Nicolaus Copernicus was a Renaissance-era polymath whose theory of the universe placed the Sun rather than Earth at the center of the universe, in all likelihood independently of Aristarchus of Samos, who had articulated similar ideas some eighteen centuries earlier. The publication of Copernicus' book De revolutionibus orbium coelestium, just before his death in 1543, was a major event in the history of science, triggering the Copernican Revolution and making a pioneering contribution to the Scientific Revolution. Copernicus was born and died in Royal Prussia, a region, part of the Kingdom of Poland since 1466. A polyglot and polymath, he obtained a doctorate in canon law and was a mathematician, physician, classics scholar, governor and economist. In 1517 he derived the quantity theory of money—a key concept in monetary economics—and in 1519 he formulated an economic principle that came to be called Gresham's law. Nicolaus Copernicus was born on 19 February 1473 in the city of Toruń, in the province of Royal Prussia, in the Crown of the Kingdom of Poland.
His father was a merchant from Kraków and his mother was the daughter of a wealthy Toruń merchant. Nicolaus was the youngest of four children, his brother Andreas became an Augustinian canon at Frombork. His sister Barbara, named after her mother, became a Benedictine nun and, in her final years, prioress of a convent in Chełmno, his sister Katharina married the businessman and Toruń city councilor Barthel Gertner and left five children, whom Copernicus looked after to the end of his life. Copernicus never married and is not known to have had children, but from at least 1531 until 1539 his relations with Anna Schilling, a live-in housekeeper, were seen as scandalous by two bishops of Warmia who urged him over the years to break off relations with his "mistress". Copernicus' father's family can be traced to a village in Silesia near Nysa; the village's name has been variously spelled Kopernik, Copernic, Kopernic and today Koperniki. In the 14th century, members of the family began moving to various other Silesian cities, to the Polish capital, Kraków, to Toruń.
The father, Mikołaj the Elder the son of Jan, came from the Kraków line. Nicolaus was named after his father, who appears in records for the first time as a well-to-do merchant who dealt in copper, selling it in Danzig, he moved from Kraków to Toruń around 1458. Toruń, situated on the Vistula River, was at that time embroiled in the Thirteen Years' War, in which the Kingdom of Poland and the Prussian Confederation, an alliance of Prussian cities and clergy, fought the Teutonic Order over control of the region. In this war, Hanseatic cities like Danzig and Toruń, Nicolaus Copernicus's hometown, chose to support the Polish King, Casimir IV Jagiellon, who promised to respect the cities' traditional vast independence, which the Teutonic Order had challenged. Nicolaus' father was engaged in the politics of the day and supported Poland and the cities against the Teutonic Order. In 1454 he mediated negotiations between Poland's Cardinal Zbigniew Oleśnicki and the Prussian cities for repayment of war loans.
In the Second Peace of Thorn, the Teutonic Order formally relinquished all claims to its western province, which as Royal Prussia remained a region of the Crown of the Kingdom of Poland until the First and Second Partitions of Poland. Copernicus's father married Barbara Watzenrode, the astronomer's mother, between 1461 and 1464, he died about 1483. Nicolaus' mother, Barbara Watzenrode, was the daughter of a wealthy Toruń patrician and city councillor, Lucas Watzenrode the Elder, Katarzyna, mentioned in other sources as Katarzyna Rüdiger gente Modlibóg; the Modlibógs were a prominent Polish family, well known in Poland's history since 1271. The Watzenrode family, like the Kopernik family, had come from Silesia from near Świdnica, after 1360 had settled in Toruń, they soon became one of most influential patrician families. Through the Watzenrodes' extensive family relationships by marriage, Copernicus was related to wealthy families of Toruń, Gdańsk and Elbląg, to prominent Polish noble families of Prussia: the Czapskis, Działyńskis, Konopackis and Kościeleckis.
Lucas and Katherine had three children: Lucas Watzenrode the Younger, who would become Bishop of Warmia and Copernicus's patron. Lucas Watzenrode the Elder, a wealthy merchant and in 1439–62 president of the judicial bench, was a decided opponent of the Teutonic Knights. In 1453 he was the delegate from Toruń at the Grudziądz conference that planned the uprising against them. During the ensuing Thirteen Years' War, he supported the Prussian cities' war effort with substantial monetary subsidies, with political activity in Toruń and Danzig, by fighting in battles at Łasin and Malbork, he died in 1462. Lucas Watzenrode the Younger, the astronomer's maternal uncle and patron, was educated at the University of Kraków and at the universities of Cologne and Bologna, he was a bitter opponent of the Teutonic Order, its Grand Master once referred to him as "the devil incarnate". In 1489 Watzenrode was elected Bishop of
Teachers: A Class Soundtrack is the official soundtrack, on the Channel 4 label, of the first series of British television comedy-drama series Teachers. This album contains music by various artists, heard in the show itself. "Buck Rogers" by Feeder "Catch the Sun" by Doves "Can't Say No" by Lowgold "Get A Move On" by Mr Scruff "Le Mobilier" by Rinocerose "When I Close My Eyes" by Morgan "She Left Me On Friday" by Shed Seven "I Wanna Be Like You" by The Dandys "The Day Before Yesterday's Man" by The Supernaturals "Move Over" by Mover "Little Arithmetics" by Deus "Animal House" by Animal House "Sudwest Funk No. 5" by Echoboy "Indigo" by Moloko "Insomnia" by Faithless "Utopia" by Goldfrapp Listen to samples at Last.fm Teachers: A Class Soundtrack at Play.com A Class Soundtrack on Amazon
Jerel Christopher Ifil is an English footballer who plays as a defender who plays for Swindon Supermarine. He is the elder brother of fellow footballer Philip Ifil. Born in Wembley, Greater London, to a Greek-Cypriot mother and father from the West Indies, Ifil started his career at Watford where he made his debut in the 2002–03 season, he went on loan to Huddersfield Town where he played four times. Ifil signed for Swindon Town on a three-month loan deal from Watford in January 2003, returning to the club in September that year where he further impressed, prompting manager Andy King to request Ifil's loan to be extended but this was refused by Watford. However, Ifil returned on another three-month loan just over a week in January 2004. After a drawn out transfer saga, the two clubs agreed a £70,000 bid for the player, Ifil signed a two-year deal at Swindon in July 2004. By the time of his departure from the club in 2009, he was Swindon's longest serving player. In August 2009 Ifil appeared as a trialist for Scottish Premier League side Aberdeen in their 1–0 win over Hull City in a testimonial for Dean Windass.
He subsequently signed a two-year deal with the club on 12 August 2009. He made his debut in a 3–1 loss to Celtic on the opening day of the 2009–10 SPL season. On 31 January 2011, Ifil was released by Aberdeen. On 24 February, Ifil signed for Bristol Rovers on non-contract terms until the end of the 2010-2011 season, he was one of seventeen players released by the team in May 2011. On 25 July 2011, he signed a two-year contract with Kettering Town. Having trialled with Torquay United earlier in the summer, he signed for Sutton United at the start of September 2012 and moved to Boreham Wood shortly afterwards. In November 2012 he joined Staines Town, playing for them until December 2014. In 2018, after four years out of the game, Ifil joined Swindon Supermarine. Jerel Ifil at Soccerbase Jerel Ifil at Soccerway