Integrated Authority File
The Integrated Authority File or GND is an international authority file for the organisation of personal names, subject headings and corporate bodies from catalogues. It is used for documentation in libraries and also by archives and museums; the GND is managed by the German National Library in cooperation with various regional library networks in German-speaking Europe and other partners. The GND falls under the Creative Commons Zero licence; the GND specification provides a hierarchy of high-level entities and sub-classes, useful in library classification, an approach to unambiguous identification of single elements. It comprises an ontology intended for knowledge representation in the semantic web, available in the RDF format; the Integrated Authority File became operational in April 2012 and integrates the content of the following authority files, which have since been discontinued: Name Authority File Corporate Bodies Authority File Subject Headings Authority File Uniform Title File of the Deutsches Musikarchiv At the time of its introduction on 5 April 2012, the GND held 9,493,860 files, including 2,650,000 personalised names.
There are seven main types of GND entities: LIBRIS Virtual International Authority File Information pages about the GND from the German National Library Search via OGND Bereitstellung des ersten GND-Grundbestandes DNB, 19 April 2012 From Authority Control to Linked Authority Data Presentation given by Reinhold Heuvelmann to the ALA MARC Formats Interest Group, June 2012
Harvey Keitel is an American actor and producer. He has starred in films such as Mean Streets, Taxi Driver, The Duellists, Thelma & Louise, Reservoir Dogs, The Piano, Pulp Fiction, From Dusk till Dawn, Cop Land, Red Dragon, The Grand Budapest Hotel, Isle of Dogs. Keitel has been nominated for a number of accolades in his career, including Academy and Golden Globe awards, has won an Australian Academy of Cinema and Television Arts Award for Best Actor in a Leading Role for his role in The Piano. From 1995 to 2017, he was a co-president of the Actors Studio, along with actors Al Pacino and Ellen Burstyn. Keitel was born in New York, on May 13, 1939, the son of Ashkenazi Jewish immigrants, his parents owned and ran a luncheonette, his father worked as a hat maker. He grew up in the Brighton Beach neighborhood of Brooklyn, with his sister and brother, Jerry, he attended Abraham Lincoln High School. He decided to join the Marines at the age of 16, a decision that took him to Lebanon during Operation Blue Bat.
After his return, he worked as a court reporter for several years before beginning his acting career. Keitel studied under both Stella Adler and Lee Strasberg and at the HB Studio landing roles in some Off-Broadway productions. During this time, Keitel auditioned for filmmaker Martin Scorsese and gained a starring role as "J. R.", in Scorsese's first feature film, Who's That Knocking at My Door. Since Scorsese and Keitel have worked together on several projects. Keitel had the starring role in Scorsese's Mean Streets, which proved to be Robert De Niro's breakthrough film. Keitel re-teamed with Scorsese for Alice Doesn't Live Here Anymore, in which he had a villainous supporting role, appeared with Robert De Niro again in Scorsese's Taxi Driver, playing the role of Jodie Foster's pimp. In 1977 and 1978, Keitel starred in the directorial debuts of Paul Schrader, Ridley Scott, James Toback. Cast as Captain Willard in Francis Ford Coppola's Apocalypse Now, Keitel was involved with the first week of principal photography in the Philippines.
Coppola was not happy with Keitel's take on Willard, stating that the actor "found it difficult to play him a passive onlooker". After viewing the first week's footage, Coppola replaced Keitel with a casting session favorite, Martin Sheen. Keitel drifted into obscurity through most of the 1980s, he continued to do work on both stage and screen, but in the stereotypical role of a thug. Keitel played a corrupt police officer in the 1983 thriller Copkiller, before taking supporting roles in the romantic drama Falling in Love, starring Robert De Niro and Meryl Streep, Brian De Palma's mobster comedy Wise Guys, starring Danny DeVito and Joe Piscopo. Keitel played Judas in Martin Scorsese's controversial The Last Temptation of Christ and co-starred with Jack Nicholson in the Chinatown sequel The Two Jakes, directed by Jack Nicholson. Ridley Scott cast Keitel as the sympathetic policeman in Thelma & Louise in 1991; the following year, Keitel played another mobster in the Whoopi Goldberg-starring comedy Sister Act.
Keitel starred in Quentin Tarantino's Reservoir Dogs in 1992, where his performance as "Mr. White" took his career to a different level. Since Keitel has chosen his roles with care, seeking to change his image and show a broader acting range. One of those roles was the title character in Bad Lieutenant, about a self-loathing, drug-addicted police lieutenant trying to redeem himself, he co-starred in the movie The Piano in 1993, played an efficient cleanup expert, Winston "The Wolf" Wolfe in Quentin Tarantino's Pulp Fiction. Keitel starred as a police detective in Spike Lee's Clockers. In 1996, Keitel had a major role in Quentin Tarantino and Robert Rodriguez's film From Dusk till Dawn, in 1997, he starred in the crime drama Cop Land, which starred Sylvester Stallone, Ray Liotta and Robert De Niro, his roles include the fatherly Satan in Little Nicky, a wise Navy man in U-571, diligent FBI Special agent Sadusky in National Treasure and the latter's sequel National Treasure: Book of Secrets. In 1999, Keitel was replaced by Sydney Pollack on the set of Stanley Kubrick's Eyes Wide Shut, due to shooting conflicts, appeared in Tony Bui's award-winning directorial debut, Three Seasons.
Keitel re-teamed with Jane Campion for Holy Smoke!. In 2002, at the 24th Moscow International Film Festival, Keitel was honored with the Stanislavsky Award for his outstanding achievement in the career of acting and devotion to the principles of Stanislavsky's school, he appeared in the Steinlager Pure commercials in New Zealand in 2007. Unlike many American male actors, Keitel has appeared nude in several films, including full frontal nudity in Bad Lieutenant and The Piano. In January 2008, Keitel played Jerry Springer in the New York City premiere of Jerry Springer: The Opera at Carnegie Hall. In 2008, Keitel was cast in the role of Detective Gene Hunt in ABC's short-lived US remake of the successful British time-travel
Norway the Kingdom of Norway, is a Nordic country in Northern Europe whose territory comprises the western and northernmost portion of the Scandinavian Peninsula. The Antarctic Peter I Island and the sub-Antarctic Bouvet Island are dependent territories and thus not considered part of the kingdom. Norway lays claim to a section of Antarctica known as Queen Maud Land. Norway has a total area of 385,207 square kilometres and a population of 5,312,300; the country shares a long eastern border with Sweden. Norway is bordered by Finland and Russia to the north-east, the Skagerrak strait to the south, with Denmark on the other side. Norway has an extensive coastline, facing the Barents Sea. Harald V of the House of Glücksburg is the current King of Norway. Erna Solberg has been prime minister since 2013. A unitary sovereign state with a constitutional monarchy, Norway divides state power between the parliament, the cabinet and the supreme court, as determined by the 1814 constitution; the kingdom was established in 872 as a merger of a large number of petty kingdoms and has existed continuously for 1,147 years.
From 1537 to 1814, Norway was a part of the Kingdom of Denmark-Norway, from 1814 to 1905, it was in a personal union with the Kingdom of Sweden. Norway was neutral during the First World War. Norway remained neutral until April 1940 when the country was invaded and occupied by Germany until the end of Second World War. Norway has both administrative and political subdivisions on two levels: counties and municipalities; the Sámi people have a certain amount of self-determination and influence over traditional territories through the Sámi Parliament and the Finnmark Act. Norway maintains close ties with both the United States. Norway is a founding member of the United Nations, NATO, the European Free Trade Association, the Council of Europe, the Antarctic Treaty, the Nordic Council. Norway maintains the Nordic welfare model with universal health care and a comprehensive social security system, its values are rooted in egalitarian ideals; the Norwegian state has large ownership positions in key industrial sectors, having extensive reserves of petroleum, natural gas, lumber and fresh water.
The petroleum industry accounts for around a quarter of the country's gross domestic product. On a per-capita basis, Norway is the world's largest producer of oil and natural gas outside of the Middle East; the country has the fourth-highest per capita income in the world on the World IMF lists. On the CIA's GDP per capita list which includes autonomous territories and regions, Norway ranks as number eleven, it has the world's largest sovereign wealth fund, with a value of US$1 trillion. Norway has had the highest Human Development Index ranking in the world since 2009, a position held between 2001 and 2006, it had the highest inequality-adjusted ranking until 2018 when Iceland moved to the top of the list. Norway ranked first on the World Happiness Report for 2017 and ranks first on the OECD Better Life Index, the Index of Public Integrity, the Democracy Index. Norway has one of the lowest crime rates in the world. Norway has two official names: Norge in Noreg in Nynorsk; the English name Norway comes from the Old English word Norþweg mentioned in 880, meaning "northern way" or "way leading to the north", how the Anglo-Saxons referred to the coastline of Atlantic Norway similar to scientific consensus about the origin of the Norwegian language name.
The Anglo-Saxons of Britain referred to the kingdom of Norway in 880 as Norðmanna land. There is some disagreement about whether the native name of Norway had the same etymology as the English form. According to the traditional dominant view, the first component was norðr, a cognate of English north, so the full name was Norðr vegr, "the way northwards", referring to the sailing route along the Norwegian coast, contrasting with suðrvegar "southern way" for, austrvegr "eastern way" for the Baltic. In the translation of Orosius for Alfred, the name is Norðweg, while in younger Old English sources the ð is gone. In the 10th century many Norsemen settled in Northern France, according to the sagas, in the area, called Normandy from norðmann, although not a Norwegian possession. In France normanni or northmanni referred to people of Sweden or Denmark; until around 1800 inhabitants of Western Norway where referred to as nordmenn while inhabitants of Eastern Norway where referred to as austmenn. According to another theory, the first component was a word nór, meaning "narrow" or "northern", referring to the inner-archipelago sailing route through the land.
The interpretation as "northern", as reflected in the English and Latin forms of the name, would have been due to folk etymology. This latter view originated with philologist Niels Halvorsen Trønnes in 1847; the form Nore is still used in placenames such as the village of Nore and lake Norefjorden in Buskerud county, still has the same meaning. Among other arguments in favour of the theor
Pathfinder (1987 film)
Pathfinder is a 1987 Norwegian action-adventure film written and directed by Nils Gaup. The film is based on an old Sami legend, it was the first full-length film in Sami, it was nominated for the Academy Award for Best Foreign Language Film in 1988. Nils-Aslak Valkeapää played one of the parts as well as writing the music to the film, together with Kjetil Bjerkestrand and Marius Müller. In Finnmark around AD 1000, a young Sami named Aigin comes home from hunting to find his family massacred by the Chudes, he flees to a place where he can find friends and relatives, is chased by the Chudes. He makes his way to a community of other Samis who live some distance away. Upon reaching the others, Aigin's wound is treated by the shaman of the group, he gets into a debate with them about how to face the Chude attackers: some argue for meeting them in battle, while others maintain they should all run away toward the coast. Aigin and some of the other hunters remain to meet the Chudes, while the remainder of the group flee.
The hunters, except Aigin, who hides, are killed by the numerically superior Chudes, but one of the men, the old shaman-leader is kept alive and tortured. To prevent the torture Aigin reveals himself and offers to act as a Pathfinder for the Chudes to the coastal settlement where a large number of Samis live, but Aigin has a plan in mind. He can not overpower the Chudes. Leading the Chudes across mountainous terrain, Aigin lures the Chudes into a steep area where they are all forced to tie themselves together with ropes for security. Aigin unties himself and flees, leading the Chudes over a cliff where several of them fall to their deaths when the leaders cut the ropes to save themselves. An avalanche takes most of the Chudes, the few surviving men give up the pursuit, ensuring Aigin has saved his people, he becomes the new Pathfinder of the Sami group by virtue of his bravery. Mikkel Gaup as Aigin Sara Marit Gaup as Sahve Nils Utsi as Raste Anna Maria Blind as Varia Ingvald Guttorm as Aigin's Father Ellen Anne Bulj as Aigin's Mother Inger Utsi as Aigin's Sister Henrik H. Buljo as Dorakas Nils-Aslak Valkeapää as Siida-Isit Helgi Skúlason as Tchude with scar Svein Scharffenberg as Tchude chief Knut Walle as Tchude Interpreter John Sigurd Kristensen as Tchude Strongman Svein Birger Olsen as Diemis Sverre Porsanger as Sierge Amund Johnskareng as Heina Ailo Gaup as Orbes Most of the scenes were shot in Finnmarksvidda, in temperatures as low as –47°C.
This presented unique difficulties with the cast and camera equipment in the harsh cold. Most of the cast were Sami, were used to the cold, but several of the stuntmen refused to work under such conditions. List of historical drama films List of submissions to the 60th Academy Awards for Best Foreign Language Film List of Norwegian submissions for the Academy Award for Best Foreign Language Film Pathfinder Pathfinder on IMDb Pathfinder at AllMovie Pathfinder at Rotten Tomatoes
Gothenburg Film Festival
Göteborg Film Festival is an annual film festival in Gothenburg and the largest film event in Scandinavia. When it was launched in 1979 it had 3,000 visitors. Today, the film festival takes place over 10 days each year at the end of January and beginning of February. In years around 450 films from 60 countries are screened for 115,000 visitors; the film festival is an important market place for the contractors in the movie industry. Dragon Awards Dragon Award Best Nordic Film Dragon Award Best Nordic Documentary Film The Ingmar Bergman International Debut Award Dragon Award Best Nordic Film – Audience Choice Dragon Award Best Swedish Documentary Dragon Award Best Feature Film – Audience Choice Dragon Award New TalentOther Awards at the Göteborg International Film Festival Best Swedish Short Award Best Swedish Short Award – Audience Award The Lorens Award Kodac Nordic Vision Award Best Swedish Feature – The Church Of Sweden Film Award Fipresci Award Best Swedish Novella Film Award Best Swedish Novella Film – Audience Award Best Swedish Feature – The City Of Gothenburg Award The Mai Zetterling Grant Nordic Film Prize The Golden Dragon Lars Molin Grant The festival's main award is the Dragon Award for Best Nordic Film, which can be won for feature film productions from the Nordic countries.
The following films have received the award: The festival is made up of several film sections. Films are chosen in each category with the advice of a committee of film experts. Categories have included: Animation featuring short and long animated films. Documentaries Debuts. Focus featuring a region or theme in focus for that year. In 2012 focus was on the Arab Spring. Festival Favorites is a selection of the most liked and prized films that have been shown at festivals throughout the world during the past year. Five Continents showing films from all categories and unconditionally traveling the globe to find the best films. Gala featuring great films, great directors, red carpets and Oscar nominees. HBTQ – a collection of various films that all depict untraditional love or non-heterosexual roles. Nordic Competition focusing on new Nordic feature-films competing for the festival's Nordic Film Prize. Nordic Light including the best of the Sweden's four Nordic neighboring countries. Swedish World Premiers with feature-films and documentaries being shown to general audiences for the first time.
Swedish Pictures including circa 100 Swedish short-films. Official web page English-language podcast
British Film Institute
The British Film Institute is a film and charitable organisation which promotes and preserves filmmaking and television in the United Kingdom. It was established by Royal Charter to: Encourage the development of the arts of film and the moving image throughout the United Kingdom, to promote their use as a record of contemporary life and manners, to promote education about film and the moving image and their impact on society, to promote access to and appreciation of the widest possible range of British and world cinema and to establish, care for and develop collections reflecting the moving image history and heritage of the United Kingdom; the BFI maintains the world's largest film archive, the BFI National Archive called National Film Library, National Film Archive, National Film and Television Archive. The archive contains more than 50,000 fiction films, over 100,000 non-fiction titles, around 625,000 television programmes; the majority of the collection is British material but it features internationally significant holdings from around the world.
The Archive collects films which feature key British actors and the work of British directors. The BFI runs the BFI Southbank and London IMAX cinema, both located on the south bank of the River Thames in London; the IMAX has the largest cinema screen in the UK and shows popular recent releases and short films showcasing its technology, which includes 3D screenings and 11,600 watts of digital surround sound. BFI Southbank shows films from all over the world critically acclaimed historical & specialised films that may not otherwise get a cinema showing; the BFI distributes archival and cultural cinema to other venues – each year to more than 800 venues all across the UK, as well as to a substantial number of overseas venues. The BFI offers a range of education initiatives, in particular to support the teaching of film and media studies in schools. In late 2012, the BFI received money from the Department For Education to create the BFI Film Academy Network; the BFI runs the annual London Film Festival along with BFI Flare: London LGBT Film Festival and the youth-orientated Future Film Festival.
The BFI publishes the monthly Sound magazine as well as films on Blu-ray, DVD and books. It runs the BFI National Library, maintains the BFI Film & TV Database and Summary of Information on Film and Television, which are databases of credits and other information about film and television productions. SIFT has a collection of about 7 million still frames from television; the BFI has co-produced a number of television series featuring footage from the BFI National Archive, in partnership with the BBC, including The Lost World of Mitchell & Kenyon, The Lost World of Friese-Greene, The Lost World of Tibet. The institute was founded in 1933. Despite its foundation resulting from a recommendation in a report on Film in National Life, at that time the institute was a private company, though it has received public money throughout its history—from the Privy Council and Treasury until 1965 and the various culture departments since then; the institute was restructured following the Radcliffe Report of 1948 which recommended that it should concentrate on developing the appreciation of filmic art, rather than creating film itself.
Thus control of educational film production passed to the National Committee for Visual Aids in Education and the British Film Academy assumed control for promoting production. From 1952–2000, the BFI provided funding for new and experimental filmmakers via the BFI Production Board; the institute received a Royal Charter in 1983. This was updated in 2000, in the same year the newly established UK Film Council took responsibility for providing the BFI's annual grant-in-aid; as an independent registered charity, the BFI is regulated by the Charity Commission and the Privy Council. In 1988, the BFI opened the London Museum of the Moving Image on the South Bank. MOMI was acclaimed internationally and set new standards for education through entertainment, but subsequently it did not receive the high levels of continuing investment that might have enabled it to keep pace with technological developments and ever-rising audience expectations; the Museum was "temporarily" closed in 1999. This did not happen, MOMI's closure became permanent in 2002 when it was decided to redevelop the South Bank site.
This redevelopment was itself further delayed. The BFI is managed on a day-to-day basis by its chief executive, Amanda Nevill. Supreme decision-making authority rests with a board of up to 14 governors; the current chair is Josh Berger, who took up the post in February 2016. He succeeded Greg Dyke, who took office on 1 March 2008. Dyke succeeded the late Anthony Minghella, chair from 2003 until 31 December 2007; the chair of the board is appointed by the BFI's own Board of Governors but requires the consent of the Secretary of State for Culture and Sport. Other Governors are co-opted by existing board members; the BFI operates with three sources of income. The largest is public money allocated by the Department for Culture and Sport. In 2011–12, this funding amounted to £20m; the second largest source is commercial activity such as receipts from ticket sales at BFI Southbank or the BFI London IMAX theatre, sales of DVDs, etc. Thirdly and sponsorship of around £5m
The Sámi people are a Finno-Ugric people inhabiting Sápmi, which today encompasses large parts of Norway and Sweden, northern parts of Finland, the Murmansk Oblast of Russia. The Sámi have been known in English as Lapps or Laplanders. Sámi ancestral lands are not well-defined, their traditional languages are the Sámi languages and are classified as a branch of the Uralic language family. Traditionally, the Sámi have pursued a variety of livelihoods, including coastal fishing, fur trapping, sheep herding, their best-known means of livelihood is semi-nomadic reindeer herding. About 10% of the Sámi are connected to reindeer herding, providing them with meat and transportation. 2,800 Sámi people are involved in reindeer herding on a full-time basis. For traditional, environmental and political reasons, reindeer herding is reserved for only Sami people in some regions of the Nordic countries. Sámi refer to themselves as Sámit or Sápmelaš, the word Sámi being inflected into various grammatical forms.
It has been proposed that Sámi, Häme, Suomi are of the same origin and borrowed from the Baltic word *žēmē, meaning'land'. The Baltic word is cognate with Slavic zemlja, which means'land'; the Sámi institutions – notably the parliaments, radio and TV stations, etc. – all use the term Sámi, including when addressing outsiders in Norwegian, Finnish, or English. In Norwegian, the Sámi are today referred to by the Norwegianized form Same; the first probable historical mention of the Sámi, naming them Fenni, was by Tacitus, about 98 A. D. Variants of Finn or Fenni were in wide use in ancient times, judging from the names Fenni and Phinnoi in classical Roman and Greek works. Finn was the name used by Norse speakers to refer to the Sámi, as attested in the Icelandic Eddas and Norse sagas; the etymology is somewhat uncertain, but the consensus seems to be that it is related to Old Norse finna, from proto-Germanic *finthanan, the logic being that the Sámi, as hunter-gatherers "found" their food, rather than grew it.
As Old Norse developed into the separate Scandinavian languages, Swedes took to using Finn to refer to inhabitants of what is now Finland, while the Sámi came to be called Lapps. In Norway, however, Sámi were still called Finns at least until the modern era, some northern Norwegians will still use Finn to refer to Sámi people, although the Sámi themselves now consider this to be an inappropriate term. Finnish immigrants to Northern Norway in the 18th and 19th centuries were referred to as Kvens to distinguish them from the Sámi "Finns". Ethnic Finns are a distinct group from Sámi; the word Lapp can be traced to Icelandic lappir of Finnish origin. It is unknown how the word Lapp came into the Norse language, but one of the first written mentions of the term is in the Gesta Danorum by 12th-century Danish historian Saxo Grammaticus, who referred to the two Lappias, although he still referred to the Sami as Finns. In fact, Saxo never explicitly connects the Sami with the "two Laplands"; the term "Lapp" was popularized and became the standard terminology by the work of Johannes Schefferus, Acta Lapponica.
The Sámi are known in other languages by the exonyms Lap, Lapp, or Laplanders, although these are considered derogatory terms, while others accept at least the name Lappland. Variants of the name Lapp were used in Sweden and Finland and, through Swedish, adopted by many major European languages: English: Lapps. In Russian the corresponding term is лопари́ and in Ukrainian лопарі́. In Finland and Sweden, Lapp is common in place names, such as Lappi and Lapinlahti in Finland; as mentioned, Finn is a common element in Norwegian place names, whereas Lapp is exceedingly rare. Terminological issues in Finnish are somewhat different. Finns living in Finnish Lapland call themselves lappilainen, whereas the similar word for the Sámi people is lappalainen; this can be confusing for foreign visitors because of the similar lives Finns and Sámi people live today in Lapland. Lappalainen is a common family name in Finland. In the Scandinavian languages, the word saamelainen is used, at least in official contexts.
Since prehistoric times, the Sami people of Arctic Europe have lived and worked in an area that stretches over the northern parts of the regions now known as Norway, Sweden and the Russian Kola Peninsula. They have inhabited the northern arctic and sub-arctic regions of Fenno-Scandinavia and Russia for at least 5,000 years; the Sami are counted among the Arctic peoples and are members of circumpolar groups such as the Arctic Council Indigeno