Nicolas Bourbaki is the collective pseudonym of a group of mathematicians, predominantly French alumni of the École normale supérieure. Founded in 1934–1935, the Bourbaki group intended to prepare a new textbook in analysis. Over time the project became much more ambitious, growing into a large series of textbooks published under the Bourbaki name, meant to treat modern pure mathematics; the series is known collectively as the group's central work. Topics treated in the series include set theory, abstract algebra, analysis, Lie groups and Lie algebras. Bourbaki was founded in response to the effects of the First World War which caused the death of a generation of French mathematicians. While teaching at the University of Strasbourg, Henri Cartan complained to his colleague André Weil of the inadequacy of available course material, which prompted Weil to propose a meeting with others in Paris to collectively write a modern analysis textbook; the group's core founders were Claude Chevalley, Jean Delsarte, Jean Dieudonné and Weil.
Although former members discuss their past involvement with the group, Bourbaki has a custom of keeping its current membership secret. The group's namesake derives from the 19th century French general Charles-Denis Bourbaki, who had a career of successful military campaigns before suffering a dramatic loss in the Franco-Prussian War; as a result, Bourbaki's name became known to early 20th century French students. Weil remembered an ENS student prank in which an upperclassman posed as a professor and presented a "theorem of Bourbaki"; the Bourbaki group holds regular private conferences for the purpose of drafting and expanding the Éléments. Topics are assigned to subcommittees, drafts are debated, unanimous agreement is required before a text is deemed fit for publication. Although slow and labor-intensive, the process results in a work which meets the group's standards for rigour and generality; the group is associated with the Séminaire Bourbaki, a regular series of lectures presented by members and non-members of the group published and disseminated as written documents.
Bourbaki maintains an office at the ENS. Nicolas Bourbaki was influential in 20th century mathematics during the middle of the century when volumes of the Éléments appeared frequently; the group is noted among mathematicians for its rigorous presentation and for introducing the notion of a mathematical structure, an idea related to the broader, interdisciplinary concept of structuralism. Bourbaki's work informed a trend in elementary math education during the 1960s. Although the group remains active, its influence is considered to have declined due to infrequent publication of new volumes of the Éléments; however the collective's most recent publication appeared in 2016. Charles-Denis Sauter Bourbaki was born on 22 April 1816 in France, to a family of Greek origin, he became a successful general during the era of Napoleon III, serving in the Crimean War and other conflicts. During the Franco-Prussian war however, Charles-Denis Bourbaki suffered a major defeat. At the time of the Siege of Metz, he was lured to Britain on false pretenses of a peace conference, upon return to the continent he was tasked with lifting the Siege of Belfort, an effort which failed.
Charles-Denis Bourbaki was forced to retreat with his army—the Armée de l'Est—across the Swiss border. The force was disarmed by the Swiss, the general unsuccessfully attempted suicide. Charles-Denis Bourbaki died on 27 September 1897, the dramatic story of his defeat entered the French consciousness. In the early 20th century, the First World War affected Europeans of all professions and social classes, including mathematicians and male students who fought and died in the front. For example, the French mathematician Gaston Julia, a pioneer in the study of fractals, lost his nose during the war and wore a leather strap over the affected part of his face for the rest of his life; the deaths of ENS students resulted in a lost generation in the French mathematical community. Furthermore, Bourbaki founder André Weil remarked in his memoir Apprenticeship of a Mathematician that France and Germany took different approaches with their intellegentsia during the war: while Germany protected its young students and scientists, France instead committed them to the front, owing to the French culture of egalitarianism.
A succeeding generation of mathematics students attended the ENS during the 1920s, including Weil and others, the future founders of Bourbaki. During his time as a student, Weil recalled a prank in which an upperclassman, Raoul Husson, posed as a professor and gave a math lecture, ending with a prompt: "Theorem of Bourbaki: you are to prove the following...". Weil was aware of a similar stunt in which a student claimed to be from the fictional, impoverished nation of "Poldevia" and soliticed the public for donations. Weil had strong interests in languages and Indian culture, having learned Sanskrit and read the Bhagavad Gita. After graduating from the ENS and obtaining his doctorate, Weil took a teaching stint at the Aligarh Muslim University in India. While there, Weil met the mathematician Damodar Kosambi, engaged in a power struggle with one of his colle
The 1969 USS Enterprise fire was a major fire and series of explosions that broke out aboard USS Enterprise on January 14, 1969, off the coast of Pearl Harbor, Hawaii. The fire started, it spread as more munitions exploded, blowing holes in the flight deck that allowed burning jet fuel to enter the ship. Twenty-eight sailors were killed, 314 were injured, 15 aircraft were destroyed, the total cost of aircraft replacement and shipboard repair was over $126 million; the damage was lessened somewhat by improvements made after the similar 1967 USS Forrestal fire. USS Enterprise, built between 1958 and 1961, was the world's first nuclear-powered aircraft carrier, her enormous construction cost caused the cancellation of the five other carriers planned for the class, so many of her features were unique. Enterprise departed Alameda, California, on January 6, 1969, for her fourth deployment to Vietnam and her eighth deployment overall. On January 14, the ship was off the coast of Hawaii conducting a final battle drill and Operational Readiness Inspection before steaming for Vietnam.
Additional personnel were aboard Enterprise to observe the ORI. About 8:18 a.m. Enterprise was turning to port to conduct flight operations. On the stern sat a McDonnell Douglas F-4 Phantom II armed with Zuni rockets; the exhaust from an MD-3A "Huffer", a tractor-mounted unit used to start aircraft, heated one of the Zunis until it exploded, detonating its 15-pound warhead of Composition B explosive. The explosion ignited the leaking JP-5 jet fuel. About one minute three more Zuni rockets exploded, these blasts blew holes into the flight deck, allowing the burning jet fuel to pour into the level below. Captain Kent Lee, commanding officer of Enterprise, directed the port turn to continue after the first explosion, steering the ship into the wind to blow smoke away from the ship. About three minutes after the initial explosion, a bomb exploded on the burning Phantom, blowing a hole in the flight deck that measured about 8 by 7 feet; the heat ignited additional fires on the lower level, debris caused holes in the deck which allowed burning fuel to spread farther, entering the two lower levels and the first deck.
This explosion severed nearby firehoses and damaged and rendered inoperable the twin-agent units that provided firefighting foam to the area. Two 500 lb Mark 82 bombs soon detonated in succession. Several minutes after those detonations, a bomb rack exploded with three Mk 82 bombs; this blast tore a hole into the flight deck about 18 by 22 feet in diameter and ruptured a 6,000-US-gallon fuel tank mounted on a tanker aircraft. A total of 18 explosions occurred, blowing eight holes beyond; the nuclear-powered cruiser Bainbridge and destroyer Rogers came to the stricken carrier's aid. It took the combined crews of the three ships about four hours to extinguish the fires. Bainbridge escorted Enterprise to Pearl Harbor that afternoon. After 51 days of repairs, Enterprise continued on her scheduled deployment; the carrier returned to Alameda on July 2, 1969. This was the last of three major fires to befall U. S. aircraft carriers in the 1960s. It followed a fire aboard USS Oriskany on October 26, 1966, that killed 44 sailors and injured 156 more.
The Forrestal fire was started by a Zuni rocket, accidentally launched into parked aircraft by a power surge, igniting a fuel fire that began to "cook off" 1,000-pound bombs. A JAG Manual investigation began after the fire, in accordance with Navy policy; the investigation determined that the initial explosion was caused by the huffer exhaust overheating the Zuni rocket. Investigators determined that an airman had observed the exhaust and had raised concerns about the placement of the huffer, but personnel were involved in other tasks and may not have understood what was being said due to the ambient noise on the flight deck. However, the investigators noted that moving the unit might not have prevented the initial explosion due to the estimated temperature of the rocket by that time; the investigation revealed that flight deck personnel did not have an understanding of ordnance cook-off times or an appreciation of the hazards posed by live ordnance on the flight deck. The Forrestal investigation revealed that only half of the ship's crew and none of the air wing had attended firefighting school.
When the Enterprise fire erupted, 96 percent of the ship's crew had attended firefighting training, along with 86 percent of the air wing. Lack of redundancies in communication systems and firefighting components were deemed to have hurt firefighting operations. Further factors included a lack of communication between the Air Boss and the Damage Control Assistant, overloading the firefighting system by activating multiple systems at once. Investigators praised the firefighting operation aboard Enterprise. Specific praise was given to the medical department, who were credited with saving countless lives, to the establishment of a damage-control training team that helped with damage-control training. Enterprise had established a competitive program between its repair parties to increase effectiveness. Praise was directed to the captain of USS Rogers, who navigated his ship within feet of Enterprise to aid firefighting efforts; the investigators recommended a redesign of the air-start unit to vent the exhaust upward inste
Ukrainian Catholic Eparchy of Saint Josaphat in Parma is a diocese of the Ukrainian Greek Catholic Church in the United States, with its seat in Parma, Ohio. It was established in 1983 by Pope John Paul II; the eparchy encompasses parishes in Florida, North Carolina, western Pennsylvania and West Virginia. Robert M. Moskal Bohdan Danylo The eparchy is one of three suffragan eparchies of the Ukrainian Catholic Metropolia of Philadelphia, which includes the Ukrainian Catholic Archeparchy of Philadelphia, the Ukrainian Catholic Eparchy of Saint Nicholas of Chicago, the Ukrainian Catholic Eparchy of Stamford. Ukrainian Catholic National Shrine of the Holy Family List of the Catholic cathedrals of the United States List of the Catholic dioceses of the United States List of bishops Ukrainian Catholic Eparchy of Parma Official Site Catholic-hierarchy.org entry
Jessica Marie Caban is an American fashion model and actress. She was a contestant on Model Latina, where she was crowned the first Model Latina champion. Caban was born to Puerto Rican parents in New York City, New York, raised in Spanish Harlem, she has one older sibling in Charlie Caban. She began her career in 2002, after being chosen to represent Jennifer Lopez's line "J-LO" as a runner-up in a nationwide search, she was featured in many commercials and landed the main role in Proyecto Uno's music video "Holla". In 2008, Caban auditioned for Sí TV's new reality competition show, Model Latina, which aspiring models compete against each other in fashion and cultural challenges, it was filmed in California. Caban and Darlenis Duran competed in the season finale, where Caban has crowned Sí TV's first-ever Model Latina, she was featured in spreads of magazines. Official website Jessica Caban on IMDb
Schweighofer was a famous piano manufacturer of Vienna, Austria. Schweighofer is one of Vienna's most famous piano houses, as well as its oldest, having been established in 1792 by Michael Schweighofer; the company applied many innovations in the early history of piano manufacture. Schweighofer won the Gold medal at the Vienna exhibition of 1845, it has a history of producing respected instruments. Michael Schweighofer came from Rincha and moved to Vienna, where he opened his piano company in 1792, becoming a citizen in 1801; the only extant instrument made by him survives in the Kunsthistorisches Museum of Vienna. He was married to Anna Wißgill Schweighofer with. After Michael Schweighofer's premature death in 1809, the business was carried on by his widow Anna Wißgill Schweighofer who remarried the piano maker Joseph Promberger; the firm was known as Schweighofer und Promberger. Michael's son, Johann Michael learned his craft from Promberger, he traveled as a journeyman to England and Germany, returning to Vienna in 1832 to carry on the piano business under the Schweighofer name.
Johann Michael Schweighofer applied enhanced knowledge and techniques diligently to the piano manufacture, leading to the winning of the Gold medal at the Vienna exhibition of 1845. The pianos he built bear the inscription "J. M. Schweighofer " Subsequently, the business was carried on by the third and fourth generations: After Johann Michael's death in 1852, his oldest son Carl Schweighofer took over the company. Under his management, the company won further prizes at the German industry exhibition in Munich, 1854, at the World Exhibition in Paris, 1867; the same year, Carl's brother Johann Michael joined the company. Their pianos bore the inscription "J. M. Schweighofer's Söhne in Wien". In 1869 the company was awarded the title "k.k. Hof-Pianoforte-Fabrikanten" by the Viennese imperial court and in 1873 it received the Honorary diploma of the Vienna World Exhibition. In 1906, Carl's son Johann took over the company. In 1911/1912 the J. M. Schweighofer's Söhne company was sold to the piano dealer Bernhard Kohn and his associate Friedrich Karbach, a musician and composer, presumed to be a former employee of Schweighofer.
They were joined by dr. Oskar Karbach. Around the same time, a presumed descendant of the Schweighofer family opened a parallel factory and built pianos under the Schweighofer name, which led to legal complications. To distinguish their pianos, Kohn & Karbach put sometime after 1920 the Schweighofer Original inscription on their instruments and added the Karbach name on the soundboards. 1938 Karbach and Kohn, who were Jewish, were expropriated under the Nazi regime and the company was subsequently led by Friedrich Ehrbar jr. another Viennese piano maker, until 1940 when it was closed. The other company, owned by the Schweighofer family descendant disappeared during the second world war. Schweighofer pianos are still respected for their rich, powerful sound and finely crafted construction. Throughout its long history, the company remained committed to the highest standards and incorporated new inventions in their pianos earlier than other Austrian piano makers The company produced a small number of pianos per year, accounting for their rarity today.
The grave of Carl Schweighofer, located on the Zentralfriedhof in Vienna, is featured in the video and on the cover art for the 1981 Ultravox single Vienna. Martha Novak Clinkscale, "Makers of the Piano: 1820-1860", Oxford University Press 1999 Schweighofer 100-year Jubilee Catalogue "Die Pianoforte von Schweighofer" Media related to Schweighofer at Wikimedia Commons The Historical Schweighofer Piano Website – history, piano models and serial number list Piano.
Yefim "Fima" Naumovich Bronfman is a Soviet-born Israeli-American pianist. He was born in Tashkent, Uzbek SSR, immigrated to Israel at the age of 15, he became an American citizen in 1989. He made his international debut in 1975 with the Montreal Symphony Orchestra, he made his Carnegie Hall debut in 1989 and gave a series of recitals with Isaac Stern in 1991. He won a Grammy award in 1997 for his recording of the three Bartók piano concertos with Esa-Pekka Salonen and the Los Angeles Philharmonic. Another recording with Salonen, of the concertos of Sergei Rachmaninoff, was pirated by the record label Concert Artist and re-issued with the piano part falsely attributed to Joyce Hatto. Bronfman is devoted to chamber music and has performed with many chamber ensembles and instrumentalists, he made a set of Sergei Prokofiev's complete concertos for Sony Records. In 1999, he appeared in Disney's Fantasia 2000, in a short clip introducing the "Steadfast Tin Soldier" segment, his rendition of Dmitri Shostakovich's Piano Concerto No. 2 in F major with the Chicago Symphony Orchestra is the music used for the segment.
In March, 2006, Bronfman performed Shostakovich's Piano Concerto No. 1 with the San Francisco Symphony conducted by Mstislav Rostropovich. Bronfman has made appearances with the Milwaukee Symphony Orchestra and the Orlando Philharmonic Orchestra, performing Beethoven's "Emperor" Concerto, his recent appearances have included performances with the Orchestre de Paris and the Singapore Symphony Orchestra. In January 2007, he premiered Esa-Pekka Salonen's Piano Concerto, of which he is the dedicatee, with the New York Philharmonic conducted by the composer; this was followed by a European premiere at The Proms with the BBC Symphony Orchestra. In May 2008, Bronfman performed Johannes Brahms' Piano Concerto No. 1 with Michael Tilson Thomas and the San Francisco Symphony, during a three-week Brahms Festival. On September 3, 2008, Bronfman performed Piano Concerto No. 3 in D minor by Rachmaninoff under the direction of Michael Tilson Thomas at the Opening Gala of the San Francisco Symphony, on September 28 and 29 with the St. Louis Symphony Orchestra, under the direction of David Robertson.
On March 25 and 26, 2009, he performed it yet again, this time under the baton of Pinchas Zukerman with the National Arts Centre Orchestra in Ottawa, Canada. Bronfman performed Brahms's Second Piano Concerto with the Houston Symphony Orchestra March 12–15, 2009, under the baton of Maestro Hans Graf, resident Music Director. In The Human Stain by Philip Roth, the narrator attends a rehearsal at Tanglewood at which Bronfman performs; the following description is offered:Then Bronfman appears. Bronfman the brontosaur! Mr. Fortissimo. Enter Bronfman to play Prokofiev at such a pace and with such bravado as to knock my morbidity clear out of the ring, he is conspicuously massive through the upper torso, a force of nature camouflaged in a sweatshirt, somebody who has strolled into the Music Shed out of a circus where is the strongman and who takes on the piano as a ridiculous challenge to the gargantuan strength he revels in. Yefim Bronfman looks less like the person, going to play the piano than like the guy who should be moving it.
I had never before seen anybody go at a piano like this sturdy little barrel of an unshaven Russian Jew. When he's finished, I thought, they'll have to throw the thing out, he crushes it. He doesn't let that piano conceal a thing. Whatever's in there is going to come out, come out with its hands in the air, and when it does, everything there out in the open, the last of the last pulsation, he himself gets up and goes, leaving behind him our redemption. With a jaunty wave, he is gone, though he takes all his fire off with him like no less a force than Prometheus, our own lives now seem inextinguishable. Nobody is nobody -- not if Bronfman has anything to say about it. Official website More biographical information about Bronfman Discography at SonyBMG Masterworks