SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Nigger

In the English language, the word nigger is an ethnic slur directed at black people black Americans. The word originated in the 18th century as an adaptation of the Spanish negro, a descendant of the Latin adjective niger, which means black, it was used derogatorily, by the mid-20th century in the United States, its usage by non-African Americans became unambiguously pejorative, a racist insult. Accordingly, it began to disappear from general popular culture, its inclusion in classic works of literature has sparked modern controversy. Because the term is considered offensive, it is referred to by the euphemism "the N-word". However, it remains in use as the variant nigga, by African Americans among themselves. In dialects of English that have non-rhotic speech, "nigger" and "nigga" are pronounced the same; the variants neger and negar derive from various European languages' words for'black', including the Spanish and Portuguese word negro and the now-pejorative French nègre. Etymologically, noir, nègre, nigger derive from nigrum, the stem of the Latin niger, with a trilled r.

In every grammatical case, grammatical gender, grammatical number besides nominative masculine singular, is nigr- followed by a case ending. In its original English-language usage, nigger was a word for a dark-skinned individual; the earliest known published use of the term dates from 1574, in a work alluding to "the Nigers of Aethiop, bearing witnes." According to the Oxford English Dictionary, the first derogatory usage of the term nigger was recorded two centuries in 1775. In the colonial America of 1619, John Rolfe used negars in describing the African slaves shipped to the Virginia colony. American English spellings and neggar, prevailed in a northern colony, New York under the Dutch, in metropolitan Philadelphia's Moravian and Pennsylvania Dutch communities. Lexicographer Noah Webster, whose eponymous dictionary did much to solidify the distinctive spelling of American English, suggested the neger spelling in place of negro in 1806. During the fur trade of the early 1800s to the late 1840s in the Western United States, the word was spelled "niggur," and is recorded in literature of the time.

George Fredrick Ruxton used it in his "mountain man" lexicon, without pejorative connotation. "Niggur" was evidently similar to the modern use of "dude" or "guy." This passage from Ruxton's Life in the Far West illustrates the word in spoken form—the speaker here referring to himself: "Travler, this niggur's no travler. It was not used as a term for blacks among mountain men during this period, as Indians and Frenchmen and Anglos alike could be a "niggur." "The noun slipped back and forth from derogatory to endearing."The term "colored" or "negro" became a respectful alternative. In 1851 the Boston Vigilance Committee, an abolitionist organization, posted warnings to the Colored People of Boston and vicinity. Writing in 1904, journalist Clifton Johnson documented the "opprobrious" character of the word nigger, emphasizing that it was chosen in the South because it was more offensive than "colored" or "negro." By the turn of the century, "colored" had become sufficiently mainstream that it was chosen as the racial self-identifier for the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People.

In 2008 Carla Sims, its communications director, said "the term'colored' is not derogatory, chose the word'colored' because it was the most positive description used. It's outdated and antiquated but not offensive." Canadian writer Lawrence Hill changed the title of his 2007 novel The Book of Negroes. The name refers to a real historical document, but he felt compelled to find another name for the American market, retitling the US edition Someone Knows My Name. Nineteenth-century literature features usages of "nigger" without racist connotation. Mark Twain, in the autobiographic book Life on the Mississippi, used the term within quotes, indicating reported speech, but used the term "negro" when writing in his own narrative persona. Joseph Conrad published a novella in Britain with the title The Nigger of the'Narcissus', but was advised to release it in the United States as The Children of the Sea, see below. A style guide to British English usage, H. W. Fowler's A Dictionary of Modern English Usage states in the first edition that applying the word nigger to "others than full or partial negroes" is "felt as an insult by the person described, & betrays in the speaker, if not deliberate insolence, at least a arrogant inhumanity.

By the late 1960s, the social change brought about by the civil rights movement had legitimized the racial identity word black as mainstream American English usage to denote black-skinned Americans of African ancestry. President Thomas Jefferson had used this word of his slaves in his Notes on the State of Virginia, but "black" had not been used until the 20th century. In the 1980s, the term "African American" was advanced analogously to the terms "German American" and "Irish American," and was adopted by major media outlets. Moreover

1999–2000 Bosnia and Herzegovina Football Cup

1999–2000 Bosnia and Herzegovina Football Cup was the sixth season of Bosnia and Herzegovina's annual football cup. The Cup was won by Željezničar. In the final stage of the competition, four clubs from the Football Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina and the two clubs from the Football Federation of Herzeg-Bosnia joined the competition. After a preliminary round, the remaining three advanced to the final group with only forward matches at the end of which the first-placed in the group won the trophy and qualified for the 2000–01 UEFA Cup; the matches were played on 27 November 1999. The matches were played on 4 December 1999; the first legs were played on 26 February and the second legs were played on 22 March 2000. The first legs were played on 22 May and the second legs were played on 26 May 2000. 1999–2000 First League of Bosnia and Herzegovina Statistics on RSSSF SportSport.ba forum

Andrea Navedo

Andrea Navedo is an American actress and singer. She began her career on the daytime soap operas One Life to Live and Guiding Light, in years had several supporting roles on primetime television. In 2014, Navedo began starring as Xiomara "Xo" Villanueva in The CW comedy-drama series, Jane the Virgin. Navedo was born in the Bronx. A second-generation New York Puerto Rican, she grew up in New York City, she said she relates to her Jane the Virgin character because her mother was a young single mother. Navedo graduated from DeWitt Clinton High School in 1995 and graduated from the State University of New York at Old Westbury in 1998 with a BA in Communicative and Creative Arts and a concentration of Theater. Navedo was featured in a DeWitt Clinton Notable Alumni article alongside other famous alumni such as Stan Lee. Navedo began her professional acting career on the daytime soap operas. From 1995 to 1997, she played the role of Linda Soto in the ABC soap opera. In 1999, she joined the cast of CBS soap opera Guiding Light as Theresa Sandoval.

She made her film debut with small part in Girl 6, guest starred in episodes of New York Undercover and The District. In 2001, Navedo co-starred in the action comedy film, Double Take. Navedo starred in the Netflix original “Bright”. From 2001 to 2004, Navedo had a recurring role on the NBC legal crime series, Law & Order, as Detective Ana Cordova. Later guest-starred on Law & Order: Criminal Intent and Blue Bloods. Navedo has appeared in the number of films such as Washington Heights, El Cantante and Remember Me. From 2011 to 2013, Navedo had the recurring roles on How to Make It in America, Golden Boy and Law & Order: Special Victims Unit, she starred in the comedy film Superfast!, the parody of The Fast and the Furious film series. In 2014, Navedo was cast in the series regular role of Xiomara "Xo" Villanueva, title character's mother in The CW critically acclaimed comedy-drama series, Jane the Virgin, she received the 2015 Imagen Award for Best Supporting Actress – Television for her performance.

Navedo has a daughter and a son. Andrea Navedo on IMDb Andrea Navedo on Twitter