separatists. The Raurichs stayed in Saint-Priest, Ardèche, before settling in Marseille, Cantona began his football career with SO Caillolais, his local team and one that had produced such talent as Roger Jouve and had players such as Jean Tigana and Christophe Galtier within its ranks. Originally, Cantona began to follow in his fathers footsteps and often played as a goalkeeper, in his time with SO Caillolais, Cantona played in more than 200 matches. Cantonas first professional club was Auxerre, where he spent two years in the team before making his début on 5 November 1983, in a 4–0 league victory over Nancy. In 1984 his footballing career was put on hold as he carried out his national service, after his discharge he was loaned out to Martigues in the French Second Division before rejoining Auxerre and signing a professional contract in 1986.
His performances in the First Division were good enough to him his first full international cap when barely in his twenties. However, his disciplinary problems began in 1987 when he was fined for punching team mate Bruno Martini in the face, Cantona had grown up as a Marseille fan. In January 1989 during a game against Torpedo Moscow he kicked the ball at the crowd, ripped off. His club responded by banning him for a month, just a few months earlier, he had been banned from international matches for one year after insulting the national coach Henri Michel on TV. Having struggled to settle at Marseille, Cantona moved to Bordeaux on a six-month loan, at Montpellier, he was involved in a fight with team-mate Jean-Claude Lemoult and threw his boots in Lemoults face
Roy Maurice Keane is an Irish football assistant manager and former professional football player. He is the joint-most successful Irish footballer of all time, having won 19 major trophies,17 of which came at Manchester United and he is currently the assistant manager of the Republic of Ireland national football team. In his 18-year-long playing career, Keane played for Cobh Ramblers, Nottingham Forest, joining the club in 1993, Keane helped United achieve a sustained period of success during his twelve year tenure at the club. He signed for Celtic, but retired as a less than a year later. Keane played at international level for much of his career, representing the Republic of Ireland over a period of 14 years, most of which he spent as captain. Regarded as one of the best defensive midfielders of his generation, in 2007, The Times placed him at number 11 in their list of the 50 hardest footballers in history. Keanes arrival was cited as the key catalyst in Sunderlands recovery and he managed to keep Sunderland from relegation in the 2007–08 season but in his second season as a top-flight manager he left his position with Sunderland in the relegation zone.
In April 2009, he was appointed as manager of Ipswich Town but was dismissed after 20 months in January 2011 due to the position of 19th in the Championship. In November 2013, he was appointed assistant manager of the Republic of Ireland national team by manager Martin ONeill, Keane was born into a working class family in Ballinderry Park, Cork. His father, took work wherever he could find, which led to jobs at a local knitwear company and his family were keen on sport, football especially, and many of his relatives had played for junior clubs in Cork, including Rockmount. Keane took up boxing at the age of nine and trained for a number of years, during this period he was developing as a much more promising footballer at Rockmount, and his potential was highlighted when he was voted Player of the Year in his first season. Many of his teammates were offered trials abroad with English football teams, undeterred, he began applying for trials with English clubs, but he was turned down by each one.
As his childhood years passed, he took up temporary jobs involving manual work while waiting for a breakthrough in his football prospects, in 1989, he eventually signed for the semi-professional Irish club Cobh Ramblers after persuasion from Ramblers youth team manager Eddie ORourke. Keane was one of two Ramblers representatives in the inaugural FAI/FAS scheme in Dublin, and it was through this initiative that he got his first taste of full-time training. In an FAI Youth Cup match against Belvedere, Keanes performance attracted the attention of watching Nottingham Forest scout Noel McCabe, Keane impressed Forest manager Brian Clough, and eventually a deal for Keane worth £47,000 was struck with Cobh Ramblers in the summer of 1990. Keane initially found life in Nottingham difficult due to the long periods away from his family, Keane expressed his gratitude at Cloughs generosity when considering his requests, as it helped him get through his early days at the club. Keanes first games at Forest came in the Under-21s team during a tournament in the Netherlands.
In the final against Haarlem, he scored the penalty in a shootout to decide the competition
The club have played continuously in the top tier of the Italian football league system since its debut in 1909. Inter have won 30 domestic trophies as well as local rivals A. C. Milan, from 2006 to 2010, the club won five successive league titles, equalling the all-time record. They have won the Champions League three times, two back-to-back in 1964 and 1965 and another in 2010 and their latest win completed an unprecedented Italian seasonal treble, with Inter winning the Coppa Italia and the Scudetto the same year. The club has won three UEFA Cups, two Intercontinental Cups and one FIFA Club World Cup. Inters home games are played at the San Siro stadium, known as the Stadio Giuseppe Meazza, shared with rivals A. C. Milan, the stadium is the largest in Italian football. The local team A. C. Milan are considered among their biggest rivals, as of 2010, Inter is the second-most supported team in Italy, and the sixth most-supported team in Europe. The club is one of the most valuable in Italian and world football and it was a founding member of the now-defunct G-14 group of Europes leading football clubs.
The club was founded on 9 March 1908 as Football Club Internazionale, following the schism with the Milan Cricket, the name of the club derives from the wish of its founding members to accept foreign players as well as Italians. The club won its very first championship in 1910 and its second in 1920, the captain and coach of the first championship winning team was Virgilio Fossati, who was killed in battle while serving in the Italian army during World War I. In 1922, Inter remained in the top league after winning two play-offs, six years later, during the Fascist era, the club was forced to merge with the Unione Sportiva Milanese and was renamed Società Sportiva Ambrosiana. The team wore white jerseys around this time with a red cross emblazoned on it, the jerseys design was inspired by the flag and coat of arms of the city of Milan. Their first Coppa Italia was won in 1938–39, led by the iconic Giuseppe Meazza, a fifth championship followed in 1940, despite Meazza incurring an injury. After the end of World War II the club regained its name, winning its sixth championship in 1953.
He would transform Inter into one of the greatest teams in Europe and he modified a 5–3–2 tactic known as the Verrou to include larger flexibility for counterattacks. The catenaccio system was invented by an Austrian coach Karl Rappan, herrera would modify it by adding a fifth defenders, the sweeper or libero behind the two centre backs. The sweeper or libero who acted as the man would deal with any attackers who went through the two centre backs. Inter finished third in the Serie A in his first season, second the next year, followed a back-to-back European Cup victory in 1964 and 1965, earning him the title il Mago. In 1964, Inter reached the European Cup Final by beating Borussia Dortmund in the semi-final, in the final, they met Real Madrid, a team that had reached seven out of the nine finals to date
Old Trafford is a football stadium in Old Trafford, Greater Manchester and the home of Manchester United. It is about 0.5 miles from Old Trafford Cricket Ground, future expansion is likely to involve the addition of a second tier to the South Stand, which would raise the capacity to around 95,000. The stadiums record attendance was recorded in 1939, when 76,962 spectators watched the FA Cup semi-final between Wolverhampton Wanderers and Grimsby Town and it hosted football matches at the 2012 Summer Olympics, including womens international football for the first time in its history. Before 1902, Manchester United were known as Newton Heath, during time they first played their football matches at North Road. However, both grounds were blighted by wretched conditions, the pitches ranging from gravel to marsh, while Bank Street suffered from clouds of fumes from its neighbouring factories. Including the purchase of the land, the construction of the stadium was originally to have cost £60,000 all told.
The subsidy would have come to the sum of £10,000, despite guarantees for the loan coming from the club itself and two local breweries, both chaired by club chairman John Henry Davies, the Cheshire Lines Committee turned the proposal down. The CLC had planned to build a new station adjacent to the new stadium, the station – Trafford Park – was eventually built, but further down the line than originally planned. The CLC constructed a modest station with one timber-built platform immediately adjacent to the stadium and it was initially named United Football Ground, but was renamed Old Trafford Football Ground in early 1936. It was served on match days only by a service of steam trains from Manchester Central railway station. It is currently known as Manchester United Football Ground, construction was carried out by Messrs Brameld and Smith of Manchester and development was completed in late 1909. The stadium hosted its game on 19 February 1910, with United playing host to Liverpool. However, the side were unable to provide their fans with a win to mark the occasion.
A journalist at the game reported the stadium as the most handsomest, the most spacious, as a football ground it is unrivalled in the world, it is an honour to Manchester and the home of a team who can do wonders when they are so disposed. Before the construction of Wembley Stadium in 1923, the FA Cup Final was hosted by a number of different grounds around England including Old Trafford. The first of these was the 1911 FA Cup Final replay between Bradford City and Newcastle United, after the tie at Crystal Palace finished as a no-score draw after extra time. Bradford won 1–0, the goal scored by Jimmy Speirs, in a match watched by 58,000 people, the grounds second FA Cup Final was the 1915 final between Sheffield United and Chelsea. Sheffield United won the match 3–0 in front of nearly 50,000 spectators, most of whom were in the military, leading to the final being nicknamed the Khaki Cup Final
The Premier League is an English professional league for mens association football clubs. At the top of the English football league system, it is the primary football competition. Contested by 20 clubs, it operates on a system of promotion and relegation with the English Football League, Welsh clubs that compete in the English football league system can qualify. The Premier League is a corporation in which the 20 member clubs act as shareholders, seasons run from August to May. Teams play 38 matches each, totalling 380 matches in the season, most games are played on Saturday and Sunday afternoons, others during weekday evenings. It is colloquially known as the Premiership and outside the UK it is referred to as the English Premier League. The deal was worth £1 billion a year domestically as of 2013–14, with BSkyB, the league generates €2.2 billion per year in domestic and international television rights. In 2014/15, teams were apportioned revenues of £1.6 billion, the Premier League is the most-watched sports league in the world, broadcast in 212 territories to 643 million homes and a potential TV audience of 4.7 billion people.
In the 2014–15 season, the average Premier League match attendance exceeded 36,000, most stadium occupancies are near capacity. The Premier League ranks third in the UEFA coefficients of leagues based on performances in European competitions over the past five seasons. While 47 clubs have competed since the inception of the Premier League in 1992, only six have won the title, Manchester United, Arsenal, Manchester City, Blackburn Rovers, the current champions are Leicester City, who won the title in 2015–16. Despite significant European success in the 1970s and early 1980s, the late 80s marked a low point for English football, the 1988 negotiations were the first signs of a breakaway league, ten clubs threatened to leave and form a super league, but were eventually persuaded to stay. As stadiums improved and match attendance and revenues rose, the top teams again considered leaving the Football League in order to capitalise on the influx of money into the sport. At the close of the 1991 season, a proposal was tabled for the establishment of a new league that would bring money into the game overall.
The Founder Members Agreement, signed on 17 July 1991 by the games top-flight clubs, the argument given at the time was that the extra income would allow English clubs to compete with teams across Europe. The managing director of London Weekend Television, Greg Dyke, met with the representatives of the big five clubs in England in 1990. The meeting was to pave the way for an away from The Football League. The FA did not enjoy a relationship with the Football League at the time
UEFA Champions League
The UEFA Champions League is an annual continental club football competition organised by the Union of European Football Associations and contested by top-division European clubs. It is one of the most prestigious tournaments in the world, the UEFA Champions League final is the most watched annual sporting event worldwide. The final of the 2012–13 tournament had the highest TV ratings to date, the pre-1992 competition was initially a straight knockout tournament open only to the champion club of each country. During the 1990s, the format was expanded, incorporating a round-robin group stage to include clubs that finished runner-up of some nations top-level league. Clubs that finish next-in-line in each top level league, having not qualified for the UEFA Champions League competition. In its present format, the UEFA Champions League begins in mid-July with three qualifying rounds and a play-off round. The 10 surviving teams enter the stage, joining 22 other teams qualified in advance. The 32 teams are drawn into eight groups of four teams, the eight group winners and eight runners-up proceed to the knockout phase that culminates with the final match in May.
The winner of the UEFA Champions League qualifies for the UEFA Super Cup, Real Madrid is the most successful club in the competitions history, having won the tournament 11 times, including its first five seasons. Spanish clubs have accumulated the highest number of victories, followed by England, the competition has been won by 22 different clubs,12 of which have won it more than once. Since the tournament changed name and structure in 1992, no club has managed consecutive wins, Milan were the last holders to defend their title. The reigning champions are Real Madrid, who secured their title in the competition after defeating Atlético Madrid on penalties following a 1–1 draw in the 2016 final. The first pan-European tournament was the Challenge Cup, a competition between clubs in the Austro-Hungarian Empire, the Mitropa Cup, a competition modelled after the Challenge Cup, was created in 1927, an idea of Austrian Hugo Meisl, and played between Central European clubs. In 1930, the Coupe des Nations, the first attempt to create a cup for national clubs of Europe, was played and organised by Swiss club Servette.
Held in Geneva, it brought together ten champions from across the continent, the tournament was won by Újpest of Hungary. Latin European nations came together to form the Latin Cup in 1949 and it was conceived in Paris in 1955 as the European Champion Clubs Cup. The first edition of the European Cup took place during the 1955–56 season, the first European Cup match took place on 4 September 1955, and ended in a 3–3 draw between Sporting CP and Partizan. The first goal in European Cup history was scored by João Baptista Martins of Sporting CP, the inaugural final took place at the Parc des Princes between Stade de Reims and Real Madrid
A midfielder is an association football position. Midfielders are generally positioned on the field between their teams defenders and forwards, some midfielders play a disciplined defensive role, breaking up attacks, and are otherwise known as defensive midfielders. Others blur the boundaries, being mobile and efficient in passing, they are commonly referred to as deep-lying midfielders, play-makers, box-to-box. The number of midfielders on a team and their assigned roles depends on the teams formation, most managers assign at least one midfielder to disrupt the opposing teams attacks, while others may be tasked with creating goals, or have equal responsibilities between attack and defence. Midfielders are the players who typically travel the greatest distance during a match, central or centre midfielders are players whose role is divided roughly equally between attack and defence. When the opposing team has the ball, a midfielder may drop back to protect the goal or move forward. The 4–3–3 and 4–5–1 formations each use three central midfielders, the 4−4−2 formation may use two central midfielders, and in the 4–2–3–1 formation one of the two deeper midfielders may be a central midfielder.
The term box-to-box midfielder refers to central midfielders who have abilities and are skilled at both defending and attacking. These players can track back to their own box to make tackles and block shots. A good box-to-box midfielder needs good passing, control, stamina and marking in defence and right midfielders have a role balanced between attack and defence, similar to that of central midfielders, but they are positioned closer to the touchlines of the pitch. They may be asked to cross the ball into the penalty area to make scoring chances for their teammates. Common modern formations that include left and right midfielders are the 4−4−2, the 4−4−1−1, the 4–2–3–1, a notable example of a right midfielder is David Beckham. Defensive midfielders are players who focus on protecting their teams goal. These players may defend a zone in front of their teams defence, defensive midfielders may move to the full-back or centre-back positions if those players move forward to join in an attack. Sergio Busquets described his attitude, The coach knows that I am an obedient player who likes to help out and if I have to run to the wing to cover someones position, great. A good defensive midfielder needs good positional awareness, anticipation of play, tackling, interceptions and great stamina. A holding or deep-lying midfielder stays close to their teams defence, a player in this role will try to protect their goal by disrupting the opponents attacking moves and stopping long shots on the goal.
The holding midfielder may have responsibilities when their team has the ball and this player will make mostly short and simple passes to more attacking members of their team but may try some more difficult passes depending on the teams strategy