A commander-in-chief, sometimes called supreme commander, is the person that exercises supreme command and control over an armed forces or a military branch. As a technical term, it refers to military competencies that reside in a country's executive leadership – a head of state or a head of government. A commander-in-chief role if held by an official, need not be or have been a commissioned officer or a veteran; such countries follow the principle of civilian control of the military. The formal role and title of a ruler commanding the armed forces derives from Imperator of the Roman Kingdom, Roman Republic and Roman Empire, who possessed imperium powers. In English use, the term first applied to King Charles I of England in 1639, it continued to be used during the English Civil War. A nation's head of state holds the nominal position of commander-in-chief if effective executive power is held by a separate head of government. In a parliamentary system, the executive branch is dependent upon the will of the legislature.
Governors-general and colonial governors are often appointed commander-in-chief of the military forces within their territory. A commander-in-chief is sometimes referred to as supreme commander, sometimes used as a specific term; the term is used for military officers who hold such power and authority, not always through dictatorship, as a subordinate to a head of state. The term is used for officers who hold authority over an individual military branch, special branch or within a theatre of operations; this includes heads of states who: Are chief executives with the political mandate to undertake discretionary decision-making, including command of the armed forces. Ceremonial heads of state with residual substantive reserve powers over the armed forces, acting under normal circumstances on the constitutional advice of chief executives with the political mandate to undertake discretionary decision-making. According to the Constitution of Afghanistan, The President of Afghanistan is the Commander-in-chief of Afghan Armed Forces.
According to the Constitution of Albania, The President of the Republic of Albania is the Commander-in-chief of Albanian Armed Forces. The incumbent Commander-in-chief is President Ilir Meta. Under part II, chapter III, article 99, subsections 12, 13, 14 and 15, the Constitution of Argentina states that the President of the Argentine Nation is the "Commander-in-chief of all the armed forces of the Nation", it states that the President is entitled to provide military posts in the granting of the jobs or grades of senior officers of the armed forces, by itself on the battlefield. The Ministry of Defense is the government department that assists and serves the President in the management of the armed forces. Under chapter II of section 68 titled Command of the naval and military forces, the Constitution of Australia states that: The command in chief of the naval and military forces of the Commonwealth is vested in the Governor General as the Queen's representative. In practice, the Governor-General does not play an active part in the Australian Defence Force's command structure, the democratically accountable Australian Cabinet de facto controls the ADF.
The Minister for Defence and several subordinate ministers exercise this control through the Australian Defence Organisation. Section 8 of the Defence Act 1903 states:The Minister shall have the general control and administration of the Defence Force, the powers vested in the Chief of the Defence Force, the Chief of Navy, the Chief of Army and the Chief of Air Force by virtue of section 9, the powers vested jointly in the Secretary and the Chief of the Defence Force by virtue of section 9A, shall be exercised subject to and in accordance with any directions of the Minister; the commander-in-chief is the president, although executive power and responsibility for national defense resides with the prime minister. The only exception was the first commander-in-chief, General M. A. G. Osmani, during Bangladesh Liberation War in 1971, commander of all Bangladesh Forces, reinstated to active duty by official BD government order, which after independence was gazetted in 1972, he relinquished all authority and duties to the President of Bangladesh.
Article 142 of the Brazilian Constitution of 1988 states that the Brazilian Armed Forces is under the supreme command of the President of the Republic. The President of Belarus is the Commander-in-Chief of the Belarusian Armed Forces; the Sultan of Brunei is the Commander-in-Chief of the Royal Brunei Armed Forces. The powers of command-in-chief over the Canadian Armed Forces are vested in the Canadian monarch, are delegated to the Governor General of Canada, who uses the title Commander-in-Chief. In this capacity, the governor general is entitled to the uniform of a general/flag officer, with the crest of the office and special cuff braid serving as rank insignia. By constitutional convention, the Crown's prerogative powers over the armed forces and constitutional powers as commander-in-chief are exercised on the advice of the prime minister and the rest of Cabinet, the governing ministry that commands the confidence of the House of Commons. According to the National Defence Act, t
The British Army is the principal land warfare force of the United Kingdom, a part of British Armed Forces. As of 2018, the British Army comprises just over 81,500 trained regular personnel and just over 27,000 trained reserve personnel; the modern British Army traces back to 1707, with an antecedent in the English Army, created during the Restoration in 1660. The term British Army was adopted in 1707 after the Acts of Union between Scotland. Although all members of the British Army are expected to swear allegiance to Elizabeth II as their commander-in-chief, the Bill of Rights of 1689 requires parliamentary consent for the Crown to maintain a peacetime standing army. Therefore, Parliament approves the army by passing an Armed Forces Act at least once every five years; the army is commanded by the Chief of the General Staff. The British Army has seen action in major wars between the world's great powers, including the Seven Years' War, the Napoleonic Wars, the Crimean War and the First and Second World Wars.
Britain's victories in these decisive wars allowed it to influence world events and establish itself as one of the world's leading military and economic powers. Since the end of the Cold War, the British Army has been deployed to a number of conflict zones as part of an expeditionary force, a coalition force or part of a United Nations peacekeeping operation; until the English Civil War, England never had a standing army with professional officers and careerist corporals and sergeants. It relied on militia organized by local officials, or private forces mobilized by the nobility, or on hired mercenaries from Europe. From the Middle Ages until the English Civil War, when a foreign expeditionary force was needed, such as the one that Henry V of England took to France and that fought at the Battle of Agincourt, the army, a professional one, was raised for the duration of the expedition. During the English Civil War, the members of the Long Parliament realised that the use of county militia organised into regional associations commanded by local members of parliament, while more than able to hold their own in the regions which Parliamentarians controlled, were unlikely to win the war.
So Parliament initiated two actions. The Self-denying Ordinance, with the notable exception of Oliver Cromwell, forbade members of parliament from serving as officers in the Parliamentary armies; this created a distinction between the civilians in Parliament, who tended to be Presbyterian and conciliatory to the Royalists in nature, a corps of professional officers, who tended to Independent politics, to whom they reported. The second action was legislation for the creation of a Parliamentary-funded army, commanded by Lord General Thomas Fairfax, which became known as the New Model Army. While this proved to be a war winning formula, the New Model Army, being organized and politically active, went on to dominate the politics of the Interregnum and by 1660 was disliked; the New Model Army was paid off and disbanded at the Restoration of the monarchy in 1660. For many decades the excesses of the New Model Army under the Protectorate of Oliver Cromwell was a horror story and the Whig element recoiled from allowing a standing army.
The militia acts of 1661 and 1662 prevented local authorities from calling up militia and oppressing their own local opponents. Calling up the militia was possible only if the king and local elites agreed to do so. Charles II and his Cavalier supporters favoured a new army under royal control; the first English Army regiments, including elements of the disbanded New Model Army, were formed between November 1660 and January 1661 and became a standing military force for Britain. The Royal Scots and Irish Armies were financed by the parliaments of Ireland. Parliamentary control was established by the Bill of Rights 1689 and Claim of Right Act 1689, although the monarch continued to influence aspects of army administration until at least the end of the nineteenth century. After the Restoration Charles II pulled together four regiments of infantry and cavalry, calling them his guards, at a cost of £122,000 from his general budget; this became the foundation of the permanent English Army. By 1685 it had grown to 7,500 soldiers in marching regiments, 1,400 men permanently stationed in garrisons.
A rebellion in 1685 allowed James II to raise the forces to 20,000 men. There were 37,000 in 1678. After William and Mary's accession to the throne England involved itself in the War of the Grand Alliance to prevent a French invasion restoring James II. In 1689, William III expanded the army to 74,000, to 94,000 in 1694. Parliament was nervous, reduced the cadre to 7000 in 1697. Scotland and Ireland had theoretically separate military establishments, but they were unofficially merged with the English force. By the time of the 1707 Acts of Union, many regiments of the English and Scottish armies were combined under one operational command and stationed in the Netherlands for the War of the Spanish Succession. Although all the regiments were now part of the new British military establishment, they remained under the old operational-command structure and retained much of the institutional ethos and traditions of the standing armies created shortly after the restoration of the monarchy 47 years earlier.
The order of seniority of the most-senior British Army line regiments is based on that of the English army
British Army of the Rhine
There have been two formations named British Army of the Rhine. Both were occupation forces in Germany, one after the First World War, the other after the Second World War; the first British Army of the Rhine was set up in March 1919 to implement the occupation of the Rhineland. It was composed of five corps, composed of two divisions each, plus a cavalry division:II Corps: Commanded by Sir Claud Jacob Light Division: Commanded by Major-General George Jeffreys Southern Division: Commanded by Major-General William HenekerIV Corps: Commanded by Sir Alexander Godley Lowland Division Highland Division VI Corps: Commanded by Sir Aylmer Haldane Northern Division London Division IX Corps: Commanded by Sir Walter Braithwaite and by Ivor Maxse Western Division Midland Division X Corps: Commanded by Sir Thomas Morland Lancashire Division Eastern Division Cavalry Division Most of these units were progressively dissolved, so that by February 1920 there were only regular battalions: 1st Battalion Royal Irish Regiment 4th Battalion Worcestershire Regiment 2nd Battalion Black Watch 1st Battalion Middlesex Regiment 3rd Battalion Middlesex Regiment 1st Battalion Durham Light InfantryIn August 1920 Winston Churchill told the British Parliament that the BAOR comprised 13,360 troops, consisting of staff, Royal Artillery, Royal Engineers, machine gun corps and the usual ancillary services.
The troops were located principally in the vicinity of Cologne at an approximate cost per month of £300,000. The Cologne Post was a newspaper published for members of the BAOR during this period. From 1922 the BAOR was organised into two brigades:1st Rhine Brigade 1st Battalion Northumberland Fusiliers 1922–1926 1st Battalion West Yorkshire Regiment 1922–1926 2nd Battalion Queen's Own Cameron Highlanders 1922–1926 1st Battalion York and Lancaster Regiment 1922–1924 2nd Battalion Royal Berkshire Regiment 1926–1928 2nd Battalion Royal Welch Fusiliers Nov 1926 – Oct 1929 2nd Battalion Worcestershire Regiment 1926–19282nd Rhine Brigade 2nd Battalion Duke of Cornwall's Light Infantry 1922–1924 1st Battalion King's Own Yorkshire Light Infantry 1922–1924 2nd Battalion King's Royal Rifle Corps 1922–1925 1st Battalion Royal Ulster Rifles 1922–1926 1st Battalion Manchester Regiment 1923–1924 2nd Battalion King's Shropshire Light Infantry 1924–1927 1st Battalion Oxford and Bucks Light Infantry 1925–1927 2nd Battalion Royal Fusiliers 1926–1929 2nd Battalion Leicestershire Regiment 1927–1929 2nd Battalion Dorsetshire Regiment 1928–1929 The commanders were: Field Marshal Lord Plumer 1918–1919 General Sir William Robertson 1919–1920 General Sir Thomas Morland 1920–1922 General Sir Alexander Godley 1922–1924 General Sir John Du Cane 1924–1927 General Sir William Thwaites 1927–1929 The second British Army of the Rhine was formed on 25 August 1945 from the British Liberation Army.
Its original function was to control the corps districts which were running the military government of the British zone of occupied Germany. After the assumption of government by civilians, it became the command formation for the troops in Germany only, rather than being responsible for administration as well; as the potential threat of Soviet invasion across the North German Plain into West Germany increased, BAOR became more responsible for the defence of West Germany than its occupation. It became the primary formation controlling the British contribution to NATO after the formation of the alliance in 1949, its primary combat formation was British I Corps. From 1952 the commander-in-chief of the BAOR was the commander of NATO's Northern Army Group in the event of a general war with the Soviet Union and the Warsaw Pact; the BAOR was armed with tactical nuclear weapons. In 1967, the force was reduced in strength to 53,000 soldiers; the 1993 Options for Change defence cuts resulted in BAOR being replaced by forces 25,000 strong, divided between Headquarters Allied Command Europe Rapid Reaction Corps, 1st Armoured Division, other combat support and combat service support forces, administrative elements headed by United Kingdom Support Command.
Garrisons which closed at this time included Soest and Minden. The commanders were: Field Marshal Lord Montgomery 1945–1946 Lieutenant General Sir Richard McCreery 1946–1948 Lieutenant General Sir Brian Horrocks 1948 Lieutenant General Sir Charles Keightley 1948–1951 General Sir John Harding 1951–1952 General Sir Richard Gale 1952–1957 General Sir Dudley Ward 1957–1960 General Sir James Cassels 1960–1963 General Sir William Stirling 1963–1966 General Sir John Hackett 1966–1968 General Sir Desmond Fitzpatrick 1968–1970 General Sir Peter Hunt 1970–1973 General Sir Harry Tuzo 1973–1976 General Sir Frank King 1976–1978 General Sir William Scotter 1978–1980 General Sir Michael Gow 1980–1983 General Sir Nigel Bagnall 1983–1985 General Sir Martin Farndale 1985–1987 General Sir Brian Kenny 1987–1989 General Sir Peter Inge 1989–1992 General Sir Charles Guthrie 1992 – May 1994 Bergen-Hohne Garrison Osnabrück Garrison Westfalen Garrison British military history Canadian Forces Europe The Original British Army of the Rhine by Richard A. Rinaldi Peter Blume: BAOR – Vehicles Of The British Army Of The Rhine – Fahrzeuge der Britischen Rheinarmee – 1945–1979 Tankograd 2006.
Peter Blume: BAOR: The Final Years – Vehicles Of The British Army Of The
Mandatory Palestine was a geopolitical entity established between 1920 and 1923 in the Middle East corresponding the region of Palestine, as part of the Partition of the Ottoman Empire under the terms of the British Mandate for Palestine. During the First World War, an Arab uprising and the British Empire's Egyptian Expeditionary Force under General Edmund Allenby drove the Turks out of the Levant during the Sinai and Palestine Campaign; the United Kingdom had agreed in the McMahon–Hussein Correspondence that it would honour Arab independence if they revolted against the Ottomans, but the two sides had different interpretations of this agreement, in the end, the UK and France divided up the area under the Sykes–Picot Agreement—an act of betrayal in the eyes of the Arabs. Further complicating the issue was the Balfour Declaration of 1917, promising British support for a Jewish "national home" in Palestine. At the war's end the British and French set up a joint "Occupied Enemy Territory Administration" in what had been Ottoman Syria.
The British achieved legitimacy for their continued control by obtaining a mandate from the League of Nations in June 1922. The formal objective of the League of Nations mandate system was to administer parts of the defunct Ottoman Empire, in control of the Middle East since the 16th century, "until such time as they are able to stand alone." The civil Mandate administration was formalized with the League of Nations' consent in 1923 under the British Mandate for Palestine, which covered two administrative areas. During the British Mandate period the area experienced the ascent of two major nationalist movements, one among the Jews and the other among the Arabs; the competing national interests of the Arab and Jewish populations of Palestine against each other and against the governing British authorities matured into the Arab Revolt of 1936–1939 and the Jewish insurgency in Mandatory Palestine, before culminating in the Civil War of 1947–1948. The aftermath of the Civil War and the consequent 1948 Arab–Israeli War led to the establishment of the 1949 cease-fire agreement, with partition of the former Mandatory Palestine between the newborn state of Israel with a Jewish majority, the Arab West Bank annexed by the Jordanian Kingdom and the Arab All-Palestine Protectorate in the Gaza Strip under Egypt.
Following its occupation by British troops in 1917–1918, Palestine was governed by the Occupied Enemy Territory Administration. In July 1920 a civilian administration headed by a High Commissioner replaced the military administration; the first High Commissioner, Herbert Samuel, a Zionist and a recent British cabinet minister, arrived in Palestine on 20 June 1920 to take up his appointment from 1 July. Following the arrival of the British, the inhabitants established Muslim-Christian Associations in all the major towns. In 1919 they joined to hold the first Palestine Arab Congress in Jerusalem, its aimed at representative government and opposition to the Balfour Declaration. At the First World Congress of Jewish Women, held in Vienna, Austria, 1923, it was decided that: "It appears, therefore, to be the duty of all Jews to co-operate in the social-economic reconstruction of Palestine and to assist in the settlement of Jews in that country." The Zionist Commission formed in March 1918 and became active in promoting Zionist objectives in Palestine.
On 19 April 1920, elections took place for the Assembly of Representatives of the Palestinian Jewish community. The Zionist Commission received official recognition in 1922 as representative of the Palestinian Jewish community. One of the first actions of the newly installed civil administration in 1921 had been to grant Pinhas Rutenberg—a Jewish entrepreneur—concessions for the production and distribution of electrical power. Rutenberg soon established an electric company whose shareholders were Zionist organisations and philanthropists. Palestinian-Arabs saw it as proof; the British administration claimed that electrification would enhance the economic development of the country as a whole, while at the same time securing their commitment to facilitate a Jewish National Home through economic—rather than political—means. Samuel tried to establish self-governing institutions in Palestine, as required by the mandate, but the Arab leadership refused to co-operate with any institution which included Jewish participation.
When Grand Mufti of Jerusalem Kamil al-Husayni died in March 1921, High Commissioner Samuel appointed his half-brother Mohammad Amin al-Husseini to the position. Amin al-Husseini, a member of the al-Husayni clan of Jerusalem, was an Arab nationalist and Muslim leader; as Grand Mufti, as well as in the other influential positions that he held during this period, al-Husseini played a key role in violent opposition to Zionism. In 1922, al-Husseini was elected President of the Supreme Muslim Council, established by Samuel in December 1921; the Council controlled the Waqf funds, worth annually tens of thousands of pounds and the orphan funds, worth annually about £50,000, as compared to the £600,000 in the Jewish Agency's annual budget. In addition, he controlled the Islamic courts in Palestine. Among other functions, these courts had the power to appoint preachers; the 1922 Palestine Order in Council established a Legislative Council, to consist of 23 members: 12 elected, 10 appointed, the High Commissioner.
Of the 12 elected members, eight were to be Muslim Arabs, two Christian Arabs, two Jews. Arabs protested against the distribution of the seats, arguing that as they constituted 88% of the population, having only 43% of the seats was
A medal bar or medal clasp is a thin metal bar attached to the ribbon of a military decoration, civil decoration, or other medal. It most indicates the campaign or operation the recipient received the award for, multiple bars on the same medal are used to indicate that the recipient has met the criteria for receiving the medal in multiple theatres; when used in conjunction with decorations for exceptional service, such as gallantry medals, the term "and bar" means that the award has been bestowed multiple times. In the example, "Group Captain Leonard Cheshire, VC, OM, DSO and two bars, DFC", "DSO and two bars" means that the Distinguished Service Order was awarded on three separate occasions. A British convention is to indicate bars by the use of asterisks. Bars are used on long service medals to indicate the length of service rendered; the two terms are used because terms. Prior to the early 19th century and decorations were only awarded to ranking officers. One exception was the Army Gold Medal issued to higher ranking participants in the Peninsular War.
A medal was given with a clasp for each battle fought. After four clasps were earned the medal was turned in for a cross with the battle names on the arms, additional clasps were added; the maximum was achieved with a cross and nine clasps. Over the next 40 years, it became customary for governments to present a medal to all soldiers and officers involved in a campaign; these medals were engraved with the names of the major battles the recipient had fought in during the campaign. The main disadvantages of this system were that new medals had to be created for each campaign or war, that it was impossible to tell at a glance if the recipient was only a participant in the campaign overall, or if he had been involved in one or several major actions; the Sutlej Medal was the earliest medal. It was awarded to British Army and Honourable East India Company soldiers who fought in the First Anglo-Sikh War between 1845 and 1846; the first battle the recipient participated in would be engraved on the medal itself.
If the recipient had participated in multiple engagements, silver bars bearing the name of each additional battle were attached to the medal's ribbon. This method of notation evolved again on the Punjab Campaign medal, where the standard medal was awarded to all that had served during the campaign, with bars produced for the three major battles; the creation of bars led to the development of'General Service' medals, which would be presented to any soldier serving in a general region or time frame. Bars would be awarded to denote the particular war the recipient fought in; the 1854 India General Service Medal was awarded to soldiers over a 41-year period. Twenty-three clasps were created for this award, becoming one of the more extreme uses of this system; the British Naval General Service Medal, was authorised in 1847 with some 231 clasps for actions ranging from minor skirmishes to certain campaigns and all full-fledged battles between 1793 and 1840. The Crimea Medal was issued with ornate battle bars.
Since the general trend has been to have simple horizontal devices. Campaign bars or battle bars are used to denote the particular campaign, battle, or region the recipient operated in to receive the award; this is the most common use of medal bars on military decorations. In the United Kingdom, campaign bars are known as clasps and when the ribbon alone is worn they are sometimes indicated by rosettes, although this is not authorised. Examples of ones that were issued are the "under enemy fire" clasp on the 1914 Star and the Battle of Britain clasp on the 1939-45 Star. In the United States Military, Service stars are used to indicate participation in multiple battles or campaigns, although the World War I Victory Medal had an extensive system of bars. Starting with World War II the Arrowhead device was authorized for assault landings. In this conflict a unique variation of the Service star was the Wake Island Device, a "W" placed on the ribbons of the Navy and Marine Corps Expeditionary Medals.
This was issued to represent the medal bar for fighting in the Battle of Wake Island. Achievement bars are used to indicate a additional feat associated with the medal; as an example, the Wintered Over Device attached to the United States Antarctica Service Medal indicates that the recipient performed a tour of duty during the Antarctic winter. Service bars indicate the length of service a person has provided to the organisation presenting the award; this type of bar is most found on long service medals for the military and emergency services. Multiple award bars display the number of times a decoration for merit or distinguished service has been awarded. In the United States, Oak Leaf Clusters and Stars, rather than bars, are issued for receiving the same award multiple times. In the United Kingdom, each bar is indicated by a rosette. Dorling, Henry Taprell. Ribb
The commanding officer or sometimes, if the incumbent is a general officer, commanding general, is the officer in command of a military unit. The commanding officer has ultimate authority over the unit, is given wide latitude to run the unit as they see fit, within the bounds of military law. In this respect, commanding officers have significant responsibilities and powers. In some countries, commanding officers may be of any commissioned rank. There are more officers than command positions available, time spent in command is a key aspect of promotion, so the role of commanding officer is valued; the commanding officer is assisted by an executive officer or second-in-command, who handles personnel and day-to-day matters, a senior enlisted advisor. Larger units may have staff officers responsible for various responsibilities. In the British Army, Royal Marines, many other Commonwealth military and paramilitary organisations, the commanding officer of a unit is appointed, thus the office of CO is an appointment.
The appointment of commanding officer is exclusive to commanders of major units. It is customary for a commanding officer to hold the rank of lieutenant colonel, they are referred to within the unit as "the colonel" or the CO. "The colonel" may refer to the holder of an honorary appointment of a senior officer who oversees the non-operational affairs of a regiment. However, the rank of the appointment holder and the holder's appointment are separate; that is, not all lieutenant colonels are COs, although most COs are lieutenant colonels, not a requirement of the appointment. Sub-units and minor units and formations do not have a commanding officer; the officer in command of such a unit holds the appointment of "officer commanding". Higher formations have a general officer commanding. Area commands have a commander-in-chief; the OC of a sub-unit or minor unit is today customarily a major, although again the rank of the appointment holder and the holder's appointment are separate and independent of each other.
In some cases, independent units smaller than a sub-unit will have an OC appointed. In these cases, the officer commanding can be a captain or a lieutenant. Appointments such as CO and OC may have specific powers associated with them. For example, they may have statutory powers to promote soldiers or to deal with certain disciplinary offences and award certain punishments; the CO of a unit may have the power to sentence an offender to 28 days' detention, whereas the OC of a sub-unit may have the power to sentence an offender to 3 days' restriction of privileges. Commanders of units smaller than sub-units are not specific appointments and officers or NCOs who fill those positions are referred to as the commander or leader. In the Royal Air Force, the title of commanding officer is reserved for station commanders or commanders of independent units, including flying squadrons; as with the British Army, the post of a commander of a lesser unit such as an administrative wing, squadron or flight is referred to as the officer commanding.
In the Royal Navy and many others, commanding officer is the official title of the commander of any ship, unit or installation. However, they are referred to as "the captain" no matter what their actual rank, or informally as "skipper" or "boss". In the United States, the status of commanding officer is duly applied to all commissioned officers who hold lawful command over a military unit, ship, or installation; the commanding officer of a company a captain, is referred to as the company commander. The commanding officer of a battalion, is a lieutenant colonel; the commanding officer of a brigade, a colonel, is the brigade commander. At the division level and higher, the commanding officer is referred to as the commanding general, as these officers hold general officer rank. Although holding a leadership position in the same sense as commanders, the individual in charge of a platoon, the smallest unit of soldiers led by a commissioned officer a second lieutenant, is referred to as the platoon leader, not the platoon commander.
This officer does have command of the soldiers under him but does not have many of the command responsibilities inherent to higher echelons. For example, a platoon leader cannot issue non-judicial punishment. Non-commissioned officers may be said to have charge of certain smaller military units, they cannot, hold command as they lack the requisite authority granted by the head of state to do so. Those wielding "command" of individual vehicles are called vehicle commanders; this distinction in title applies to officers who are aircraft commanders, as well as officers and enlisted soldiers who are tank and armored vehicle commanders. While these officers and NCOs have tactical and operational command (including full authority and accountability – in the case