Alfa Romeo 105/115 Series Coupés
The Alfa Romeo 105 and 115 series coupés were a range of cars made by the Italian manufacturer Alfa Romeo from 1963 until 1977, based on a shortened floorpan from the Giulia saloon. They were the successors to the Giulietta Sprint coupé; the basic body shape shared by all models was designed by Giorgetto Giugiaro for Bertone. It was one of his first major projects for Bertone, borrowed from his earlier design for the Alfa Romeo 2000 Sprint/2600 Sprint; the balance of glass and metal, the influence of the shape of the front and rear glass on the shape of the cabin, the flat grille with incorporated headlamps were groundbreaking styling features for the era. A limited production convertible was a modification from the standard car by Touring of Milan, offered as a catalogue model by Alfa Romeo called the Giulia Sprint GTC. A small number of the GT Junior Zagato were built with a different, aerodynamic two-seater coupé body designed by Ercole Spada for Zagato of Milan; these too were offered by Alfa Romeo as catalogue models, as the GT 1300 Junior Zagato and GT 1600 Junior Zagato.
All models feature the four cylinder, all-light-alloy Alfa Romeo Twin Cam engine in various cubic capacities from 1290 cc to 1962 cc, all with two valves per cylinder. All versions of this engine fitted to the 105 series coupés featured twin carburettors, except for US market 1750 GTV and 2000 GTV cars which were fitted with mechanical port fuel injection by SPICA. Competition models featured cylinder heads with twin spark plugs. Common to all models was a 5-speed manual transmission and solid disc brakes on all four wheels, although in South Africa at the Brits plant a few Auto 2000 GTV were made for the local market; these featured the 3 speed ZF auto box. The rear suspension uses a solid axle with coil springs. Air conditioning and a limited slip rear differential were optional on the models. A limited slip differential was standard on the GTV 2000 for North America 1972-1974. Factory air conditioning was available on the 1973-1974 only in the USA; the 105 series coupés featured the GT model description, common to all models in one form or another.
The various models in this range can be considered in two broad categories. On one hand were Gran Turismo Veloces; these were meant to be the most sporting cars in the Alfa Romeo range and sold well to enthusiastic motorists around the world. The first model available was the Giulia Sprint GT which evolved into the Giulia Sprint GT Veloce, the 1750 GTV and the 2000 GTV, with engines increasing in cubic capacity from 1570 cc through 1779 cc to 1962 cc. A limited production convertible, the Giulia Sprint GTC, was based on the Giulia Sprint GT, modified by Touring of Milan, it was only made over two years from 1964 to 1966. On the other hand, was the GT Junior range, which featured engines with smaller cubic capacities. GT Juniors sold in great numbers to people who wanted a sporting, stylish car that handled well, but either did not require the maximum in engine power, or could not afford the taxation on larger engine capacities in some markets - most notably, Alfa Romeo's home Italian market. Junior models began with the first GT 1300 Junior in 1966.
The GT 1300 Junior continued until 1976 with the 1290 cc engine and various modifications incorporating features from the evolution of the GT's and GTV's. From 1972 a GT 1600 Junior model was available, with the 1570 cc engine; the 1300 Junior and 1600 Junior became available with a different, aerodynamic two-seater coupé body designed by Ercole Spada for Zagato of Milan. These models were GT 1600 Junior Zagato. Both categories were used to derive GTA models, which were intended for competition homologation in their respective engine size classes; the GTA's featured extensive modifications for racing, so they were priced much higher than the standard models and sold in much smaller numbers. All GTA's made were used in competition, where they had a long and successful history in various classes and category; these models included the Giulia Sprint GTA, GTA 1300 Junior, GTAm. Although not thought of as a 105 Series coupé variant, the Alfa Romeo Montreal used a strengthened and modified 105 series floorpan and suspension.
Tipo: 105.02, 105.04. Engine: 00502; the Alfa Romeo Giulia Sprint GT was the first Giulia sport model introduced, was manufactured from 1963 to 1965. It was revealed at a press event held at the newly opened Arese plant on 9 September 1963, displayed the same month at the Frankfurt Motor Show. In its original form the Bertone body is known as scalino or "step front", because of the leading edge of the engine compartment lid which sat 1/4 an inch above the nose of the car; the Giulia Sprint GT can be distinguished from the models by the following features: Exterior badging: Alfa Romeo logo on the front grille, a chrome script reading "Giulia Sprint GT" on the boot lid, rectangular "Disegno di Bertone" badges aft of the front wheel arches. Flat, chrome grille in plain, wide rectangular mesh without additional chrome bars. Single-piece chrome bumpers. Inside the cabin the padded vinyl dashboard was characterised by a concave horizontal fascia, finished in grey anti-glare crackle-effect paint. Four round instruments were inset in the fascia in front of the driver.
The larger diameter inner pair were speedometer.
ALFA 20/30 HP
ALFA or Alfa Romeo has made three cars named as 20/30 HP, first one 1910 4-cylinder 4-6-seater tourer, improved version 20/30 HP E in 1914 and 1921 the 20/30 HP ES Sport, a 4-seater sportscar. The ALFA 20/30 HP was identical to the 24 HP of 1910 and could be called HP 24 Series E; the engine was same as used in 24 HP but now the camshaft with side chain. The maximum power was increased to 49 bhp at 2400 rpm and the top speed was 115 kilometres per hour; the vehicle was available in two body variants: torpedo. At the outbreak of World War I, August 3, 1914, Italy declared itself neutral and ALFA plants have not been directly affected by war or by manufacturing related to the war effort. Production between 1914 and 1915 was 285 copies. In 1915, production was 95 frame for 20/30 HP, but they were only completed in 1920. Alfa Romeo Torpedo 20/30 HP is the first Alfa Romeo named car after ALFA brand. 20/30 HP had 4250 cc sidevalve straight-4 engine and it produced 67 bhp. Car was meant to upper class and price was high, around three times more than Ford Model T, remarkable amount after World War I.
ES Sport was based on the 1914 20/30 E model. The "S" was added to emphasize the sportiness of the car; this car had starter. The chassis was shortened from previous E model. Enzo Ferrari began his racing career with teammates Antonio Ascari and Ugo Sivocci. Price was one of the reasons. Engine: 4 cylinders inline Displacement: 4250 cc Power: 67 bhp at 2600 rpm Top speed: 130 km/h Borgeson, Griffith; the Alfa Romeo Tradition. City: Haynes Publishing Group Ltd. Somerset, UK. ISBN 0-85429-875-4
Naples is the regional capital of Campania and the third-largest municipality in Italy after Rome and Milan. In 2017, around 967,069 people lived within the city's administrative limits while its province-level municipality has a population of 3,115,320 residents, its continuously built-up metropolitan area is the second or third largest metropolitan area in Italy and one of the most densely populated cities in Europe. First settled by Greeks in the second millennium BC, Naples is one of the oldest continuously inhabited urban areas in the world. In the ninth century BC, a colony known as Parthenope or Παρθενόπη was established on the Island of Megaride refounded as Neápolis in the sixth century BC; the city was an important part of Magna Graecia, played a major role in the merging of Greek and Roman society and a significant cultural centre under the Romans. It served as the capital of the Duchy of Naples of the Kingdom of Naples and of the Two Sicilies until the unification of Italy in 1861.
Between 1925 and 1936, Naples was expanded and upgraded by Benito Mussolini's government but subsequently sustained severe damage from Allied bombing during World War II, which led to extensive post-1945 reconstruction work. Naples has experienced significant economic growth in recent decades, helped by the construction of the Centro Direzionale business district and an advanced transportation network, which includes the Alta Velocità high-speed rail link to Rome and Salerno and an expanded subway network. Naples is the third-largest urban economy in Italy, after Rome; the Port of Naples is one of the most important in Europe and home of the Allied Joint Force Command Naples, the NATO body that oversees North Africa, the Sahel and Middle East. Naples' historic city centre is the largest in Europe and a UNESCO World Heritage Site, with a wide range of culturally and significant sites nearby, including the Palace of Caserta and the Roman ruins of Pompeii and Herculaneum. Naples is known for its natural beauties such as Posillipo, Phlegraean Fields and Vesuvius.
Neapolitan cuisine is synonymous with pizza – which originated in the city – but it includes many lesser-known dishes. The best-known sports team in Naples is the Serie A club S. S. C. Napoli, two-time Italian champions who play at the San Paolo Stadium in the southwest of the city, in the Fuorigrotta quarter. Naples has been inhabited since the Neolithic period; the earliest Greek settlements were established in the Naples area in the second millennium BC. Sailors from the Greek island of Rhodes established a small commercial port called Parthenope on the island of Megaride in the ninth century BC. By the eighth century BC, the settlement had expanded to include Monte Echia. In the sixth century BC the new urban zone of Neápolis was founded on the plain becoming one of the foremost cities of Magna Graecia; the city grew due to the influence of the powerful Greek city-state of Syracuse, became an ally of the Roman Republic against Carthage. During the Samnite Wars, the city, now a bustling centre of trade, was captured by the Samnites.
During the Punic Wars, the strong walls surrounding Neápolis repelled the invading forces of the Carthaginian general Hannibal. Naples was respected by the Romans as a paragon of Hellenistic culture. During the Roman era, the people of Naples maintained their Greek language and customs, while the city was expanded with elegant Roman villas and public baths. Landmarks such as the Temple of Dioscures were built, many emperors chose to holiday in the city, including Claudius and Tiberius. Virgil, the author of Rome's national epic, the Aeneid, received part of his education in the city, resided in its environs, it was during this period. Januarius, who would become Naples' patron saint, was martyred there in the fourth century AD; the last emperor of the Western Roman Empire, Romulus Augustulus, was exiled to Naples by the Germanic king Odoacer in the fifth century AD. Following the decline of the Western Roman Empire, Naples was captured by the Ostrogoths, a Germanic people, incorporated into the Ostrogothic Kingdom.
However, Belisarius of the Byzantine Empire recaptured Naples in 536, after entering the city via an aqueduct. In 543, during the Gothic Wars, Totila took the city for the Ostrogoths, but the Byzantines seized control of the area following the Battle of Mons Lactarius on the slopes of Vesuvius. Naples was expected to keep in contact with the Exarchate of Ravenna, the centre of Byzantine power on the Italian Peninsula. After the exarchate fell, a Duchy of Naples was created. Although Naples' Greco-Roman culture endured, it switched allegiance from Constantinople to Rome under Duke Stephen II, putting it under papal suzerainty by 763; the years between 818 and 832 were tumultuous in regard to Naples' relations with the Byzantine Emperor, with numerous local pretenders feuding for possession of the ducal throne. Theoctistus was appointed without imperial approval. However, the disgruntled general populace chased him from the city, instead elected Stephen III, a man who minted coins with his own initials, r
Alfa Romeo Avio
The Alfa Romeo Avio was an Italian aviation company producing aircraft engines active since 1941. It was founded as a division of Alfa Romeo but was sold to Aeritalia in 1986 and to Fiat in 1996, it was merged with Fiat Avio in 2003 as Avio S.p. A.. The first Alfa Romeo engine used on an airplane was installed in 1910. Designed and created by designer Antonio Santoni and Alfa Romeo driver Nino Franchini, the airplane was equipped with the engine from a ALFA 24 HP designed by Giuseppe Merosi with a maximum power of 36 horsepower; the Santoni-Franchini biplane made its first flight on 1 November 1910 in Milan, taking off from Baggio and landing in San Siro. Alfa Romeo's involvement in aviation continued after the takeover by Nicola Romeo. During the Nicola Romeo ownership, the company received orders from the Italian war ministry to build 300 license Isotta Fraschini V6 engines for bombers used in the First World War. However, after the war ended, having made a prototype of a 600 horsepower V12 engine, the Alfa Romeo aviation business was temporarily suspended.
Alfa Romeo resumed activity in aviation in 1924. Nicola Romeo purchased a license to build the Bristol Jupiter IV, an air-cooled nine cylinder radial engine; these engines were used on reconnaissance and observation aircraft like the IMAM Ro.1, Meridionali Ro.1 and Caproni Ca.97. They were used, experimentally, on the Caproni Ca.102 bomber and Ansaldo AC.3 fighter. In 1928, Pasquale Gallo, who replaced Nicola Romeo at the head of Alfa Romeo managed to win a contract to produce the Armstrong Siddeley Lynx seven and nine cylinder radials under license. At the end of the twenties, Alfa Romeo director, Prospero Gianferrari, decided to diversify the company's business, invest in the design and construction of aircraft engines in addition to trucks and buses. To demonstrate the new prowess, the way that their expertise spread between aviation and motoring, in 1931 Alfa Romeo organized a race between an Alfa Romeo 8C 3000 Monza driven by Tazio Nuvolari and a Caproni Ca.100 Alfa Romeo powered. Tazio Nuvolari beat the airplane by a small margin.
The first big result of this change in strategy was the production, in 1932, of the first aircraft engine designed and built by the Alfa Romeo, the D2. This development was too late for Alfa Romeo who were declared bankrupt in 1933; the state-owned Istituto per la Ricostruzione Industriale stepped in to take control and a new managing director, Ugo Gobbato, was appointed. Development and production of aircraft engines resumed; the D2 engine was used to power the Breda Ba.25, the most used Italian basic trainer of the 1930s, the Caproni Ca.101. It was complemented by further development of the license-built Jupiter, the Alfa Romeo 125, 125 RC.35, 126 RC.10, 126 RC.34, 128 RC.18, 128 RC.21 and 129 RC.32, some of which saw widespread use. For example, the 126 RC.34 was installed on five different airplanes: the Savoia-Marchetti S.74, SM.75, SM.79, SM.81 and Cant Z.506. Other aircraft engines derived from foreign designs in this decade included the 110, based on the De Havilland Gypsy Major, the 115, based on the De Havilland Gypsy Six and the Mercurius, based on the Bristol Mercury.
At the same time, Alfa Romeo developed and produced its own propellers, both fixed and variable pitch, made from duralumin. In the thirties, the Alfa Romeo engines for the aviation industry became famous for their successful participation in the various attempts to break world records in aviation and for their sporting triumphs; the Alfa Romeo aircraft engines of this period, used on the aircraft of the Regia Aeronautica, helped to write important pages in the history of Italian aviation. Some of the metal alloys used in the aviation business were patented and used in cars. One of the most famous metal alloys designed and developed by Alfa Romeo was "Duralfa". In the late thirties the political situation in Europe was changing as the winds of war brought many nations, including Italy, into an arms race. Alfa Romeo's production was directed away from civilian cars towards the assembly of the aircraft engines and trucks that would help Italy in a future armed conflict. Soon aircraft production was generating 80% of Alfa Romeo's sales revenue.
In this context, in 1938, it was decided to build a production plant in Pomigliano d'Arco, near Naples, dedicated to the design and assembly of aircraft engines. In the following years the plant in Pomigliano d'Arco reached levels of quality and technological achievement that put it among the leading factories of the period. See Alfa Romeo Pomigliano d'Arco plantAfter the outbreak of World War II, plant director Ugo Gobbato decided to establish a separate division for aircraft products. Thus, in 1941, Alfa Romeo Avio was born; the aircraft engines produced by the Alfa Romeo in this period were all air-cooled radial engines. One exception was the RA 1000 RC.41, licensed from Daimler-Benz and used fighter planes like the Reggiane Re.2001 and Macchi M. C.202. The Second World War left many signs in the Portello plant and the production site of Pomigliano d'Arco, considered a important war supplier; because of its strategic importance, the plant in Milan suffered two heavy bombing raids on 14 February and 13 August 1943.
The final raid came on October 20, 1944, the heaviest bombardment that Milan had suffered, destroying more than 60% of the factory and closing the production site down. The plant in Pomigliano d'Arco suffered a similar fate on 30 May 1943, with the destruction of 70% of the factory by air attack. After the war, military production ceased and the factory in Pomigliano d'Arco was temporarily converted to produce cars, trolley buses, diesel engines and marine engines, as well as testing car eng
Alfa Romeo Giulia
Alfa Romeo Giulia is the name of three not directly related models by the Italian car manufacturer Alfa Romeo. The first is a line of sporty four-door compact executive cars produced from 1962 to 1978, the second is an updated up-engined Spider and Sprint Speciale Giuliettas, the third Giulia is a compact executive car unveiled in 2015. Alfa Romeo was one of the first mainstream manufacturers to put a powerful engine in a light-weight 1 tonne four-door car for mass production; the Type 105 Giulia was equipped with a light alloy twin overhead camshaft four-cylinder engine similar to that of the earlier Giulietta range, available in 1.3-litre and 1.6-litre versions. Various configurations of carburetors and tuning produced power outputs from about 80 to about 110 bhp, coupled in most cases to 5-speed manual transmission. Giulia sedans were noted for lively handling and impressive acceleration among small European four-door sedans of their era considering modest engine sizes offered; the popular Super version with the twin carburettor 1.6 litre engine had a top speed of 170 km/h and accelerated from 0 to 100 km/h in about 12 seconds, better than many sports cars of the late 1960s and early 1970s.
When leaving the factory all variations of the Giulia fitted either Pirelli Cinturato 165HR14 tyres or Pirelli Cinturato 155HR15 tyres. The styling of the boxy four-door notchback saloon was somewhat wanting; the engine bay and boot were all square shaped, buffered somewhat by details on the grill, roofline and boot. Use of a wind tunnel during development led to a aerodynamic shape that produced a drag coefficient of Cd=0.34 low for a saloon of the era. The Giulia Spider was succeeded by the Alfa Romeo Spider in 1966. Note: chassis and engine type numbers displayed in italic for each model are sourced from Fusi 1978, pages 841–848. Tipo: 105.14, 105.08, 105.09. Engine: 00514. Unveiled on 27 June 1962 at the Autodromo Nazionale Monza, the Alfa Romeo Giulia TI was the first of the Giulia family of cars to be introduced, its 1,570 cc Alfa Romeo Twin Cam engine was fitted with a single Solex 33 PAIA 7 twin-choke down-draft carburettor, produced 92 DIN-rated PS or 106 SAE-rated PS at 6,200 rpm. The "TI" nomenclature referred to a class of Italian saloon car racing known as "Turismo Internazionale", had been applied to higher-performance versions of the 1900 and Giulietta saloons in the 1950s.
However, for the Giulia saloon, the TI was at first the only version available, with the introduction of the TI Super and Super, the TI became the base version in the 1.6-litre engine class. A distinguishing feature of the original Giulia were drum brakes on all corners, the front ones of the three-shoe type like on late Giuliettas; the car was marketed as a six-seater, thanks to a standard column-mounted shifter and a split bench front seat—though Italian car magazine Quattroruote found it rather a comfortable four-seater. Other notable interior features of the early models were mottled cloth and vinyl upholstery, a grey, trapezoid instrument panel including a strip speedometer, a black steering wheel with two ivory-coloured spokes and a chrome half horn ring. In May 1964 a floor shifter became available, to be ordered in conjunction with the newly introduced separate front seats. Around the same time a right hand drive model variant entered production, with floor shifter only. In February 1966 several changes were made.
The floor shifter became standard. From outside these TIs can be recognized by L-shaped chrome strips around the tail lights which supplanted the previous C-shaped ones. Production of the Giulia TI ceased during 1967. Tipo: 105.16. Engine: 00516; the Alfa Romeo Giulia TI Super was a special road-going sports model produced in limited numbers, fitted with a more powerful engine and a number of weight saving components, intended for racing use. It was introduced to the press at the Monza race track on 24 April 1963. In total only 501 were made, 178 in 1963 and 323 1964. On 2 May 1964 the TI Super received international FIA and Italian CSAI homologation for racing, was extensively campaigned in the European Touring Car Challenge. Today the Giulia TI Super is rare and considered desirable by collectors; the TI Super's 1,570 cc engine was the same installed on the Giulia Sprint Speciale coupé—though bearing a different type code. It was fitted with two twin-choke horizontal Weber 45 DCOE 14 carburettors and, as on the Sprint Speciale, produced 112 DIN-rated PS or 129 SAE-rated PS at 6,500 rpm, pushing top speed to over 185 km/h.
Dry weight was 910 kilograms compared to 1,000 kg of the standard Giulia TI. Parts contributing to the weight reduction were mesh grilles replacing the inner pair of head lamps, bumpers without overriders, fixed front quarter windows, Plexiglas rear windows, magnesium alloy wheels with hubcaps similar in appearance to the standard steel wheels of the TI. Braking was by discs all around. Cars built from August 1964 used the bodyshell of the TI with mounting points for the brake servo, but wer
Belgium the Kingdom of Belgium, is a country in Western Europe. It is bordered by the Netherlands to the north, Germany to the east, Luxembourg to the southeast, France to the southwest, the North Sea to the northwest, it has a population of more than 11.4 million. The capital and largest city is Brussels; the sovereign state is a federal constitutional monarchy with a parliamentary system. Its institutional organisation is structured on both regional and linguistic grounds, it is divided into three autonomous regions: Flanders in the north, Wallonia in the south, the Brussels-Capital Region. Brussels is the smallest and most densely populated region, as well as the richest region in terms of GDP per capita. Belgium is home to two main linguistic groups or Communities: the Dutch-speaking Flemish Community, which constitutes about 59 percent of the population, the French-speaking Community, which comprises about 40 percent of all Belgians. A small German-speaking Community, numbering around one percent, exists in the East Cantons.
The Brussels-Capital Region is bilingual, although French is the dominant language. Belgium's linguistic diversity and related political conflicts are reflected in its political history and complex system of governance, made up of six different governments. Belgium was part of an area known as the Low Countries, a somewhat larger region than the current Benelux group of states that included parts of northern France and western Germany, its name is derived after the Roman province of Gallia Belgica. From the end of the Middle Ages until the 17th century, the area of Belgium was a prosperous and cosmopolitan centre of commerce and culture. Between the 16th and early 19th centuries, Belgium served as the battleground between many European powers, earning the moniker the "Battlefield of Europe", a reputation strengthened by both world wars; the country emerged in 1830 following the Belgian Revolution. Belgium participated in the Industrial Revolution and, during the course of the 20th century, possessed a number of colonies in Africa.
The second half of the 20th century was marked by rising tensions between the Dutch-speaking and the French-speaking citizens fueled by differences in language and culture and the unequal economic development of Flanders and Wallonia. This continuing antagonism has led to several far-reaching reforms, resulting in a transition from a unitary to a federal arrangement during the period from 1970 to 1993. Despite the reforms, tensions between the groups have remained, if not increased. Unemployment in Wallonia is more than double that of Flanders. Belgium is one of the six founding countries of the European Union and hosts the official seats of the European Commission, the Council of the European Union, the European Council, as well as a seat of the European Parliament in the country's capital, Brussels. Belgium is a founding member of the Eurozone, NATO, OECD, WTO, a part of the trilateral Benelux Union and the Schengen Area. Brussels hosts several of the EU's official seats as well as the headquarters of many major international organizations such as NATO.
Belgium is a developed country, with an advanced high-income economy. It has high standards of living, quality of life, education, is categorized as "very high" in the Human Development Index, it ranks as one of the safest or most peaceful countries in the world. The name "Belgium" is derived from Gallia Belgica, a Roman province in the northernmost part of Gaul that before Roman invasion in 100 BC, was inhabited by the Belgae, a mix of Celtic and Germanic peoples. A gradual immigration by Germanic Frankish tribes during the 5th century brought the area under the rule of the Merovingian kings. A gradual shift of power during the 8th century led the kingdom of the Franks to evolve into the Carolingian Empire; the Treaty of Verdun in 843 divided the region into Middle and West Francia and therefore into a set of more or less independent fiefdoms which, during the Middle Ages, were vassals either of the King of France or of the Holy Roman Emperor. Many of these fiefdoms were united in the Burgundian Netherlands of the 15th centuries.
Emperor Charles V extended the personal union of the Seventeen Provinces in the 1540s, making it far more than a personal union by the Pragmatic Sanction of 1549 and increased his influence over the Prince-Bishopric of Liège. The Eighty Years' War divided the Low Countries into the northern United Provinces and the Southern Netherlands; the latter were ruled successively by the Spanish and the Austrian Habsburgs and comprised most of modern Belgium. This was the theatre of most Franco-Spanish and Franco-Austrian wars during the 17th and 18th centuries. Following the campaigns of 1794 in the French Revolutionary Wars, the Low Countries—including territories that were never nominally under Habsburg rule, such as the Prince-Bishopric of Liège—were annexed by the French First Republic, ending Austrian rule in the region; the reunification of the Low Countries as the United Kingdom of the Netherlands occurred at the dissolution of the First French Empire in 1815, after the defeat of Napo
Alfa Romeo Tonale Concept
The Alfa Romeo Tonale Concept is a 2+2 seat concept car from the Italian car manufacturer Alfa Romeo, unveiled in March 2019 at the Geneva Motor Show. The Tonale Concept is a C-segment compact SUV, featuring a plug in hybrid drivetrain from the Jeep Renegade, with a front mounted petrol engine and a rear-mounted electric motor; the Tonale has D. N. A Alfa Romeo driving selector with modes: Dual Power mode for maximum performance, Natural mode for everyday use and Advanced Efficiency setting will only use electric propulsion. E-mozione button on the touchscreen further tailors throttle settings, braking response, steering feel; the Tonale Concept is named after a Tonale Pass mountain in Northern Italy. The front of the car has three-plus-three LED headlights evocative of those on the SZ and Brera