Horse racing is an equestrian performance sport involving two or more horses ridden by jockeys over a set distance for competition. It is one of the most ancient of all sports, as its basic premise – to identify which of two or more horses is the fastest over a set course or distance – has been unchanged since at least classical antiquity. Horse races vary in format and many countries have developed their own particular traditions around the sport. Variations include restricting races to particular breeds, running over obstacles, running over different distances, running on different track surfaces and running in different gaits. While horses are sometimes raced purely for sport, a major part of horse racing's interest and economic importance is in the gambling associated with it, an activity that in 2008 generated a worldwide market worth around US$115 billion. Horse racing has a long and distinguished history and has been practised in civilisations across the world since ancient times. Archaeological records indicate that horse racing occurred in Ancient Greece, Babylon and Egypt.
It plays an important part of myth and legend, such as the contest between the steeds of the god Odin and the giant Hrungnir in Norse mythology. Chariot racing was one of the most popular ancient Greek and Byzantine sports. Both chariot and mounted horse racing were events in the ancient Greek Olympics by 648 BC and were important in the other Panhellenic Games, it continued although chariot racing was dangerous to both driver and horse, which suffered serious injury and death. In the Roman Empire and mounted horse racing were major industries. From the mid-fifteenth century until 1882, spring carnival in Rome closed with a horse race. Fifteen to 20 riderless horses imported from the Barbary Coast of North Africa, were set loose to run the length of the Via del Corso, a long, straight city street. In times, Thoroughbred racing became, remains, popular with aristocrats and royalty of British society, earning it the title "Sport of Kings". Equestrians honed their skills through games and races. Equestrian sports provided entertainment for crowds and displayed the excellent horsemanship needed in battle.
Horse racing of all types evolved from impromptu competitions between drivers. The various forms of competition, requiring demanding and specialized skills from both horse and rider, resulted in the systematic development of specialized breeds and equipment for each sport; the popularity of equestrian sports through the centuries has resulted in the preservation of skills that would otherwise have disappeared after horses stopped being used in combat. There are many different types of horse racing, including: Flat racing, where horses gallop directly between two points around a straight or oval track. Jump racing, or Jumps racing known as Steeplechasing or, in the UK and Ireland, National Hunt racing, where horses race over obstacles. Harness racing, where horses trot or pace while pulling a driver in a sulky. Saddle Trotting, where horses must trot from a starting point to a finishing point under saddle Endurance racing, where horses travel across country over extreme distances ranging from 25 to 100 miles.
Different breeds of horses have developed. Breeds that are used for flat racing include the Thoroughbred, Quarter Horse, Arabian and Appaloosa. Jump racing breeds include the Thoroughbred and AQPS. In harness racing, Standardbreds are used in Australia, New Zealand and North America, when in Europe and French Trotter are used with Standardbred. Light cold blood horses, such as Finnhorses and Scandinavian coldblood trotter are used in harness racing within their respective geographical areas. There are races for ponies: both flat and jump and harness racing. Flat racing is the most common form of racing seen worldwide. Flat racing tracks are oval in shape and are level, although in Great Britain and Ireland there is much greater variation, including figure of eight tracks like Windsor and tracks with severe gradients and changes of camber, such as Epsom Racecourse. Track surfaces vary, with turf most common in Europe, dirt more common in North America and Asia, newly designed synthetic surfaces, such as Polytrack or Tapeta, seen at some tracks.
Individual flat races are run over distances ranging from 440 yards up to two and a half miles, with distances between five and twelve furlongs being most common. Short races are referred to as "sprints", while longer races are known as "routes" in the United States or "staying races" in Europe. Although fast acceleration is required to win either type of race, in general sprints are seen as a test of speed, while long distance races are seen as a test of stamina; the most prestigious flat races in the world, such as the Prix de l'Arc de Triomphe, Melbourne Cup, Japan Cup, Epsom Derby, Kentucky Derby and Dubai World Cup, are run over distances in the middle of this range and are seen as tests of both speed and stamina to some extent. In the most prestigious races, horses are allocated the same weight to carry for fairness, with allowances given to younger horses and female horses running against males; these races offer the biggest purses. There is another category of races called handicap races where each horse is assigned a different weight to carry based on its ability.
Beside the weight they carry, horses' performance can be influenced by position relative to the inside barrier, gender and training. Jump racing in Gr
The Derby Stakes the Investec Derby, popularly known as the Derby, is a Group 1 flat horse race in England open to three-year-old thoroughbred colts and fillies. It is run at Epsom Downs Racecourse in Surrey over a distance of one mile, four furlongs and 6 yards, on the first Saturday of June each year, it is Britain's richest horse race, the most prestigious of the five Classics. It is sometimes referred to as the "Blue Riband" of the turf; the race serves as the middle leg of the Triple Crown, preceded by the 2000 Guineas and followed by the St Leger. Owners try to have their horses win all three races any more, as it is hard on the horses; the name "Derby" has become synonymous with great races all over the world, as such has been borrowed many times, notably by the Kentucky Derby in the United States. The Derby run at Epsom is the original and in Great Britain is invariably referred to as "the Derby", it has a large worldwide TV audience. The Stanley family, Earls of Derby, had a long history of horse-racing, James Stanley, 7th Earl of Derby, who gained the Lordship of Mann in 1627, instituted horse-racing on the Langness Peninsula on the Isle of Man, donating a cup for what became known as the "Manx Derby".
The Derby originated at a celebration following the first running of the Oaks Stakes in 1779. A new race was planned, it was decided that it should be named after either the host of the party, the 12th Earl of Derby, or one of his guests, Sir Charles Bunbury. According to legend the decision was made by the toss of a coin, but it is probable that Bunbury, the Steward of the Jockey Club, deferred to his host; the inaugural running of the Derby was held on Thursday 4 May 1780. It was won by a colt owned by Sir Charles Bunbury, who collected prize money of £ 1,065 15s; the first four runnings were contested over 1 mile, but this was amended to the current distance of 1½ miles in 1784. Lord Derby achieved his first success with a horse called Sir Peter Teazle; the starting point of the race was moved twice during the 19th century. The first move, suggested by Lord George Bentinck, was in 1848, the second was in 1872, it was discovered in 1991 that the exact length of the race was one mile, four furlongs and 10 yards.
The Derby was run on a Thursday in late May or early June, depending on when Easter occurred. In 1838 the race was moved to a Wednesday to fit in with the railways' timetables, but still followed the moveable feast of Easter. In the 20th century, the race was run on the first Wednesday in June from 1900 until 1995, not including 1915 to 1918, when it was on a Tuesday. During the Second World War, from 1942 until 1945 the race was run on a Saturday, as it was in the post-war years of 1947 to 1950 and again in 1953. In 1995 the day was changed from the first Wednesday in June to the first Saturday, since all the races have taken place on that day; the Derby has been run at Epsom in all years except during the world wars. From 1915 to 1918 and from 1940 to 1945, the Derby was run at Newmarket; these races are known as the'New Derby'. The Derby has inspired many similar events around the world. European variations include the Derby Italiano, the Deutsches Derby, the Irish Derby and the Prix du Jockey Club.
Several races in the United States include the "Derby" name, including the oldest, the Kentucky Derby. Other national equivalents include the Australian Derby, the New Zealand Derby, the Tokyo Yūshun. For many years the Derby was run on a Wednesday or a Thursday and on the day huge crowds would come from London, not only to see the race but to enjoy other entertainment. By the time that Charles Dickens visited Epsom Downs to view the race in the 1850s, entertainers such as musicians and conjurers plied their trades and entertained the crowds; the crowded meeting was the subject of a painting by William Powell Frith painted in the 1858 and titled The Derby Day. In the 1870s, the steam-driven rides were introduced, they were located at the Tattenham Corner end of the grounds and the fair was on for ten days and entertained hundreds of thousands. During the latter half of the 20th century, Derby Day became less popular and the race was moved from Wednesday to Saturday in 1995 the hope of reviving high attendance.
As the number of people attending the fair dwindled in the face of competition for attention and changing tastes, its length was reduced from 10 days to three or four. Investec became the sponsor of the Derby in 2009, the current sponsorship deal runs until 2022; the race was backed by Ever Ready and Vodafone. The 1952 drama film Derby Day, directed by Herbert Wilcox and starring Michael Wilding and Anna Neagle, is set around The Derby. Epsom Derby is referenced in the recent popular BBC television series Peaky Blinders, set in the 20th century. 1805: One of the horses was brought down by a spectator. 1825: Middleton never raced before or after winning the Derby. 1838: Amato never raced before or after winning the Derby. 1844: The original winner Running Rein was disqualified as he was an ineligible four-year-old horse named Maccabeus. 1881: Iroquois became the first American-bred to win a leg of the British triple crown. 1884: The race finished with a dead-heat between Harvester
County Tipperary is a county in Ireland. It is located in the province of Munster; the county is named after the town of Tipperary, was established in the early thirteenth century, shortly after the Norman invasion of Ireland. The population of the county was 159,553 at the 2016 census; the largest towns are Clonmel and Thurles. Tipperary County Council is the local government authority for the county. Between 1838 and 2014 county Tipperary was divided into two ridings/counties, North Tipperary and South Tipperary, which were unified under the Local Government Reform Act 2014, which came into effect following the 2014 local elections on 3 June 2014. Tipperary is the sixth largest of the 12th largest by population, it is the third largest of the third largest by population. It is the largest landlocked county in Ireland; the region is part of the central plain of Ireland, but the diverse terrain contains several mountain ranges: the Knockmealdown, the Galtee, the Arra Hills and the Silvermine Mountains.
Most of the county is drained by the River Suir. No part of the county touches the coast; the centre is known as'the Golden Vale', a rich pastoral stretch of land in the Suir basin which extends into counties Limerick and Cork. There are 12 historic baronies in County Tipperary: Clanwilliam, Eliogarty and Offa East and Offa West, Kilnamanagh Lower, Kilnamanagh Upper, Middle Third, Ormond Lower, Ormond Upper and Arra and Slievardagh. Parishes were delineated after the Down Survey as an intermediate subdivision, with multiple townlands per parish and multiple parishes per barony; the civil parishes had some use in local taxation and were included on the nineteenth century maps of the Ordnance Survey of Ireland. For poor law purposes, District Electoral Divisions replaced the civil parishes in the mid-nineteenth century. There are 199 civil parishes in the county. Townlands are the smallest defined geographical divisions in Ireland. Following the Norman invasion of Ireland, the Kingdom of Munster was claimed as a lordship.
By 1210, the sheriffdom of Munster shired into the shires of Limerick. In 1328, Tipperary was granted to the Earls of Ormond as liberty; the grant excluded church lands such as the archiepiscopal see of Cashel, which formed the separate county of Cross Tipperary. Though the Earls gained jurisdiction over the church lands in 1662, "Tipperary and Cross Tipperary" were not definitively united until the County Palatine of Tipperary Act 1715, when the 2nd Duke of Ormond was attainted for supporting the Jacobite rising of 1715; the county was divided once again in 1838. The county town of Clonmel, where the grand jury held its twice-yearly assizes, is at the southern limit of the county, roads leading north were poor, making the journey inconvenient for jurors resident there. A petition to move the county town to a more central location was opposed by the MP for Clonmel, so instead the county was split into two "ridings"; when the Local Government Act 1898 established county councils to replace the grand jury for civil functions, the ridings became separate "administrative counties" with separate county councils.
Their names were changed from "Tipperary North/South Riding" to "North/South Tipperary" by the Local Government Act 2001, which redesignated all "administrative counties" as "counties". The Local Government Reform Act 2014 has amalgamated the two counties and restored a single county of Tipperary. Following the Local Government Reform Act 2014, Tipperary County Council is the local government authority for the county; the authority is a merger of two separate authorities North Tipperary County Council and South Tipperary County Council which operated up until June 2014. The local authority is responsible for certain local services such as sanitation and development, the collection of motor taxation, local roads and social housing; the county is part of the South constituency for the purposes of European elections. For elections to Dáil Éireann, the constituency used is: Tipperary, it returns five deputies to the Dáil. Tipperary is referred to as the "Premier County", a description attributed to Thomas Davis, Editor of The Nation newspaper in the 1840s as a tribute to the nationalistic feeling in Tipperary and said that "where Tipperary leads, Ireland follows".
Tipperary was the subject of the famous song "It's a Long Way to Tipperary" written by Jack Judge, whose grandparents came from the county. It was popular with regiments of the British army during World War I; the song "Slievenamon", traditionally associated with the county, was written by Charles Kickham from Mullinahone, is sung at sporting fixtures involving the county. There are 979 Irish speakers in County Tipperary attending the five Gaelscoileanna and two Gaelcholáistí; the area around Clonmel is the economic hub of the county: to the east of the town the manufacturers Bulmers and Merck & Co.. There is much fertile land in the region known as the Golden Vale, one of the richest agricultural areas in Ireland. Dairy farming and cattle raising are the principal occupations. Other industries are the manufacture of meal and flour. Tipperary is famous for its horse breeding industry and is the home of Coolmore Stud, the largest thoroughbred
Vaslav Nijinsky was a ballet dancer and choreographer cited as the greatest male dancer of the early 20th century. Born in Kiev to Polish parents, Nijinsky grew up in Imperial Russia but considered himself to be Polish, he was celebrated for the depth and intensity of his characterizations. He could dance en pointe, a rare skill among male dancers at the time and was admired for his gravity-defying leaps. Nijinsky was introduced to dance by his parents, who were senior dancers with the travelling Setov opera company, his early childhood was spent touring with the company, his older brother Stanislav and younger sister Bronislava "Bronia" Nijinska became dancers. At age nine Nijinsky was accepted at the Imperial Ballet School in St. Petersburg, the pre-eminent ballet school in the world. In 1907, he graduated and became a member of the Imperial Ballet, starting at the rank of coryphée instead of in the corps de ballet taking starring roles. In 1909 he joined the Ballets Russes, a new ballet company started by Sergei Diaghilev.
The impresario took the Russian ballets to Paris, where high-quality productions such as those of the Imperial Ballet were not known. Nijinsky became the company's star male dancer, causing an enormous stir amongst audiences whenever he performed. In ordinary life he was withdrawn in conversation. Diaghilev and Nijinsky became lovers. In 1912 Nijinsky began choreographing original ballets, including L'après-midi d'un faune to music by Claude Debussy and Till Eulenspiegel. At the premiere of Le Sacre du Printemps in Paris, with music by Igor Stravinsky, fights broke out in the audience between those who loved and hated this startling new style of ballet and music. Faune caused controversy because of its sexually suggestive final scene. Nijinsky conceived Jeux as a flirtatious interaction among three males, although Diaghilev insisted it be danced by one male and two females. In 1913, Nijinsky married Hungarian Romola de Pulszky while on tour with the company in South America; the marriage caused a break with Diaghilev.
The couple had two daughters together and Tamara Nijinska. With no alternative employer available, Nijinsky tried to form his own company, but this was not a success, he was interned in Budapest, Hungary during World War I, under house arrest until 1916. He was permitted to leave after intervention by Diaghilev and international leaders. Calls for his release had been made by Alfonso XIII of Spain and President Wilson at the urging of Otto Kahn. Nijinsky became mentally unstable with the stresses of having to manage tours himself and deprived of opportunities to dance. After a tour of South America in 1917, due to travel difficulties imposed by the war, the family settled in St. Moritz, Switzerland, his mental condition deteriorated. For the next 30 years he was out of institutions, never dancing in public again. Vaslav Nijinsky was born in 1889 or 1890 in Kiev, Russian Empire, as Wacław Niżyński, to ethnic Polish parents, touring dancers Tomasz Niżyński and Eleonora Bereda. Nijinsky was christened in Warsaw.
He identified himself as Polish although he grew up in the interior of Russia with his parents and he had difficulty speaking Polish. Eleanora, along with two sisters, was orphaned while still a child, she started to earn a living as an extra in Warsaw's Grand Theatre Ballet, becoming a full member of the company at age thirteen. In 1868 her talent was spotted and she moved to Kiev as a solo dancer. Tomasz Niżyński attended the Wielki Theatre school, becoming a soloist there. At age 18 he accepted a soloist contract with the Odessa Theatre; the two married in May 1884 and settled into a career with the traveling Setov opera company. Tomasz was premier danseur, Eleanora a soloist. Eleanora continued to dance while having three children, sons Stanislav and Vaslav, she suffered from depression, which may have been a genetic vulnerability shared in a different form by her son Vaslav. Both boys received training from their father and appeared in an amateur Hopak production in Odessa in 1894. After Josef Setov died about 1894, the company disbanded.
Thomas was not successful. He and his family became itinerant dancers, the children appearing in the Christmas show at Nizhny Novgorod. In 1897 Thomas and Eleanora separated after Thomas had fallen in love with another dancer, while touring in Finland. Eleanora moved to 20 Mokhovaya Street in St Petersburg with her children, she persuaded a friend from the Wielki Theatre, Victor Stanislas Gillert, at the time teaching at the Imperial Ballet School, to help get Vaslav into the school. He arranged for the noted teacher Enrico Cecchetti to sponsor the application. Bronia entered the school two years after Vaslav, their older brother Stanislav had suffered a fall from a window when young and seemed to have suffered some brain damage. Vaslav and Bronia, j
Lester Keith Piggott is a retired English professional jockey. With 4,493 career wins, including nine Epsom Derby victories, he is regarded as one of the greatest flat racing jockeys of all time and the originator of a much imitated style. Popularly known as "The Long Fellow" he was known for his competitive personality, keeping himself thirty pounds under his natural weight, on occasion not sparing the whip on horses such as Nijinsky. Piggott regarded Sir Ivor as the easiest to ride of the great winners. Lester Piggott was born in Wantage to a family that could trace its roots as jockeys and trainers back to the 18th century; the Piggotts were a Cheshire farming family who in the 1870s ran the Crown Inn in Nantwich for at least 40 years. Lester's grandfather Ernest Piggott owned a racehorse stable at The Old Manor in Letcombe Regis and his father Keith Piggott another at South Bank in Lambourn, where Lester lived until 1954. Ernie Piggott rode three Grand National winners, in 1912, 1918 and 1919 and was married to a sister of the jockeys Mornington Cannon and Kempton Cannon, who both rode winners of the Derby, in 1899 and 1904 respectively.
He was three-times British jump racing Champion Jockey. Keith Piggott was a successful National Hunt jockey and trainer, winning the Champion Hurdle as a jockey in 1939 and the Grand National as a trainer in 1963 with Ayala, becoming the British jump racing Champion Trainer of the 1962–63 season. Lester Piggott is the cousin, through his mother Lilian Iris Rickaby, of two other jockeys and Fred Rickaby. Fred Rickaby was British flat racing Champion Apprentice in 1931 and 1932. Piggott is married to Susan Armstrong, they married at St. Mark's church, North Audley Street, London in 1960, her father, Sam Armstrong, her brother, Robert Armstrong, were both racehorse trainers. They have Maureen, an ex-eventer and Tracy, he has a son, from a relationship with Anna Ludlow. His house is named after a famous racehorse from history – Florizel. Piggott began racing horses from his father's stable when he was 10 years old and won his first race in 1948, aged 12 years, on a horse called "The Chase" at Haydock Park.
Piggott is known for his quiet demeanour. He describes his mother as wisely downplaying his success, while his father gave advice unless there had been a particular mistake. By his teens a sensation in the racing world, he rode his first winner of The Derby on Never Say Die in 1954 aged 18 years and went on to win eight more, on Crepello, St. Paddy, Sir Ivor, Roberto, The Minstrel and Teenoso, he was stable jockey to Noel Murless and to Vincent O'Brien and had a glittering career of unparalleled success. Known as the "housewives' favourite", Piggott had legions of followers and did much to expand the popularity of horse racing beyond its narrow, class-based origins. Famously tall for a jockey, hence his nickname of "The Long Fellow", Lester Piggott struggled to keep his weight down and for most of his career rode at little more than 8 stone, he pioneered a new style of race-riding, subsequently adopted by colleagues at home and abroad and enabled him to become Champion Jockey eleven times. In 1980 his relationship with the Sangster–O'Brien combination came to an end and he was appointed as stable jockey to Noel Murless's son-in-law Henry Cecil, the British flat racing Champion Trainer, at Murless's old stables, Warren Place.
He was again champion jockey in 1981 and 1982. However, as the result of a dispute in late 1983 as to whether he had reneged on an agreement to ride Daniel Wildenstein's All Along, Piggott's ride in the Prix de l'Arc de Triomphe went instead to Walter Swinburn, with Wildenstein refusing to allow him to ride any more of his horses, it was costly for Piggott, as All Along won the Arc and a string of other international races in an autumn campaign that ended with her being named US Horse of the Year. Further, as Wildenstein was one of Cecil's principal owners, this placed a strain on the relationship, in 1984 Cecil and Piggott split, with Steve Cauthen taking over at Warren Place. Piggott lives near Newmarket in Suffolk. Piggott became a trainer, his Eve Lodge stables sent out 34 winners. His burgeoning new career as a trainer was ended when he was jailed, he served 366 days. According to Piggott, a held belief that he was prosecuted after using an undeclared bank account to make a final settlement of his tax liabilities is a myth.
He resumed his career as a jockey in 1990 and won the Breeders' Cup Mile on Royal Academy within ten days of his return. He was stripped of his OBE, he rode another Classic winner, Rodrigo de Triano, in the 1992 2000 Guineas. His last win in Britain was in October 1994 and he retired in 1995. In 2004 he published the book Lester's Derbys. On 15 May 2007 Pigott was admitted to intensive care in a Swiss hospital following a recurrence of a previous heart problem, his wife stated that this illness was not life-threatening and that he was recovering in intensive care as a precaution. He attended Royal Ascot in June 2007 and the Epsom Derby in June 2008 where he tipped the winner, New Approach, during a BBC television
Canadian Horse Racing Hall of Fame
The Canadian Horse Racing Hall of Fame was established in 1976 to honor those who have made a significant contribution to the sport of harness and thoroughbred horse racing in Canada. It is located at Woodbine Racetrack in Ontario; the Hall of Fame annually inducts Thoroughbred and Standardbred horses, sulky drivers, jockeys and the horse racing industry's builders. Although the Canadian Horse Racing Hall of Fame was founded in 1976, it was not until 1997 that it had a physical location. At that time, the Ontario Jockey Club granted a permanent site located at the West Entrance to Woodbine Racetrack; the Hall now includes information on each of the inductees plus related memorabilia including trophies, old racing programs and bronzed horseshoes. Each year, special displays are created to honour some of racing's greats such as jockey Ron Turcotte or pacer Cam Fella. In 2014, the Hall commemorated the 50th anniversary of Northern Dancer's wins in the Kentucky Derby, Preakness Stakes and Queen's Plate with a series of initiatives such as an online timeline of his career, the induction of his trainer Horatio Luro, a special tribute at the annual ceremony and a calendar.
Northern Dancer and his owner E. P. Taylor were part of the original class of inductees in 1976. Since Northern Dancer's sire Nearctic, dam Natalma, sire's dam Lady Angela, several sons and daughters including Nijinsky, The Minstrel and Vice Regent, plus numerous descendants have been inducted. There are the other for Standardbreds; each committee nominates up to eight candidates, which are voted on by the corresponding election committee. Any Canadian person or horse can be nominated for their achievements whether in Canada or internationally. Foreign-bred horses who had a significant influence on Canadian racing or breeding may be nominated. For example, Secretariat was nominated in 2013 in recognition of his appearance in the 1973 Canadian International, an appearance that brought worldwide attention to the race. Note: A † designates they are an inductee of the United States National Museum of Racing and Hall of Fame. American National Museum of Racing and Hall of Fame American Harness Racing Museum & Hall of Fame Australian Racing Hall of Fame British National Horseracing Museum New Zealand Racing Hall of Fame Canadian Horse Racing Hall of Fame
The Sun (United Kingdom)
The Sun is a tabloid newspaper published in the United Kingdom and Republic of Ireland. As a broadsheet, it was founded in 1964 as a successor to the Daily Herald, it is published by the News Group Newspapers division of News UK, itself a wholly owned subsidiary of Rupert Murdoch's News Corp. Since The Sun on Sunday was launched in February 2012, the paper has been a seven-day operation; the Sun had the largest circulation of any daily newspaper in the United Kingdom, but it was overtaken by rival Metro in March 2018. In 2012, The Sun on Sunday was launched to replace the closed News of the World, employing some of its former journalists; the average circulation for The Sun on Sunday in January 2019 was 1,178,687. In January 2019, it had an average daily circulation of 1.4 million. The Sun has been involved in many controversies in its history, including its coverage of the 1989 Hillsborough football stadium disaster. Regional editions of the newspaper for Scotland, Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland are published in Glasgow and Dublin respectively.
The Sun was first published as a broadsheet on 15 September 1964, with a logo featuring a glowing orange disc. It was launched by owners IPC to replace the failing Daily Herald; the paper was intended to add a readership of "social radicals" to the Herald's "political radicals". There was "an immense and superior middle class, hitherto undetected and yearning for its own newspaper", wrote Bernard Shrimsley of Abrams' work forty-years later. "As delusions go, this was in the El Dorado class". Launched with an advertising budget of £400,000, the brash new paper "burst forth with tremendous energy", according to The Times, its initial print run of 3.5 million was attributed to "curiosity" and the "advantage of novelty", had declined to the previous circulation of the Daily Herald within a few weeks. By 1969, according to Hugh Cudlipp, The Sun was losing about £2m a year and had a circulation of 800,000. IPC decided to sell to stop the losses, according to Bernard Shrimsley in 2004, out of a fear that the unions would disrupt publication of the Mirror if they did not continue to publish the original Sun.
Bill Grundy wrote in The Spectator in July 1969 that although it published "fine writers" in Geoffrey Goodman, Nancy Banks-Smith and John Akass among others, it had never overcome the negative impact of its launch at which it still resembled the Herald. The pre-Murdoch Sun was "a worthy, leftish, popular broadsheet" in the opinion of Patrick Brogan in 1982. Book publisher and Member of Parliament Robert Maxwell, eager to buy a British newspaper, offered to take it off their hands and retain its commitment to the Labour Party, but admitted there would be redundancies among the printers. Rupert Murdoch, had bought the News of the World, a sensationalist Sunday newspaper, the previous year, but the presses in the basement of his building in London's Bouverie Street were unused six days a week. Seizing the opportunity to increase his presence on Fleet Street, he made an agreement with the print unions, promising fewer redundancies if he acquired the newspaper, he assured IPC that he would publish a "straightforward, honest newspaper" which would continue to support Labour.
IPC, under pressure from the unions, rejected Maxwell's offer, Murdoch bought the paper for £800,000, to be paid in instalments. He would remark: "I am amazed at the ease with which I entered British newspapers"; the Daily Herald had been printed in Manchester since 1930, as was the Sun after its original launch in 1964, but Murdoch stopped publication there in 1969 which put the ageing Bouverie Street presses under extreme pressure as circulation grew. Murdoch found he had such a rapport with Larry Lamb over lunch that other potential recruits as editor were not interviewed and Lamb was appointed as the first editor of the new Sun. Lamb wanted Bernard Shrimsley to be his deputy, which Murdoch accepted as Shrimsley had been the second name on his list of preferences. Lamb was scathing in his opinion of the Daily Mirror, where he had been employed as a senior sub-editor, shared Murdoch's view that a paper's quality was best measured by its sales, he regarded the Mirror as overstaffed, too focused on an ageing readership.
Godfrey Hodgson of The Sunday Times interviewed Murdoch at this time and expressed a positive view of the rival's "Mirrorscope" supplement. "If you think we're going to have any of that upmarket shit in our paper," Murdoch replied dropping a sample copy into a bin, "you're much mistaken". Lamb hastily recruited a staff of about 125 reporters, who were selected for availability rather than their ability; this was about a quarter of what the Mirror employed, Murdoch had to draft in staff on loan from his Australian papers. Murdoch relaunched The Sun as a tabloid, ran it as a sister paper to the News of the World; the Sun used the same printing presses, the two papers were managed together at senior executive levels. The tabloid Sun was first published on 17 November 1969, with a front page headlined "HORSE DOPE SENSATION", an ephemeral "exclusive". An editorial on page 2 announced: "Today's Sun is a new newspaper, it has new writers, new ideas. But it inherits all, best from the great traditions of its predecessors.
The Sun cares. About the quality of life. About the kind of world we live in, and about people". The first issue had an "exclusive interview" with the Labour Prime Minister, Harold Wilson, on page 9; the paper copied the rival Daily Mirror in several ways. It was the same size and its masthead had the t