Ningbo romanized as Ningpo, is a sub-provincial city in northeast Zhejiang province, People's Republic of China. It comprises the urban districts of Ningbo proper, three satellite cities, a number of rural counties including islands in Hangzhou Bay and the East China Sea, its port, the port of Ningbo–Zhoushan, spread across several locations, is among the busiest in the world and the municipality possesses a separate state-planning status. As of the 2010 census, the entire administrated area had a population of 7.6 million, with 3.5 million in the six urban districts of Ningbo proper. To the north, Hangzhou Bay separates Ningbo from Shanghai; the first character in the city's name ning means "serene", while its second character bo translates to "wave." The city is abbreviated Yǒng for the eponymous "Yong Hill", a prominent coastal hill near the city, the Yong River that flows through Ningbo. It was once named Míngzhōu; the character ming is composed of two parts, representing two lakes inside the city wall: Sun Lake and Moon Lake.
Today, only Moon Lake remains. Ningbo is one of China's oldest cities, with a history dating to the Hemudu culture in 4800 BC. Ningbo was known as a trade city on the silk road at least two thousand years ago, as a major port for foreign trade along with Yangzhou and Guangzhou in the Tang Dynasty, Quanzhou and Guangzhou in the Sung dynasty. Since the Tang dynasty Ningbo has been an important commercial port. Arab traders lived in Ningbo during the Song dynasty when it was known as Mingzhou, as the ocean-going trade passages took precedence over land trade during this time. Another name for Mingzhou/Ningbo was Siming, it was a well known center of ocean-going commerce with the foreign world. These merchants did not intermingle with native Chinese, instead practicing their own customs and religion and inhabiting ghettos, they did not try to proselytize Islam to the Chinese. Jews lived in Ningbo, as evidenced by the fact that, after a major flood destroyed Torah scrolls in Kaifeng in 1642, a replacement was sent to the Kaifeng Jews by the Ningbo Jewish community.
The city of Ningbo was known in Europe for a long time under the name of Liampó. This is the usual spelling used e.g. in the standard Portuguese history, João de Barros's Décadas da Ásia, although Barros explained that Liampó was a Portuguese "corruption" of the more correct Nimpó. The spelling Liampó is attested in the Peregrination by Fernão Mendes Pinto, a autobiography written in Portuguese during the 16th century. For the mid-16th-century Portuguese, the nearby promontory, which they called the cape of Liampó, after the nearby "illustrious city" was the easternmost known point of the mainland Asia; the Portuguese began trading in Ningbo around 1522. By 1542, the Portuguese had a sizable community in Ningbo. Portuguese activities from their Ningbo base included pillaging and attacking multiple Chinese port cities around Ningbo for plunder and spoil, they enslaved people during their raids. The Portuguese were ousted from the Ningbo area in 1548. Ningbo was one of the five Chinese treaty ports opened by the Treaty of Nanjing at the end of the First Opium War between Britain and China.
During the war, British forces took possession of the walled city of Ningbo after storming the fortified town of Zhenhai at the mouth of the Yong River on October 10, 1841. The British subsequently repulsed a Chinese attempt to retake the city in the Battle of Ningpo on March 10, 1842. In 1861, the forces of the Taiping Rebellion took the city unopposed as the defending garrison fled. In March 1885, during the Sino-French War, Admiral Courbet's naval squadron blockaded several Chinese warships in Zhenhai Bay and exchanged fire with the shore defenses. Ningbo was once famed for traditional Chinese furniture production. During the Qing dynasty, western encyclopedias described Ningbo as a center of craftsmanship and industry. During the late Qing dynasty, in the 1800s, the Ningbo authorities contracted Cantonese pirates to exterminate and massacre Portuguese pirates who had raided Cantonese shipping around Ningbo; the massacre was "successful", with 40 Portuguese dead and only 2 Chinese dead, being dubbed "The Ningpo Massacre" by an English correspondent, who noted that the Portuguese pirates had behaved savagely towards the Chinese, that the Portuguese authorities at Macau should have reined in the pirates.
During late Qing era, Western missionaries set up a Presbyterian Church in Ningbo. Li Veng-eing was a Reverend of the Ningpo Church; the Ningpo College was managed by Rev. Robert F. Fitch; the four trustees were natives of Ningbo, three of them had Taotai rank. Rev. George Evans Moule, B. A. was appointed a missionary to China by the Church of England Missionary Society, arrived at Ningpo with Mrs. Moule in February 1858, he began a mission station at Hang-chow, between which and Ningpo his time had been chiefly divided. He wrote Christian publications in the Ningbo dialect. During World War II in 1940, Japan bombed Ningbo with ceramic bombs full of fleas carrying the bubonic plague. According to Daniel Barenblatt, Prince Tsuneyoshi Takeda received, with Prince Mikasa, a special screening by Shiro Ishii of a film showing imperial planes loading germ bombs for bubonic dissemination over Ningbo in 1940. "It has been said of the Ningbo fishermen that,'no people in the world m
One Prudential Plaza is a 41-story structure in Chicago completed in 1955 as the headquarters for Prudential's Mid-America company. It was the first skyscraper built in Chicago since the Great Depression of the 1930s and the Second World War; the plaza, including a second building erected in 1990, is owned by BentleyForbes and a consortium of New York investors, since the Great Recession of the early 21st century. The structure was significant as the first new downtown skyscraper constructed in Chicago since the Field Building, 21 years earlier and was built on air rights over the Illinois Central Railroad, it was the last building connected to the Chicago Tunnel Company's tunnel network. When the Prudential was finished it had the highest roof in Chicago with only the statue of Ceres on the Chicago Board of Trade higher, its mast served as a broadcasting antenna for Chicago's WGN-TV. The architect was Naess & Murphy, a precursor to C. F. Murphy & Associates and Murphy/Jahn Architects. In May 2006, BentleyForbes, a Los Angeles-based real estate investment firm, run by Frederick Wehba and his family purchased One Prudential Plaza, along with its sister property, Two Prudential Plaza for $470 million.
After a default on the mortgage encumbering the towers during the Great Recession of the early 21st century, New York-based investors 601W Companies and Berkley Properties, represented by New York law firm Olshan Frome Wolosky LLP took control of the towers after investing more than $100 million in equity to recapitalize. BentleyForbes, the prior controlling owner of the towers, continues to have an interest in the owning partnership. Hillrom Corporate Headquarters Chicago Tribune Studio 1847 Society of Women Engineers — Global Headquarters, 35th Floor American Institute of Steel Construction Wilson Sporting Goods Marketing Werks Cision Conversion Alliance No Limit Agency Chicago Federation of Labor McGraw Hill Vanderbilt Office Properties Envisionit Agency S&P Global Ratings Bowman, Barrett & Associates Inc. OppLoans Hubbard Chicago Custom Crafters Painters District Council 14 List of buildings and structures List of tallest buildings in Chicago List of tallest buildings in the United States List of tallest buildings in the world World's tallest structures The Real Deal Official website Emporis entry for One Prudential Plaza Olshan Frome Wolosky LLP
St Swithin, London Stone, was an Anglican Church in the City of London. It stood on the north side of Cannon Street, between Salters' Hall Court and St Swithin's Lane, which runs north from Cannon Street to King William Street and takes its name from the church. Of medieval origin, it was destroyed by the Great Fire of London, rebuilt to the designs of Sir Christopher Wren, it was badly damaged by bombing during the Second World War, the remains demolished in 1962. St Swithin's church was first recorded in the 13th century, was dedicated to Saint Swithin, a 9th-century bishop of Winchester. At first known as "St Swithin in Candlewick Street", in 1597 it was referred to as "St Swithin at London Stone", this became the normal designation. London Stone itself stood opposite the church. One of the earliest references to the church is as the final resting place of Catrin Glyndŵr, wife of rebel Edmund Mortimer and daughter of Owain Glyndŵr, the legendary Welsh leader, she was taken hostage when the English captured Harlech Castle in 1409 and incarcerated in the Tower of London.
Catrin Glyndŵr died in mysterious circumstances four years later. The only record of her death is in the Exchequer documents of 1413: "for expenses and other charges incurred for the burial of the wife of Edmund Mortimer and her daughters, buried within St Swithin's Church London... £1". The church was rebuilt at the expense of Sir John Hind in 1420, renovated in 1607–1608, again, shortly before the Great Fire, at a cost of £1,000; the patronage of the church belonged to the priory of Tortington in Sussex until the dissolution of the monasteries, following which Henry VIII granted it, along with the prior of Tortington's nearby London house, to John, Earl of Oxford. After passing through the hands of several owners both mansion and the patronage of the church were bought by the Salters Company Destroyed in the Great Fire of London in 1666, the church was rebuilt to a design by Sir Christopher Wren in 1678 at a cost of £4,687 4s 6d; the parish was united with that of St Mary Bothaw destroyed in the fire, but not rebuilt, The new church was 61 feet long and 42 feet wide.
It had a tower and spire rising from the north-west corner of the building, with a total height of about 150 feet. The south and west fronts each had three windows, with an elliptical pediment over the central one; this decoration was omitted on the other sides. Most of the length of the north side had other buildings against it; the church was rectangular in plan. The northwest corner was occupied by the tower, the rest of the north side was taken by an aisle, containing a gallery. Most of the church, was covered by an octagonal dome, springing from seven half-columns against the walls, from one complete column in front of the north gallery. Robert Seymour described the building in 1733:This church and tower are well built with Stone, the Roof covered with lead, supported with Demy-Columns of the Composite Order. An organ was installed in 1805. In 1742 London Stone, from which the church took its name, was moved from the south side of the street to a location beside the church door. In the 1820s it was placed in an alcove within a stone casing set into the south wall of the church, where it remained until the demolition of the church in 1962.
In around 1820 repairs were made under the supervision of Henry Elmes. Further repairs, internal alterations, were made in 1869; the pews, which had faced south, were cut down and turned towards the east, galleries were removed, the pulpit was lowered and its sounding board taken away, a brass chandelier that had hung from the centre of the dome taken down. In 1879 the chancel was remodelled, a vestry constructed beneath the north gallery. In 1940, during the Second World War, the church was badly damaged in an air raid Only the pulpit was salvaged; the church was not rebuilt. The ruined church was demolished in 1961–1962, Excavations were carried out on the site by Professor W. F. Grimes on behalf of the Roman and Mediaeval London Excavation Council; the northern edge of a Roman street on the line of Cannon Street was discovered, with timber and stone buildings to the north of it. Foundations of the early 15th-century church were discovered below those of the Wren church; the medieval church, smaller than the Wren church, consisted of three bays, with a nave and north and south aisles.
This structure the rebuilding of 1420, replaced an earlier church of which few traces remained. A medieval grave slab of Purbeck marble was found reused in the foundations of the Wren church; the inscription revealed that it had covered the heart-burial of Joanna, wife of Fulke de St Edmond, one of the sheriffs of the City of London in 1289–1290. The slab is now in the Museum of London. London Stone was installed in the front of the new building, numbered 111 Cannon Street; the churchyard was retained as a public garden. It was re-landscaped in 2010, in conjunction with a new development just to the north, it contains a memorial to Catrin Glyndwr, additionally dedicated to the suffering of all women and children in war. There is a church mark in nearby Salters’ Hall Court