Fendi is an Italian luxury fashion house producing fur, ready-to-wear, leather goods, fragrances, eyewear and accessories. Founded in 1925 in Rome, Fendi is renowned for its fur accessories. Fendi is well known for its leather goods such as "Baguette", 2jours, Peekaboo or Pequin handbags; the house of Fendi was launched in 1925 by Adele and Edoardo Fendi as a fur and leather shop in Via del Plebiscito, Rome. Since 1946, the five second generation sisters joined the company. Karl Lagerfeld joined Fendi in 1965 and became the creative director for fur and women's ready-to-wear. Silvia Venturini Fendi, daughter of Anna, joined in 1994 and is the creative director for accessories and men's lines. Since 2001, Fendi became a member of LVMH group. In 2014, Fendi started making plans to use drones to show its catwalk fashions. In 2015, Fendi funded the restoration of the Trevi Fountain in Rome, held the company’s 90th anniversary show over the fountain using a plexiglas floor. Fendi signed a partnership with the Galleria Borghese to support the museum's exhibitions for the following three years.
In 2017, Fendi released a customization shop in collaboration with e-commerce platform Farfetch for made-to-order handbag designs. Official homepage Fendi – brand and company profile at Fashion Model Directory
Peter Lindbergh is a German photographer and film director. Lindbergh is known for his cinematic images. Lindbergh was born on 23 November 1944 in Poland, he spent his childhood in Duisburg. As a teenager, he worked as window dresser for the Karstadt and Horten department stores in Duisburg. Coming from a part of Germany close to the Dutch border, North Rhine-Westphalia, he spent summer holidays with his family in the Netherlands on the coast near Noordwijk; the vast beaches and the industrial settings of his hometown Duisburg, have influenced his work over the years. In the early 1960s, he moved to Lucerne and months to Berlin where he enrolled in the Berlin Academy of Fine Arts, he hitchhiked to Arles in the footsteps of Vincent van Gogh. Lindbergh remembers these years: "I preferred seeking out van Gogh’s inspirations, my idol, rather than painting the mandatory portraits and landscapes taught in art schools". After several months in Arles, he continued through to Spain and Morocco, a journey that took him two years.
Returning to Germany, he studied Abstract Art at the College of Art in Krefeld. Influenced by Joseph Kosuth and the Conceptual art movement, he was invited in 1969, before graduating, to present his work at the avant-garde Galerie Denise René; these works were exhibited in the Objets ludiques exhibition at the Tinguely Museum in Basel in 2014. After moving to Düsseldorf in 1971, he turned his attention to photography and worked for two years assisting German photographer Hans Lux, before opening his own studio in 1973. Becoming well known in his native country, he joined the Stern magazine family along with photographers Helmut Newton, Guy Bourdin and Hans Feurer. Lindbergh introduced a form of new realism by redefining the standards of beauty, influenced by documentary photographers, street photographers and photojournalists like Dorothea Lange, Henri Cartier-Bresson and Garry Winogrand, he has a humanist approach. He changed the standards of fashion photography in times of excessive retouching, in considering there to be something else that makes a person interesting, beyond their age.
In 2014 he said that "This should be the responsibility of photographers today to free women, everyone, from the terror of youth and perfection." In 2016, Lindbergh declared that "A fashion photographer should contribute to defining the image of the contemporary woman or man in their time, to reflect a certain social or human reality. How surrealistic is today’s commercial agenda to retouch all signs of life and of experience, to retouch the personal truth of the face itself?"He photographs his subjects in their natural state, with hardly any make-up. The journalist Suzy Menkes wrote that "Refusing to bow to glossy perfection is Peter Lindbergh's trademark – the essence of the images that look into each person's unvarnished soul, however familiar or famous the sitter". In 1988, Lindbergh gained international acclaim by showing a new generation of models all dressed in white shirts that he had discovered and launched their careers. A year Linda Evangelista, Naomi Campbell, Tatjana Patitz, Cindy Crawford, Christy Turlington, young models were photographed together for the first time by him for the January 1990 British Vogue cover.
Credited as the one who started the era of supermodels, his cover inspired singer George Michael to cast those models in the video for his song "Freedom'90", around the same time Italian fashion designer Gianni Versace for his Fall–Winter 1991 fashion show featuring the new supermodels featured two years earlier in Lindbergh's photographs. In a 2008 interview with art historian Charlotte Cotton, he explained that: Using black-and-white photography was important to creating the supermodel; every time I tried to shoot them in colour, because their beauty was close to perfection, it ended up looking like a bad cosmetics advert. With black and white, you can see who they are, it toned down the commercial interpretation. What’s so striking about black and white is how it helps a sense of reality to come through. Lindbergh's first book, 10 Women, sold more than 100,000 copies as of 2008, he twice photographed the Pirelli calendar, in 1996 and 2002. The latter, which used actresses instead of models for the first time, was shot on the back lot of Paramount Studios, was described by art critic Germaine Greer as "Pirelli's most challenging calendar yet."
Lindbergh is the first photographer in the fifty-year history of the Pirelli calendar to be invited to photograph it for a third time. Lindbergh collaborated on two complete issues of Vogue photographed by him, one celebrating Vogue Germany 30th anniversary in October 2009, the other for Vogue Spain in December 2010. Lindbergh has directed a number of films and documentaries: The Film, he photographed the movie poster for Tony Scott's movie The Hunger featuring David Bowie, Susan Sarandon and Catherine Deneuve, the album cover for the soundtrack, Pedro Almodóvar's movie poster for Talk To Her and Charlotte Rampling's documentary The Look. Lindbergh has photographed many music record covers, among them Jane Birkin's single "Quoi".
Christian Dior was a French fashion designer, best known as the founder of one of the world's top fashion houses called Christian Dior, now owned by Groupe Arnault. His fashion houses are now all around the world. Christian Dior was born in a seaside town on the coast of Normandy, France, he was the second of five children born to Maurice Dior, a wealthy fertilizer manufacturer, his wife Madeleine Martin. He had four siblings: Raymond, Jacqueline and Catherine Dior; when Christian was about five years old, the family moved to Paris, but still returned to the Normandy coast for summer holidays. Dior's family had hoped he would become a diplomat, but Dior was artistic and wished to be involved in art. To make money, he sold his fashion sketches outside his house for about 10 cents each. In 1928, Dior left school and received money from his father to finance a small art gallery, where he and a friend sold art by the likes of Pablo Picasso. Three years after the death of Dior's mother and brother and a financial disaster in the family's fertilizer business, during the Great Depression, that resulted in his father losing control of Dior Frères, the gallery had to be closed.
From 1937, Dior was employed by the fashion designer Robert Piguet, who gave him the opportunity to design for three Piguet collections. Dior would say that'Robert Piguet taught me the virtues of simplicity through which true elegance must come.' One of his original designs for Piguet, a day dress with a short, full skirt called "Cafe Anglais", was well received. Whilst at Piguet, Dior worked alongside Pierre Balmain, was succeeded as house designer by Marc Bohan – who would, in 1960, become head of design for Christian Dior Paris. Dior left Piguet. In 1942, when Dior left the army, he joined the fashion house of Lucien Lelong, where he and Balmain were the primary designers. For the duration of World War II, Dior, as an employee of Lelong — who labored to preserve the French fashion industry during wartime for economic and artistic reasons — designed dresses for the wives of Nazi officers and French collaborators, as did other fashion houses that remained in business during the war, including Jean Patou, Jeanne Lanvin, Nina Ricci.
His sister, served as a member of the French Resistance, was captured by the Gestapo, sent to the Ravensbrück concentration camp, where she was incarcerated until her liberation in May 1945. In 1946 Marcel Boussac, a successful entrepreneur known as the richest man in France, invited Dior to design for Philippe et Gaston, a Paris fashion house launched in 1925. Dior refused. On 8 December 1946, with Boussac's backing, Dior founded his fashion house; the actual name of the line of his first collection, presented on 12 February 1947, was Corolle, but the phrase New Look was coined for it by Carmel Snow, the editor-in-chief of Harper's Bazaar. Dior's designs were more voluptuous than the boxy, fabric-conserving shapes of the recent World War II styles, influenced by the rations on fabric, he was a master at creating silhouettes. His look employed fabrics lined predominantly with percale, bustier-style bodices, hip padding, wasp-waisted corsets and petticoats that made his dresses flare out from the waist, giving his models a curvaceous form.
Women protested because his designs covered up their legs, which they had been unused to because of the previous limitations on fabric. There was some backlash to Dior's designs due to the amount of fabrics used in a single dress or suit. Of the “New Look”, Gabrielle “Coco” Chanel said the following, “Look how ridiculous these women are, wearing clothes by a man who doesn’t know women, never had one, dreams of being one.” During one photo shoot in a Paris market, the models were attacked by female vendors over this profligacy, but opposition ceased as the wartime shortages ended. The "New Look" revolutionized women's dress and reestablished Paris as the centre of the fashion world after World War II. Christian Dior died while on holiday in Montecatini, Italy, on 24 October 1957; some reports say. Time's obituary stated. However, one of Dior's acquaintances, the Paris socialite Baron de Redé, wrote in his memoirs that contemporary rumor was that the heart attack had been caused by a strenuous sexual encounter.
As of 2019, the exact circumstances of Dior's death remain undisclosed. Dior was nominated for the 1955 Academy Award for Best Costume Design in black and white for the Terminal Station directed by Vittorio De Sica. Dior was nominated in 1967 for a BAFTA for Best British Costume for the Arabesque directed by Stanley Donen. Nominated in 1986 for his contributions to the 1985 film, Bras de fer, he was up for Best Costume Design during the 11th Cesar Awards; the Paul Gallico novella Mrs'Arris Goes to Paris tells the story of a London charwoman who falls in love with her employer's couture wardrobe and decides to go to Paris to purchase herself a Dior ballgown. A perfume named Christian Dior is used in Haruki Murakami's novel The Wind-Up Bird Chronicle as an influential symbol placed at critical plot points throughout; the English singer-so
New York City
The City of New York called either New York City or New York, is the most populous city in the United States. With an estimated 2017 population of 8,622,698 distributed over a land area of about 302.6 square miles, New York is the most densely populated major city in the United States. Located at the southern tip of the state of New York, the city is the center of the New York metropolitan area, the largest metropolitan area in the world by urban landmass and one of the world's most populous megacities, with an estimated 20,320,876 people in its 2017 Metropolitan Statistical Area and 23,876,155 residents in its Combined Statistical Area. A global power city, New York City has been described as the cultural and media capital of the world, exerts a significant impact upon commerce, research, education, tourism, art and sports; the city's fast pace has inspired the term New York minute. Home to the headquarters of the United Nations, New York is an important center for international diplomacy.
Situated on one of the world's largest natural harbors, New York City consists of five boroughs, each of, a separate county of the State of New York. The five boroughs – Brooklyn, Manhattan, The Bronx, Staten Island – were consolidated into a single city in 1898; the city and its metropolitan area constitute the premier gateway for legal immigration to the United States. As many as 800 languages are spoken in New York, making it the most linguistically diverse city in the world. New York City is home to more than 3.2 million residents born outside the United States, the largest foreign-born population of any city in the world. In 2017, the New York metropolitan area produced a gross metropolitan product of US$1.73 trillion. If greater New York City were a sovereign state, it would have the 12th highest GDP in the world. New York is home to the highest number of billionaires of any city in the world. New York City traces its origins to a trading post founded by colonists from the Dutch Republic in 1624 on Lower Manhattan.
The city and its surroundings came under English control in 1664 and were renamed New York after King Charles II of England granted the lands to his brother, the Duke of York. New York served as the capital of the United States from 1785 until 1790, it has been the country's largest city since 1790. The Statue of Liberty greeted millions of immigrants as they came to the U. S. by ship in the late 19th and early 20th centuries and is an international symbol of the U. S. and its ideals of liberty and peace. In the 21st century, New York has emerged as a global node of creativity and entrepreneurship, social tolerance, environmental sustainability, as a symbol of freedom and cultural diversity. Many districts and landmarks in New York City are well known, with the city having three of the world's ten most visited tourist attractions in 2013 and receiving a record 62.8 million tourists in 2017. Several sources have ranked New York the most photographed city in the world. Times Square, iconic as the world's "heart" and its "Crossroads", is the brightly illuminated hub of the Broadway Theater District, one of the world's busiest pedestrian intersections, a major center of the world's entertainment industry.
The names of many of the city's landmarks and parks are known around the world. Manhattan's real estate market is among the most expensive in the world. New York is home to the largest ethnic Chinese population outside of Asia, with multiple signature Chinatowns developing across the city. Providing continuous 24/7 service, the New York City Subway is the largest single-operator rapid transit system worldwide, with 472 rail stations. Over 120 colleges and universities are located in New York City, including Columbia University, New York University, Rockefeller University, which have been ranked among the top universities in the world. Anchored by Wall Street in the Financial District of Lower Manhattan, New York has been called both the most economically powerful city and the leading financial center of the world, the city is home to the world's two largest stock exchanges by total market capitalization, the New York Stock Exchange and NASDAQ. In 1664, the city was named in honor of the Duke of York.
James's older brother, King Charles II, had appointed the Duke proprietor of the former territory of New Netherland, including the city of New Amsterdam, which England had seized from the Dutch. During the Wisconsinan glaciation, 75,000 to 11,000 years ago, the New York City region was situated at the edge of a large ice sheet over 1,000 feet in depth; the erosive forward movement of the ice contributed to the separation of what is now Long Island and Staten Island. That action left bedrock at a shallow depth, providing a solid foundation for most of Manhattan's skyscrapers. In the precolonial era, the area of present-day New York City was inhabited by Algonquian Native Americans, including the Lenape, whose homeland, known as Lenapehoking, included Staten Island; the first documented visit into New York Harbor by a European was in 1524 by Giovanni da Verrazzano, a Florentine explorer in the service of the French crown. He named it Nouvelle Angoulême. A Spanish expedition led by captain Estêvão Gomes, a Portuguese sailing for Emperor Charles V, arrived in New York Harbor in January 1525 and charted the mouth of the Hudson River, which he named Río de San Antonio.
The Padrón Rea
Neiman Marcus Group, Inc. Neiman-Marcus, is an American chain of luxury department stores owned by the Neiman Marcus Group, headquartered in Dallas, Texas; the company owns the Bergdorf Goodman department stores and operates a direct marketing division, Neiman Marcus Direct, which operates catalog and online operations under the Horchow, Neiman Marcus, Bergdorf Goodman names. Neiman Marcus is owned by the Toronto-based Canada Pension Plan Investment Board and Los Angeles-based Ares Management. Herbert Marcus, Sr. a former buyer with Dallas' Sanger Brothers department store, had left his previous job to found a new business with his sister Carrie Marcus Neiman and her husband, A. L. Neiman employees of Sanger Brothers competitor A. Harris and Co. In 1907 the trio had $25,000 from the successful sales-promotion firm they had built in Atlanta and two potential investments into which to invest the funds. Rather than take a chance on an unknown "sugary soda pop business," the three entrepreneurs rejected the fledgling Coca-Cola company and chose instead to return to Dallas to found a retail business.
For this reason, early company CEO Peb Atera was quoted in 1957 as saying in jest that Neiman Marcus was "founded on bad business judgment." The store, established on September 10, 1907, was lavishly furnished and stocked with clothing of a quality not found in Texas. Within a few weeks, the store's initial inventory acquired on a buying trip to New York made by Carrie, was sold out. Oil-rich Texans, welcoming the opportunity to flaunt their wealth in more sophisticated fashion than was possible, flocked to the new store. In spite of the Panic of 1907 set off only a few weeks after its opening, Neiman Marcus was successful, its first several years of operation were quite profitable. In 1914 a fire destroyed all of its merchandise. A temporary store was opened in 17 days. By the end of 1914, Neiman Marcus opened in its new, permanent location at the corner of Main Street and Ervay Street. With the opening of the flagship Neiman Marcus Building, the store increased its product selection to include accessories and children's clothing, as well as expanding the women's apparel department.
In its first year at the new building, Neiman Marcus recorded a profit of $40,000 on sales of $700,000, nearly twice the totals reached in its last year at the original location. In 1927 the store expanded and Neiman Marcus premiered the first weekly retail fashion show in the United States; the store staged a show called "One Hundred Years of Texas Fashions" in 1936 in honor of the centennial of Texas' independence from Mexico. A profile of the store, "Neiman Marcus of Texas", described the "grandiose and elaborate" gala, noting, "It was on this occasion that one of the most critical among the store's guests, Mrs. Edna Woolman Chase, editor of Vogue, expressing the sentiment of the store's starry-eyed clientele, told the local press: I dreamed all my life of the perfect store for women. I saw Neiman Marcus, my dream came true. In 1929 the store began offering menswear. During the 1930s and 1940s Neiman Marcus began to include less expensive clothing lines along with its high-end items, in response to the Great Depression and following war years.
Between 1942 and 1944, sales at Neiman Marcus grew from $6 million to $11 million. Despite a major fire in 1946, the store continued to profit. Herbert Marcus, Sr. died in 1950, Carrie Neiman died two years leaving Stanley Marcus in charge of the company's operations. The 1950s saw the addition of a $1.6 million store at 8300 Preston Road. It was 63,000-square-foot, "inspired by the art and culture of Southwestern Indians" and "colors... copied from Indian weaving and sand paintings". The themed decor included Kachina figures on colored-glass murals and an Alexander Calder mobile named "Mariposa," the Spanish word for butterfly. Art was used as inspiration for Stanley Marcus' seasonal campaigns to solicit new colors in fabrics, as he did the year that he borrowed 20 Paul Gauguin paintings — many of which had never been publicly exhibited — from collectors around the world and had the vivid colors translated into dyes for wool and leather. Area teachers cited. In the 1950s and 1960s Gittings operated a portrait studio in Neiman Marcus.
Clients included Hope Portocarrero, Lyndon Johnson, Howard Hughes, the Shah of Iran, Mohammad Reza Pahlavi and his family. A late 1960s Christmas Book featured portraits of Wyatt Cooper, his wife Gloria Vanderbilt, children Carter and Anderson Cooper; the company continued its extravagant marketing efforts with the inauguration of Fortnight in 1957. The Fortnight was an annual presentation of fashions and culture from a particular country, held in late October and early November of each year, was one of the most anticipated events in Dallas, it brought fashion, celebrities, exotic food and extravagant celebrations to the downtown store for 29 years. Neiman Marcus opened its first store outside the Dallas/Fort Worth Metroplex in downtown Houston in 1957; the freestanding store was replaced with a new anchor store located in the Houston Galleria in 1970. In 1965 the Preston Center store was closed and a new store, more than twice as big, was opened at NorthPark Center. Another branch in Fort Worth was opened.
By 1967 the four Neiman Marcus stores in operation were generating annual sales of $58.5 million, the company's profit for that year was in excess of $2 million. In 1968 the company merged
Benetton Group S.r.l. is a global fashion brand based in Ponzano Veneto, Italy. The name comes from the Benetton family, who founded the company in 1965. Benetton has a network of about 5,000 stores in the main international markets. In 1963, Luciano Benetton, the oldest of four children, was a 30-year-old salesman in Treviso, his initial small collection of sweaters received a positive response in local stores in the Veneto region, soon after he asked his sister and two younger brothers and Carlo, to join him. In 1965, the entity known as the "Benetton Group" was formed. In 1965, the Benettons opened their first store in Belluno and three years after in Paris, with Luciano as chairman, his brother Gilberto in charge of administration, their younger brother Carlo running production, Giuliana as a chief designer; the company's core business remains their clothing lines: United Colors of Sisley. The Group has a network of about 5,000 stores around the world; the company is known for sponsorship of a number of sports, for the provocative and original "United Colors" publicity campaign.
The latter originated when photographer Oliviero Toscani was given carte blanche by the Benetton management. Under Toscani's direction, ads were created that contained striking images unrelated to any actual products being sold by the company. Up to 1982, Benetton marketing campaigns relied on traditional models wearing the brand clothing. In 1982, the company decided to change its advertising campaigns by focusing on world issues to raise awareness and create an added value for the brand. In 1984, Oliviero Toscani photographed the first multiracial ad for the brand; these graphic, billboard-sized ads included depictions of a variety of shocking subjects, one of which featured a deathbed scene of a man dying from AIDS. Others included a bloodied, unwashed newborn baby with umbilical cord still attached, controversial; this 1991 advert prompted more than 800 complaints to the British Advertising Standards Authority during 1991 and was featured in the reference book Guinness World Records 2000 as'Most Controversial Campaign'.
Others included a black stallion covering a white mare, close-up pictures of tattoos reading "HIV Positive" on the bodies of men and women, a cemetery of many cross-like tombstones, a collage consisting of genitals of persons of various races, a priest and nun about to engage in a romantic kiss, pictures of inmates on death row, an electric chair, an advert showing a dark-skinned boy with hair shaped into the devil's horns, three different hearts with "black", "white" and "yellow" written onto them, a picture of a bloodied T-shirt and pants riddled with bullet holes from a soldier killed in the Bosnian War. Most of the advertisements, although not all, had a plain white background, in most the company's logo served as the only text accompanying the image. In November 2011, Benetton created the UNHATE Foundation and launched its new worldwide communication campaign, described by the company as an invitation to the leaders and citizens of the world to combat the "culture of hatred". In a press release, Benetton claimed the campaign was created as the group's corporate social responsibility strategy and not as a cosmetic exercise.
Benetton's Fabrica research centre partnered up with 72andSunny to create the UNHATE poster series. These show digitally manufactured images of political and religious leaders, i.e. Barack Obama at that time President of the United States and Hugo Chávez President of Venezuela, kissing each other. According to Benetton “These are symbolic images of reconciliation—with a touch of ironic hope and constructive provocation—to stimulate reflection on how politics and ideas when they are divergent and mutually opposed, must still lead to dialogue and mediation”. However, the image series of lip-locking political and religious figures sparked controversy. After protests by the Vatican, Benetton removed a campaign poster purportedly showing Pope Benedict XVI kissing Ahmed Mohamed el Tayeb, the imam of the Al Azhar mosque in Egypt. At the Cannes Ad festival in June 2012, Benetton won the Press Grand Prix for its Unhate campaign. In November 2017, UCB launched a campaign in collaboration with Devbhumi, a registered company owned by rural women from remote villages in Uttarakhand, India.
The initiative claims to empower over 6,000 rural women artisans across India. Benetton Group entered Formula One as a sponsor of Tyrrell in 1983 Alfa Romeo in 1984. Benetton Formula Ltd. was formed at the end of 1985 when the Toleman and Spirit teams were sold to the Benetton family. The team saw its greatest success under Flavio Briatore, who managed the team from 1990 to 1997. Michael Schumacher won his first Drivers' Championships with the team in 1994 and 1995, the team won their only Constructors' title in 1995. From 1996, the team raced under an Italian licence although it continued to be based, like Toleman, in Oxfordshire in England; the team was bought by Renault for US$120 million in 2000 and was rebranded Renault F1 in 2002. In 1979, Benetton first sponsored their local rugby team, A. S. Rugby Treviso. Benetton Rugby has since become a major force in Italian rugby, with 11 league titles and supplying many players to the national team. Benetton Group has sponsored Treviso Basket and Sisley Volley.
Benetton has faced criticism from Mapuche organizations over its purchase of traditional Mapuche lands in Patagonia. The Curiñanco-Nahuelquir family was evicted from their land in 2002 following Benetton's claim to it, but the land was restored in 2007; the company have published a position st
A given name is a part of a person's personal name. It identifies a person, differentiates that person from the other members of a group who have a common surname; the term given name refers to the fact that the name is bestowed upon a person to a child by their parents at or close to the time of birth. A Christian name, a first name, given at baptism, is now typically given by the parents at birth. In informal situations, given names are used in a familiar and friendly manner. In more formal situations, a person's surname is more used—unless a distinction needs to be made between people with the same surname; the idioms "on a first-name basis" and "being on first-name terms" refer to the familiarity inherent in addressing someone by their given name. By contrast, a surname, inherited, is shared with other members of one's immediate family. Regnal names and religious or monastic names are special given names bestowed upon someone receiving a crown or entering a religious order; such a person typically becomes known chiefly by that name.
The order given name – family name known as the Western order, is used throughout most European countries and in countries that have cultures predominantly influenced by European culture, including North and South America. The order family name – given name known as the Eastern order, is used in East Asia, as well as in Southern and North-Eastern parts of India, in Hungary; this order is common in Austria and Bavaria, in France, Belgium and Italy because of the influence of bureaucracy, which puts the family name before the given name. In China and Korea, part of the given name may be shared among all members of a given generation within a family and extended family or families, in order to differentiate those generations from other generations; the order given name – father's family name – mother's family name is used in Spanish-speaking countries to acknowledge the families of both parents. Today the order can be changed in Spain and Uruguay using given name – mother's family name – father's family name.
The order given name – mother's family name – father's family name is used in Portuguese-speaking countries to acknowledge the families of both parents. In many Western cultures, people have more than one given name. One of those, not the first in succession might be used as the name which that person goes by, such as in the cases of John Edgar Hoover and Mary Barbara Hamilton Cartland. A child's given name or names are chosen by the parents soon after birth. If a name is not assigned at birth, one may be given at a naming ceremony, with family and friends in attendance. In most jurisdictions, a child's name at birth is a matter of public record, inscribed on a birth certificate, or its equivalent. In western cultures, people retain the same given name throughout their lives. However, in some cases these names may be changed by repute. People may change their names when immigrating from one country to another with different naming conventions. In certain jurisdictions, a government-appointed registrar of births may refuse to register a name that may cause a child harm, considered offensive or which are deemed impractical.
In France, the agency can refer the case to a local judge. Some jurisdictions, such as Sweden, restrict the spelling of names. Parents may choose a name because of its meaning; this may be a personal or familial meaning, such as giving a child the name of an admired person, or it may be an example of nominative determinism, in which the parents give the child a name that they believe will be lucky or favourable for the child. Given names most derive from the following categories: Aspirational personal traits. For example, the name Clement means "merciful". English examples include Faith and August. Occupations, for example George means "earth-worker", i.e. "farmer". Circumstances of birth, for example Thomas meaning "twin" or the Latin name Quintus, traditionally given to the fifth male child. Objects, for example Peter means "rock" and Edgar means "rich spear". Physical characteristics, for example Calvin means "bald". Variations on another name to change the sex of the name or to translate from another language.
Surnames, for example Winston and Ross. Such names can honour other branches of a family, where the surname would not otherwise be passed down. Places, for example Brittany and Lorraine. Time of birth, for example day of the week, as in Kofi Annan, whose given name means "born on Friday", or the holiday on which one was born, for example, the name Natalie meaning "born on Christmas day" in Latin. Tuesday, May, or June. Combination of the above, for example the Armenian name Sirvart means "love rose". In many cultures, given names are reused to commemorate ancestors or those who are admired, resulting in a limited repertoire of names that sometimes vary by orthography; the most familiar example of this, to Western readers, is the use of Biblical and saints' names in most of the Christian countries (with Ethiopia, in which names were ideals or abstractions