A Tory is a person who holds a political philosophy known as Toryism, based on a British version of traditionalism and conservatism, which upholds the supremacy of social order as it has evolved throughout history. The Tory ethos has been summed up with the phrase "God and Country". Tories advocate monarchism, were of a high church Anglican religious heritage, opposed to the liberalism of the Whig faction; the philosophy originates from a royalist group during the English Civil War. The Tories political faction that emerged in 1681 was a reaction to the Whig-controlled Parliaments that succeeded the Cavalier Parliament, it has exponents in other parts of the former British Empire, such as the Loyalists of British America, who opposed American secession during the American War of Independence. The loyalists that fled to the Canadas at the end of the American Revolution, the United Empire Loyalists, formed the support base for political cliques in Upper and Lower Canada. Toryism remains prominent in the United Kingdom.
The British Conservative Party and Conservative Party of Canada, their members, continue to be referred to as Tories. The term Tory is used regardless of. Adherents to traditional Toryism in contemporary times are referred to as High Tories; the terms Blue Tory and Red Tory have been used to describe the two different factions of the federal and provincial Conservative/Progressive Conservative parties in Canada. In addition, Pink Tory is used in Canadian politics as a pejorative term to describe a member of the Conservative/Progressive Conservative party, perceived as liberal; the word Tory derives from the Middle Irish word tóraidhe. The term was applied in Ireland to the isolated bands of guerrillas resisting Oliver Cromwell's nine-month 1649–1650 campaign in Ireland, who were allied with Royalists through treaty with the Parliament of Confederate Ireland, signed at Kilkenny in January 1649, it was used to refer to a Rapparee and applied to Confederates or Cavaliers in arms. The term was thus a term of abuse, "an Irish rebel", before being adopted as a political label in the same way as "Whig".
Towards the end of Charles II's reign there was some debate about whether or not his brother, Duke of York, should be allowed to succeed to the throne. "Whigs" a reference to Scottish cattle-drovers, was the abusive term directed at those who wanted to exclude James on the grounds that he was a Roman Catholic. Those who were not prepared to exclude James were labelled "Abhorrers" and "Tories". Titus Oates applied the term Tory, which signified an Irish robber, to those who would not believe in his Popish Plot and the name became extended to all who were supposed to have sympathy with the Catholic Duke of York; the suffix -ism was added to both Whig and Tory to make Whiggism and Toryism, meaning the principles and methods of each faction. The term Tory was first used to designate the pre-Confederation British ruling classes of Upper Canada and Lower Canada, known as the Family Compact and the Château Clique, an elite within the governing classes and members within a section of society known as the United Empire Loyalists.
The United Empire Loyalists were American loyalists who resettled in British North America during or after the American Revolutionary War. In post-Confederation Canada, the terms "Red Tory" and "Blue Tory" have long been used to describe the two wings of the Conservative and the Progressive Conservative parties; the dyadic tensions arose out of the 1854 political union of British-Canadian Tories, French-Canadian traditionalists and the monarchist and loyalist leaning sections of the emerging commercial classes at the time—many of whom were uncomfortable with the pro-American and annexationist tendencies within the liberal Clear Grits. Tory strength and prominence in the political culture was a feature of life in Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Prince Edward Island and Manitoba. By the 1930s, the factions within Canadian Toryism were associated with either the urban business elites, or with rural traditionalists from the country's hinterland. A "Red Tory" is a member of the more moderate wing of the party.
They are unified by their adherence to British traditions in Canada. Throughout the course of Canadian history, the Conservative Party was controlled by MacDonaldian Tory elements, which in Canada meant an adherence to the English-Canadian traditions of Monarchy, Empire-Commonwealth, parliamentary government, protectionism, social reform and acceptance of the necessity of the welfare state. By the 1970s, the Progressive Conservative Party was a Keynesian-consensus party. With the onset of stagflation in the 1970s, some Canadian Tories came under the influence of neo-liberal developments in Great Britain and the United States, which highlighted the policies for privatization and supply-side interventions. In Canada, these tories have been labeled neoconservatives—which has a somewhat different connotation in the United States. By the early 1980s, there was no clear neoconservative in the Tory leadership cadre, but Brian Mulroney came to adopt many policies from the Margaret Thatcher and Ronald Reagan governments.
As Mulroney took the Progressive Conservative Party further in this direction, with policy initiati
John Wesley was an English cleric and evangelist, a leader of a revival movement within the Church of England known as Methodism. The societies he founded became the dominant form of the independent Methodist movement that continues to present. Educated at Charterhouse and Christ Church, Wesley was elected a fellow of Lincoln College, Oxford in 1726 and ordained as an Anglican priest two years later, he led the "Holy Club", a society formed for the purpose of study and the pursuit of a devout Christian life. After an unsuccessful ministry of two years at Savannah in the Georgia Colony, Wesley returned to London and joined a religious society led by Moravian Christians. On 24 May 1738 he experienced what has come to be called his evangelical conversion, when he felt his "heart strangely warmed", he subsequently left the Moravians. A key step in the development of Wesley's ministry was, like Whitefield, to travel and preach outdoors. In contrast to Whitefield's Calvinism, Wesley embraced Arminian doctrines.
Moving across Great Britain and Ireland, he helped form and organise small Christian groups that developed intensive and personal accountability and religious instruction. Under Wesley's direction, Methodists became leaders in many social issues of the day, including prison reform and the abolition of slavery. Although he was not a systematic theologian, Wesley argued for the notion of Christian perfection and against Calvinism—and, in particular, against its doctrine of predestination, he held that, in this life, Christians could achieve a state where the love of God "reigned supreme in their hearts", giving them outward holiness. His evangelicalism grounded in sacramental theology, maintained that means of grace were the manner by which God sanctifies and transforms the believer, encouraging people to experience Jesus Christ personally, his teachings are collectively known as Wesleyanism. Throughout his life, Wesley remained within the established Church of England, insisting that the Methodist movement lay well within its tradition.
In his early ministry, Wesley was barred from preaching in many parish churches and the Methodists were persecuted. In 2002, he was placed at number 50 in the BBC's poll of the 100 Greatest Britons. John Wesley was born in 1703 in Epworth, 23 miles north-west of Lincoln, as the fifteenth child of Samuel Wesley and his wife Susanna Wesley. Samuel Wesley was a graduate of the University of Oxford and a poet who, from 1696, was rector of Epworth, he married Susanna, the twenty-fifth child of Samuel Annesley, a dissenting minister, in 1689. She bore nineteen children, of which nine lived beyond infancy, she and Samuel Wesley had become members of the Church of England as young adults. As in many families at the time, Wesley's parents gave their children their early education; each child, including the girls, was taught to read as soon as they could talk. They were expected to become proficient in Latin and Greek and to have learned major portions of the New Testament by heart. Susanna Wesley examined each child before evening prayers.
The children were not allowed to eat between meals and were interviewed singly by their mother one evening each week for the purpose of intensive spiritual instruction. In 1714, at age 11, Wesley was sent to the Charterhouse School in London, where he lived the studious, methodical and, for a while, religious life in which he had been trained at home. Apart from his disciplined upbringing, a rectory fire which occurred on 9 February 1708, when Wesley was five years old, left an indelible impression; some time after 11:00 pm, the rectory roof caught on fire. Sparks falling on the children's beds and cries of "fire" from the street roused the Wesleys who managed to shepherd all their children out of the house except for John, left stranded on an upper floor. With stairs aflame and the roof about to collapse, Wesley was lifted out of a window by a parishioner standing on another man's shoulders. Wesley used the phrase, "a brand plucked out of the fire", quoting Zechariah 3:2, to describe the incident.
This childhood deliverance subsequently became part of the Wesley legend, attesting to his special destiny and extraordinary work. In June 1720, Wesley entered Oxford. In 1724, he decided to pursue a Master of Arts degree, he was ordained a deacon on 25 September 1725—holy orders being a necessary step toward becoming a fellow and tutor at the university. In the year of his ordination he read Thomas à Kempis and Jeremy Taylor, showed his interest in mysticism, began to seek the religious truths which underlay the great revival of the 18th century; the reading of William Law's Christian Perfection and A Serious Call to a Devout and Holy Life gave him, he said, a more sublime view of the law of God. He pursued a rigidly methodical and abstemious life, studied the Scriptures, performed his religious duties diligently, depriving himself so that he would have alms to give, he began to seek after holiness of life. In March 1726, Wesley was unanimously elected a fellow of Oxford; this carried with it the right to a room at regular salary.
While continuing his s
Roundheads were supporters of the Parliament of England during the English Civil War. Known as Parliamentarians, they fought against King Charles I of England and his supporters, known as the Cavaliers or Royalists, who claimed rule by absolute monarchy and the principle of the'divine right of kings'; the goal of the Roundhead party was to give the Parliament supreme control over executive administration of the country/kingdom. Most Roundheads sought constitutional monarchy in place of the absolutist monarchy sought by Charles. However, at the end of the English Civil War in 1649, public antipathy towards the king was high enough to allow republican leaders such as Oliver Cromwell to abolish the monarchy and establish the Commonwealth of England; the Roundhead commander-in-chief of the first Civil War, Thomas Fairfax, remained a supporter of constitutional monarchy, as did many other Roundhead leaders such as Edward Montagu, 2nd Earl of Manchester and Robert Devereux, 3rd Earl of Essex. England's many Puritans and Presbyterians were invariably Roundhead supporters, as were many smaller religious groups such as the Independents.
However many Roundheads were members of the Church of England. Roundhead political factions included the proto-anarchist Diggers, the diverse group known as the Levellers and the apocalyptic Christian movement of the Fifth Monarchists; some Puritans, but by no means all, wore their hair cropped round the head or flat and there was thus an obvious contrast between them and the men of courtly fashion, who wore long ringlets. During the war and for a time afterwards, Roundhead was a term of derision—in the New Model Army it was a punishable offence to call a fellow soldier a Roundhead; this contrasted with the term "Cavalier" to describe supporters of the Royalist cause. Cavalier started out as a pejorative term—the first proponents used it to compare members of the Royalist party with Spanish Caballeros who had abused Dutch Protestants during the reign of Elizabeth I—but unlike Roundhead, Cavalier was embraced by those who were the target of the epithet and used by them to describe themselves."Roundheads" appears to have been first used as a term of derision toward the end of 1641, when the debates in Parliament in the Clergy Act 1640 were causing riots at Westminster.
The Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition quotes a contemporary authority's description of the crowd gathered there: "They had the hair of their heads few of them longer than their ears, whereupon it came to pass that those who with their cries attended at Westminster were by a nickname called Roundheads". The demonstrators included London apprentices and Roundhead was a term of derision for them because the regulations to which they had agreed included a provision for cropped hair. According to John Rushworth the word was first used on 27 December 1641 by a disbanded officer named David Hide. During a riot, Hide is reported to have drawn his sword and said he would "cut the throat of those round-headed dogs that bawled against bishops". However, Richard Baxter ascribes the origin of the term to a remark made by Queen Henrietta Maria, wife of Charles I, at the trial of Thomas Wentworth, 1st Earl of Strafford, earlier that year. Referring to John Pym, she asked; the principal advisor to Charles II, Edward Hyde, 1st Earl of Clarendon, remarked on the matter, "and from those contestations the two terms of Roundhead and Cavalier grew to be received in discourse... they who were looked upon as servants to the king being called Cavaliers, the other of the rabble contemned and despised under the name of Roundheads."Ironically, after Anglican Archbishop William Laud made a statute in 1636 instructing all clergy to wear short hair, many Puritans rebelled to show their contempt for his authority and began to grow their hair longer though they continued to be known as Roundheads.
The longer hair was more common among the "Independent" and "high ranking" Puritans toward the end of the Protectorate, while the "Presbyterian" faction, the military rank-and-file, continued to abhor long hair. By the end of this period some Independent Puritans were again derisively using the term Roundhead to refer to the Presbyterian Puritans. Roundhead remained in use to describe those with republican tendencies up until the Exclusion Crisis of 1678–1681. During the Exclusion Bill crisis, the term Cavalier was replaced with "Tory", an Irish term introduced by their opponents, initially a pejorative term. Macaulay, Thomas Babington; the History of England from the Accession of James II. 1. New York: Harper & Brothers. P. 105. ISBN 0-543-93129-3. Hanbury, Benjamin. Historical Memorials Relating to the Independents Or Congregationalists: From Their Rise to the Restoration of the Monarchy. 3. Pp. 118, 635. Hunt, John. Religious Thought from the Reformation to the End of Last Century. 2. General Books LLC. p. 5.
ISBN 1-150-98096-6. Roberts, Chris. Heavy Words Lightly Thrown: The Reason Behind Rhyme. Thorndike Press. ISBN 0-7862-8517-6. Worden, Blair; the English Civil Wars 1640–1660. London: Penguin Books. ISBN 0-14-100694-3. Attribution This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Anonymous. "Roundhead". In Chisholm
In biogeography, the Mediterranean Basin is the region of lands around the Mediterranean Sea that have a Mediterranean climate, with mild, rainy winters and hot, dry summers, which supports characteristic Mediterranean forests and scrub vegetation. The Mediterranean basin covers portions of three continents: Europe and Africa It has a varied and contrasting topography; the Mediterranean Region offers an ever-changing landscape of high mountains, rocky shores, impenetrable scrub, semi-arid steppes, coastal wetlands, sandy beaches and a myriad islands of various shapes and sizes dotted amidst the clear blue sea. Contrary to the classic sandy beach images portrayed in most tourist brochures, the Mediterranean is hilly. Mountains can be seen from anywhere; the Mediterranean Basin extends into Western Asia, covering the western and southern portions of the peninsula of Turkey, excluding the temperate-climate mountains of central Turkey. It includes the Mediterranean climate Levant at the eastern end of the Mediterranean, bounded on the east and south by the Syrian and Negev deserts.
The northern portion of the Maghreb region of northwestern Africa has a Mediterranean climate, separated from the Sahara Desert, which extends across North Africa, by the Atlas Mountains. In the eastern Mediterranean the Sahara extends to the southern shore of the Mediterranean, with the exception of the northern fringe of the peninsula of Cyrenaica in Libya, which has a dry Mediterranean climate. Europe lies to the north, three large Southern European peninsulas, the Iberian Peninsula, Italian Peninsula, the Balkan Peninsula, extend into the Mediterranean-climate zone. A system of folded mountains, including the Pyrenees dividing Spain from France, the Alps dividing Italy from Central Europe, the Dinaric Alps along the eastern Adriatic, the Balkan and Rhodope mountains of the Balkan Peninsula divide the Mediterranean from the temperate climate regions of Western and Central Europe; the Mediterranean Basin was shaped by the ancient collision of the northward-moving African-Arabian continent with the stable Eurasian continent.
As Africa-Arabia moved north, it closed the former Tethys Sea, which separated Eurasia from the ancient super continent of Gondwana, of which Africa was part. At about the same time, 170 mya in the Jurassic period, a small Neotethys ocean basin formed shortly before the Tethys Sea was closed at the eastern end; the collision pushed up a vast system of mountains, extending from the Pyrenees in Spain to the Zagros Mountains in Iran. This episode of mountain building, known as the Alpine orogeny, occurred during the Oligocene and Miocene epochs; the Neotethys became larger during associated folding and subduction. About 6 mya during the late Miocene, the Mediterranean was closed at its western end by drifting Africa, which caused the entire sea to evaporate. There followed several episodes of sea drawdown and re-flooding known as the Messinian Salinity Crisis, which ended when the Atlantic last re-flooded the basin at the end of the Miocene. Recent research has suggested that a desiccation-flooding cycle may have repeated several times during the last 630,000 years of the Miocene epoch, which could explain several events of large amounts of salt deposition.
Recent studies, show that repeated desiccation and re-flooding is unlikely from a geodynamic point of view. The end of the Miocene marked a change in the Mediterranean Basin's climate. Fossil evidence shows that the Mediterranean Basin had a humid subtropical climate with summer rainfall during the Miocene, which supported laurel forests; the shift to a Mediterranean climate occurred within the last 3.2–2.8 million years, during the Pliocene epoch, as summer rainfall decreased. The subtropical laurel forests retreated, although they persisted on the islands of Macaronesia off the Atlantic coast of Iberia and North Africa, the present Mediterranean vegetation evolved, dominated by coniferous trees and sclerophyllous trees and shrubs, with small, waxy leaves that prevent moisture loss in the dry summers. Much of these forests and shrublands have been altered beyond recognition by thousands of years of human habitation. There are now few intact natural areas in what was once a wooded region. Phytogeographically, the Mediterranean basin together with the nearby Atlantic coast, the Mediterranean woodlands and forests and Mediterranean dry woodlands and steppe of North Africa, the Black Sea coast of northeastern Anatolia, the southern coast of Crimea between Sevastopol and Feodosiya and the Black Sea coast between Anapa and Tuapse in Russia forms the Mediterranean Floristic Region, which belongs to the Tethyan Subkingdom of the Boreal Kingdom and is enclosed between the Circumboreal, Irano-Turanian, Saharo-Arabian and Macaronesian floristic regions.
The Mediterranean Region was first proposed by German botanist August Grisebach in the late 19th century. Drosophyllaceae segregated from Droseraceae, is the only plant family endemic to the region. Among the endemic plant genera are: The genera Aubrieta, Cynara, Dracunculus and Biarum are nearly endemic. Among the endemic species prominent in the Mediterranean vegetation are the Aleppo pine, stone pine, Mediterranean cypress, bay laurel, Oriental sweetgum, holm oak, kermes oak, strawberry tree, Greek strawberry tree, terebinth, common myrtle, Acanthus mollis and Vitex agnus-castus. Moreover, many plant taxa are shared with one of the four neighboring floristic regions only. According to different versions of Armen Takhtajan's delineation, the Mediterranean Region is further subdivid
The term dyke or dike is a slang noun meaning lesbian. It originated as a misogynistic slur for a masculine, tomboyish, or butch woman; the origin of the term is obscure and many theories have been proposed. The Oxford English Dictionary notes the first attestation as Berrey and Van den Bark's 1942 American Thesaurus of Slang. There, dike was the more common term. From the mid-19th century to the early 20th century, dike had been American slang for a well-dressed man, with "diked out" and "out on a dike" indicating a young man was in his best clothes and ready for a night on the town; the etymology of that term is obscure, but may have originated as a Virginian variant of deck and decked out. However, the term bulldyker preceded dyke in print, appearing in Harlem Renaissance novels in the 1920s. Claude McKay's 1928 Home to Harlem includes the passage that lesbians are "what we calls bulldyker in Harlem... I don't understan'... a bulldyking woman." From the context in the novel, the word was considered pejorative at the time.
This may be related to the late-19th-century slang use of dike for the vulva. Bull being used in the sense of "masculine" and "aggressive", a bulldyke would have implied a "masculine cunt". Other theories include that bulldyker derived from morphadike, a dialect variant of hermaphrodite, used for homosexuals in the early 20th century. In an investigative study, Julia Stanley theorizes that the source of these varying definitions stems from gender-determined sub-dialects. Homosexuality in America is a “subculture with its own language.” As such, a special vocabulary is developed by its members. Male homosexuals defined dyke as lesbian without derogation. A bull dyke was defined as a lesbian without further distinction. For female homosexuals of the community, however, a dyke is an masculine identified lesbian, given to indiscretion. Bull dyke is an extension of this term, with the addition of this person described as nasty, obnoxiously aggressive, overly demonstrative of her hatred of men. In an alternative investigation, Susan Krantz discusses the etymology of bulldyke, with derivations of the Middle English “falsehood” for bull and dick for dyke.
Therefore, a possible origin for a masculine lesbian comes from bulldicker that could mean “fake penis,” denoting a “false man.” Further speculation talks of the synonymous term bulldagger. Here, dagger alludes to the male genitalia and bull referring to "false" rather than "man"; the earliest account of dagger in this context stems from an account in 1348 by Henry Knighton. In the 1950s, the word dyke was used as a derogatory term used by straight people and lesbians who were most to be able to move up in social class, they used this term to identify rough bar lesbians. In the 1970s, a poem called; this empowered the lesbian community because they had never heard the term dyke used because it was only used as a derogatory term against them. Because of the exposure of the word to the public, the term dyke was taken up by the lesbian community in the 1970s; the meaning of dyke has positively changed over time. Most members of the community have dropped bull from the term to use it as a positive identifier of one who displays toughness, or as a simple, generic term for all lesbians.
This abbreviation does not carry the negative connotations of the full phrase as it did. Scholar Paula Blank, in an article on lesbian etymology, calls for taking ownership of lesbian and similar words. In the late 20th and early 21st century, the term dyke was claimed by many lesbians as a term of pride and empowerment. In 1983, Alison Bechdel named her new comic strip Dykes to Watch Out For. Depicting the lives of a lesbian community, it is one of the earliest representations of lesbians in popular culture and ran until 2008, it has been described "as important to new generations of lesbians as landmark novels like Rita Mae Brown's Rubyfruit Jungle and Lisa Alther's Kinflicks were to an earlier one."In her 2011 article The Only Dykey One, Lucy Jones argues that consideration of lesbian culture is core to an understanding of lesbian identity construction. Matters came to a head when the United States Patent and Trademark Office denied the lesbian motorcycle group Dykes on Bikes a trademark for its name, on the grounds dyke was offensive and disparaging to lesbians.
However, the office reversed itself and permitted the group to register its name after lawyers appealed and submitted hundreds of pages to show the slang word does not disparage lesbians in the way it once did. Dykes on Bikes declared victory on December 8, 2005 and gained international recognition for leading the city’s gay parade. Much of the gay slang, used today was once seen by the public as self-destructive and demeaning when it was used within the LGBTQ+ community. In 1969, people in the gay community began to march in the streets to demand civil rights. If used, terms such as dyke and faggot were used to identify people as political activists for the gay community. During this time, dyke referred to a woman committed to the most radical position. A surge of feminism in the lesbian commun
Oppression can refer to an authoritarian regime controlling its citizens via state control of politics, the monetary system and the military. Oppression refers to a less overtly malicious pattern of subjugation, although in many ways this social oppression represents a insidious and ruthlessly effective form of manipulation and control. In this instance, the subordination and injustices do not afflict everyone—instead it targets specific groups of people for restrictions and marginalization. No universally accepted term has yet emerged to describe this variety of oppression, although some scholars will parse the multiplicity of factors into a handful of categories, e.g. social oppression. The word oppress comes from past participle of opprimere. Thus, when authoritarian governments use oppression to subjugate the people, they want their citizenry to feel that "pressing down", to live in fear that if they displease the authorities they will, in a metaphorical sense, be "squeezed" and "suffocated", e.g. thrown in a dank, state prison or summarily executed.
Such governments oppress the people using restriction, terror and despair. The tyrant's tools of oppression include, for example harsh punishments for "unpatriotic" statements. Oppression refers to a more insidious type of manipulation and control, in this instance involving the subjugation and marginalization of specific groups of people within a country or society, such as: girls and women and men, people of color, religious communities, citizens in poverty, LGBT people and children, many more; this socioeconomic, political and institutional oppression occurs in every country and society, including the most advanced democracies, such as the United States, Costa Rica and Canada. A single accepted definition of social oppression does not yet exist, although there are commonalities. Taylor defined oppression in this way: Oppression is a form of injustice that occurs when one social group is subordinated while another is privileged, oppression is maintained by a variety of different mechanisms including social norms and institutional rules.
A key feature of oppression is that it is perpetrated by and affects social groups.... Occurs when a particular social group is unjustly subordinated, where that subordination is not deliberate but instead results from a complex network of social restrictions, ranging from laws and institutions to implicit biases and stereotypes. In such cases, there may be no deliberate attempt to subordinate the relevant group, but the group is nonetheless unjustly subordinated by this network of social constraints. Harvey suggested the term "civilized oppression", which he introduced as follows: It is harder still to become aware of what I call'civilized Oppression,' that involves neither physical violence nor the use of law, yet these subtle forms are by far the most prevalent in Western industrialized societies. This work will focus on issues that are common to such subtle oppression in several different contexts... Analyzing what is involved in civilized oppression includes analyzing the kinds of mechanisms used, the power relations at work, the systems controlling perceptions and information, the kinds of harms inflicted on the victims, the reasons why this oppression is so hard to see by contributing agents.
Research and theory development on social oppression has advanced apace since the 1980s with the publication of seminal books and articles, the cross-pollination of ideas and discussion among diverse disciplines, such as: feminism, psychology and political science. Nonetheless, more understanding the problem remains an complicated challenge for scholars. Improved understanding will involve, for example, comprehending more the historical antecedents of current social oppression. Social oppression is when a single group in society takes advantage of, exercises power over, another group using dominance and subordination; this results in the supported mistreatment and exploitation of a group of individuals by those with relative power. In a social group setting, oppression may be based on many ideas, such as poverty, class, race, or other categories. Oppression by institution, or systematic oppression, is when the laws of a place create unequal treatment of a specific social identity group or groups.
Another example of social oppression is when a specific social group is denied access to education that may hinder their lives in life. Economic oppression is the divide between two classes of society; these were once determined by factors such slavery, property rights, disenfranchisement, fo