Murray Hill, Manhattan
Murray Hill is a neighborhood on the east side of Manhattan in New York City. Murray Hill is bordered to the east by the East River, to the west by Midtown Manhattan, to the south by Kips Bay and Rose Hill, to the north by Turtle Bay, its exact boundaries are disputed and vary but it is located between East 32nd Street and/or 34th Street to the south, East 40th Street and/or 42nd Street to the north, Madison Avenue or Fifth Avenue to the west, the East River to the east. Murray Hill was named after Robert Murray, the head of the Murray family, a mercantile family that settled in the area in the 18th century; the Murray property was located on a steep glacial hill that peaked between Lexington Avenue and Broadway. Through the 19th century, Murray Hill was isolated from the rest of New York City, which at the time was centered in lower Manhattan. Murray Hill became an upscale neighborhood during the 20th century. Today, it contains several cultural institutions, as well as missions and consulates to the nearby United Nations headquarters.
Murray Hill is part of Manhattan Community District 6 and its primary ZIP Codes are 10016 and 10017. It is patrolled by the 17th Precinct of the New York City Police Department. According to the Murray Hill Neighborhood Association, the neighborhood encompasses the 10016 zip code—running from 40th Street down to 27th Street, from Fifth Avenue to the East River; the city's Landmarks Preservation Commission has described Murray Hill's boundaries as 34th Street on the south, 40th Street on the north, Fifth Avenue on the west, Third Avenue on the east. The city's Planning Department has described the boundaries as East 40th Street to the north, Second Avenue to the east, 34th Street to the south, Madison Avenue to the west. For its entry on Murray Hill, the American Institute of Architects' AIA Guide to New York City uses the area from East 32nd Street north to East 40th Street, from Third Avenue west to Madison Avenue. In AIA Guide, Murray Hill abuts Midtown to the north and west, Kips Bay to the east, Rose Hill to the south.
Manhattan Community Board 6—of which Murray Hill is part—has defined the boundaries as East 34th Street to the south, East 40th Street to the north, Madison Avenue to the west, East River to the east. Murray Hill derives its name from the Murray family, 18th-century Quaker merchants concerned with shipping and overseas trade. Robert Murray, the family patriarch, was born in County Armagh, immigrated to Pennsylvania in 1732, came to New York City in 1753 after a short residence in North Carolina, he established himself as a merchant and owned more shipping tonnage than any other New Yorker. About 1762 Murray rented land from the city for a great house and farm, his great house, which he named Inclenberg, but, popularly termed Murray Hill, was built on a since-leveled hill at what is today Park Avenue and 36th Street. The great square house was approached by an avenue of mixed trees leading from the Boston Post Road; the total area was just over 29 acres. In today’s terms, the farm began a few feet south of 33rd Street and extended north to the middle of the block between 38th and 39th Streets.
At the southern end, the plot was rather narrow, but at the northern end it extended from Lexington Avenue to a spot between Madison and Fifth Avenues. The Inclenberg was an abrupt, steep-sided mound of glacial till typical of Manhattan Island's still-unmodified post-glacial terrain: this "hill of the rudest and most heterogeneous mixture of stone and gravel and boulders, cemented together into a matrix of impenetrable density existed, crowning the underlying schist... It had a natural rise from 34th Street, sinking towards 42nd Street and reaching from Lexington Avenue to Broadway." Such a soil would have been unpromising had Murray intended to farm it. Mary Lindley Murray is credited with delaying William Howe and his army during General Washington's retreat from New York following the British landing at Kip's Bay, September 15, 1776; as the story goes, Mrs. Robert Murray, the mother of Lindley and John, invited the officers to tea at her mansion of Inclenberg and succeeded in delaying the British troops for a period sufficient to allow a successful American retreat.
She is said by Rev. T. Dewitt Talmage to have saved American independence by detaining Lord Howe long enough to permit Israel Putnam to pass up the Greenwich road from the city and join the forces of George Washington in the north end of the island, before Howe was able to overtake him; this dilatory action saved 3,500 men, who would have otherwise been captured. James Thacher, M. D. a gossipy surgeon with the Continental Army, kept a journal, one of the prime sources of information about the military happenings of the times. In an entry for September 20, Thacher tells the story as follows: "The British generals...repaired to the house of a Mr. Robert Murray, a Quaker and friend of our cause. By this happy incident general P
National Florence Crittenton Mission
The National Florence Crittenton Mission was an organization established in 1883 by Charles N. Crittenton, it attempted to reform prostitutes and unwed pregnant women through the creation of establishments where they were to live and learn skills. The first of the organization's homes was located in New York City. Seven years in 1890, the second Florence Crittenton Home was opened in San Jose, California. Shortly thereafter, pioneering female physician Dr. Kate Waller Barrett joined Charles Crittenton as the driving force behind the organization and helped expand the Crittenton movement into a network of affiliated homes that at its peak included 76 homes across the U. S. in addition to homes in China, France and Mexico. This turn of the 20th century social welfare movement helped shape the professionalization of social work, changed social attitudes about motherhood and the role of women in society. Dr. Barrett's views on the education and training of women were considered radical at the time, but these ideas were adopted into the services provided to young women and girls at many Crittenton homes.
A special act of Congress in 1898, signed by President McKinley, granted a national charter in perpetuity to the National Florence Crittenton Mission, was the first U. S. national charter given to a charitable organization. The headquarters of the national mission was in Washington, D. C; the largest work of the mission was carried out in New York City. In 1950, there were two organizations associated with the original mission: the National Florence Crittenton Mission and the Florence Crittenton Homes Association, which had its headquarters in Chicago, Illinois. In 1976, the Florence Crittenton Association of America merged with the Child Welfare League of America; the Florence Crittenton Mission continued to provide financial support to the Crittenton Division of the Child Welfare League. In 2006, The National Florence Crittenton Mission adopted a new name: The National Crittenton Foundation; the organization separated from the Child Welfare League of America and returned to being a stand-alone organization affiliated with dozens of Crittenton-affiliated agences around the country.
The National Crittenton Foundation's headquarters are located in Oregon. The National Florence Crittenton Mission's approach to adoption and to unwed pregnancy has been criticized due to policies used decades ago. In the past, rather than to aid pregnant women, families sent them to Crittenton homes to hide them from public view and avoid shame. Women in these homes were required to give up their children for adoption; the coercive practices of these homes were detailed in The Girls. This mirrored a practice found in Europe and in Italy occurring from the Middle Ages to its full flowering in the 19th century; this article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Colby, F.. "Florence Crittenton Mission". New International Encyclopedia. VIII. New York: Dodd, Mead. P. 704. Finding aid for the National Florence Crittenton Mission records at the Social Welfare History Archives, University of Minnesota Libraries
World War II
World War II known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. The vast majority of the world's countries—including all the great powers—eventually formed two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis. A state of total war emerged, directly involving more than 100 million people from over 30 countries; the major participants threw their entire economic and scientific capabilities behind the war effort, blurring the distinction between civilian and military resources. World War II was the deadliest conflict in human history, marked by 50 to 85 million fatalities, most of whom were civilians in the Soviet Union and China, it included massacres, the genocide of the Holocaust, strategic bombing, premeditated death from starvation and disease, the only use of nuclear weapons in war. Japan, which aimed to dominate Asia and the Pacific, was at war with China by 1937, though neither side had declared war on the other. World War II is said to have begun on 1 September 1939, with the invasion of Poland by Germany and subsequent declarations of war on Germany by France and the United Kingdom.
From late 1939 to early 1941, in a series of campaigns and treaties, Germany conquered or controlled much of continental Europe, formed the Axis alliance with Italy and Japan. Under the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact of August 1939, Germany and the Soviet Union partitioned and annexed territories of their European neighbours, Finland and the Baltic states. Following the onset of campaigns in North Africa and East Africa, the fall of France in mid 1940, the war continued between the European Axis powers and the British Empire. War in the Balkans, the aerial Battle of Britain, the Blitz, the long Battle of the Atlantic followed. On 22 June 1941, the European Axis powers launched an invasion of the Soviet Union, opening the largest land theatre of war in history; this Eastern Front trapped most crucially the German Wehrmacht, into a war of attrition. In December 1941, Japan launched a surprise attack on the United States as well as European colonies in the Pacific. Following an immediate U. S. declaration of war against Japan, supported by one from Great Britain, the European Axis powers declared war on the U.
S. in solidarity with their Japanese ally. Rapid Japanese conquests over much of the Western Pacific ensued, perceived by many in Asia as liberation from Western dominance and resulting in the support of several armies from defeated territories; the Axis advance in the Pacific halted in 1942. Key setbacks in 1943, which included a series of German defeats on the Eastern Front, the Allied invasions of Sicily and Italy, Allied victories in the Pacific, cost the Axis its initiative and forced it into strategic retreat on all fronts. In 1944, the Western Allies invaded German-occupied France, while the Soviet Union regained its territorial losses and turned toward Germany and its allies. During 1944 and 1945 the Japanese suffered major reverses in mainland Asia in Central China, South China and Burma, while the Allies crippled the Japanese Navy and captured key Western Pacific islands; the war in Europe concluded with an invasion of Germany by the Western Allies and the Soviet Union, culminating in the capture of Berlin by Soviet troops, the suicide of Adolf Hitler and the German unconditional surrender on 8 May 1945.
Following the Potsdam Declaration by the Allies on 26 July 1945 and the refusal of Japan to surrender under its terms, the United States dropped atomic bombs on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki on 6 and 9 August respectively. With an invasion of the Japanese archipelago imminent, the possibility of additional atomic bombings, the Soviet entry into the war against Japan and its invasion of Manchuria, Japan announced its intention to surrender on 15 August 1945, cementing total victory in Asia for the Allies. Tribunals were set up by fiat by the Allies and war crimes trials were conducted in the wake of the war both against the Germans and the Japanese. World War II changed the political social structure of the globe; the United Nations was established to foster international co-operation and prevent future conflicts. The Soviet Union and United States emerged as rival superpowers, setting the stage for the nearly half-century long Cold War. In the wake of European devastation, the influence of its great powers waned, triggering the decolonisation of Africa and Asia.
Most countries whose industries had been damaged moved towards economic expansion. Political integration in Europe, emerged as an effort to end pre-war enmities and create a common identity; the start of the war in Europe is held to be 1 September 1939, beginning with the German invasion of Poland. The dates for the beginning of war in the Pacific include the start of the Second Sino-Japanese War on 7 July 1937, or the Japanese invasion of Manchuria on 19 September 1931. Others follow the British historian A. J. P. Taylor, who held that the Sino-Japanese War and war in Europe and its colonies occurred and the two wars merged in 1941; this article uses the conventional dating. Other starting dates sometimes used for World War II include the Italian invasion of Abyssinia on 3 October 1935; the British historian Antony Beevor views the beginning of World War II as the Battles of Khalkhin Gol fought between Japan and the fo
Boroughs of New York City
New York City encompasses five county-level administrative divisions called boroughs: The Bronx, Manhattan and Staten Island. All boroughs are part of New York City, each of the boroughs is coextensive with a respective county, the primary administrative subdivision within New York state. Queens and the Bronx are concurrent with the counties of the same name, while Manhattan and Staten Island correspond to New York and Richmond counties respectively. Boroughs have existed since the consolidation of the city in 1898, when the city and each borough assumed their current boundaries. However, the boroughs have not always been coextensive with their respective counties; the borough of the Bronx had earlier been in the southern part of Westchester County—which had been annexed to New York County in two stages in 1874 and 1895—and in 1914, the county was created to match the borough. Before 1899, the county of Queens included an eastern part, split-off during the consolidation to become Nassau County.
The term borough was adopted to describe a form of governmental administration for each of the five fundamental constituent parts of the newly consolidated city in 1898. Under the 1898 City Charter adopted by the New York State Legislature, a "borough" is a municipal corporation, created when a county is merged with populated areas within it; the limited powers of the borough governments are inferior to the authority of the Government of New York City, contrasting with other borough administrations of government used in Connecticut, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, where a borough is an independent level of government, as well as borough forms used in other states and in Greater London. New York City is referred to collectively as the five boroughs; the term is used by politicians to counter a frequent focus on Manhattan and thereby to place all five boroughs on equal footing. In the same vein, the term outer boroughs refers to all of the boroughs excluding Manhattan though the geographic center of the city is along the Brooklyn–Queens border.
All five boroughs were created in 1898 during consolidation, when the city's current boundaries were established. The Bronx included parts of New York County outside of Manhattan, ceded by neighboring Westchester County in two stages. In 1914, the present-day separate Bronx County became the last county to be created in the State of New York; the borough of Queens consists of what was only the western part of a then-larger Queens County. In 1899, the three eastern towns of Queens County that had not joined the city the year before—the towns of Hempstead, North Hempstead, Oyster Bay—formally seceded from Queens County to form the new Nassau County; the borough of Staten Island, concurrent with Richmond County, was the borough of Richmond until the name was changed in 1975 to reflect its common appellation, while leaving the name of the county unchanged. There are hundreds of distinct neighborhoods throughout the five boroughs of New York City, many with a definable history and character to call their own.
Manhattan is the most densely populated borough. Manhattan's population density of 72,033 people per square mile in 2015 makes it the highest of any county in the United States and higher than the density of any individual U. S. city. Manhattan is the cultural and financial center of New York City and contains the headquarters of many major multinational corporations, the United Nations Headquarters, Wall Street, a number of important universities. Manhattan is described as the cultural, financial and entertainment capital of the world. Most of the borough is situated at the mouth of the Hudson River. Several small islands are part of the borough of Manhattan, including Randall's Island, Wards Island, Roosevelt Island in the East River, Governors Island to the south in New York Harbor. Manhattan Island is loosely divided into Lower and Uptown regions. Uptown Manhattan is divided by Central Park into the Upper East Side and the Upper West Side, above the park is Harlem; the borough includes a small neighborhood on the United States mainland, called Marble Hill.
Marble Hill was part of Manhattan Island, but is now contiguous with the Bronx after having been severed from Manhattan Island by the construction of the Harlem River Ship Canal south of the neighborhood, having been connected to the mainland by the subsequent filling in of the Harlem River's original path to the neighborhood's north. New York City's remaining four boroughs are collectively referred to as the outer boroughs. Brooklyn, on the western tip of Long Island, is the city's most populous borough. Brooklyn is known for its cultural and ethnic diversity, an independent art scene, distinct neighborhoods, a distinctive architectural heritage. Downtown Brooklyn is the largest central core neighborhood in the outer boroughs; the borough has a long beachfront shoreline including Coney Island, established in the 1870s as one of the earliest amusement grounds in the country. Marine Park and Prospect Park are the two largest parks in Brooklyn. Since 2010, Brooklyn has evolv
William Cullen Bryant
William Cullen Bryant was an American romantic poet and long-time editor of the New York Evening Post. Bryant was born on November 1794, in a log cabin near Cummington, Massachusetts, he was the second son of Peter Bryant, a doctor and a state legislator, Sarah Snell. The genealogy of his mother traces back to passengers on the Mayflower: John Alden, his wife Priscilla Mullins and her parents William and Alice Mullins; the story of the romance between John and Priscilla is the subject of a famous narrative poem by Longfellow "The Courtship of Miles Standish". He was a nephew of Charity Bryant, a Vermont seamstress, the subject of Rachel Hope Cleves's 2014 book Charity and Sylvia: A Same-Sex Marriage in Early America. William Cullen Bryant described their relationship: "If I were permitted to draw the veil of private life, I would give you the singular, to me interesting, story of two maiden ladies who dwell in this valley. I would tell you how, in their youthful days, they took each other as companions for life, how this union, no less sacred to them than the tie of marriage, has subsisted, in uninterrupted harmony, for more than forty years."
Charity and Sylvia Drake are buried together at Weybridge Hill Cemetery, Vermont. Bryant and his family moved to a new home; the William Cullen Bryant Homestead, his boyhood home, is now a museum. After just one year at Williams College, he hoped to transfer to Yale, but a talk with his father led to the realization that family finances would not support it, his father counseled a legal career as his best available choice, the disappointed poet began to study law in Worthington and Bridgewater in Massachusetts. He was admitted to the bar in 1815 and began practicing law in nearby Plainfield, walking the seven miles from Cummington every day. On one of these walks, in December 1815, he noticed a single bird flying on the horizon. Bryant developed an interest in poetry early in life. Under his father's tutelage, he emulated other Neo-Classic British poets. "The Embargo", a savage attack on President Thomas Jefferson published in 1808, reflected Dr. Bryant's Federalist political views; the first edition sold out — because of publicity attached to the poet's young age.
A second, expanded edition included Bryant's translation of classical verse. During his collegiate studies and his reading for the law, he wrote little poetry, but encounters with the Graveyard Poets and Wordsworth regenerated his passion for "the witchery of song." "Thanatopsis" is Bryant's most famous poem, which Bryant may have been working on as early as 1811. In 1817 his father took some pages of verse from his son's desk, at the invitation of Willard Phillips, an editor of the North American Review, tutored in the classics by Dr. Bryant, he submitted them along with his own work; the editor of the Review, Edward Tyrrel Channing, read the poem to his assistant, Richard Henry Dana, who exclaimed, "That was never written on this side of the water!" Someone at the North American joined two of the son's discrete fragments, gave the result the Greek-derived title Thanatopsis, mistakenly attributed it to the father, published it. After clarification of the authorship, the son's poems began appearing with some regularity in the Review.
"To a Waterfowl", published in 1821, was the most popular. On January 11, 1821, still striving to build a legal career, married Frances Fairchild. Soon after, having received an invitation to address the Harvard University Phi Beta Kappa Society at the school's August commencement, Bryant spent months working on "The Ages", a panorama in verse of the history of civilization, culminating in the establishment of the United States; as it would in all collections he subsequently issued, "The Ages" led the volume entitled Poems, which he arranged to publish on the same trip to Cambridge. For that book, he added sets of lines at the beginning and end of "Thanatopsis" that changed the poem, his career as a poet was now established, though recognition as America's leading poet waited until 1832, when an expanded Poems was published in the U. S. and, with the assistance of Washington Irving, in Britain. His poetry has been described as being "of a thoughtful, meditative character, makes but slight appeal to the mass of readers."
From 1816 to 1825, Bryant depended on his law practice in Great Barrington, Massachusetts to sustain his family financially, but the strain of dealing with unsophisticated neighbors and juridical pettifoggery pushed him to trade his unrewarding profession for New York City and the promise of a literary career. With the encouragement of a distinguished and well-connected literary family, the Sedgwicks, he gained a foothold in New York City's vibrant cultural life, his first employment, in 1825, was as editor of the New-York Review, which within the next year merged with the United States Review and Literary Gazette. But in the throes of the failing struggle to raise subscriptions, he accepted part-time duties with the New-York Evening Post under William Coleman. From assistant editor he rose to editor-in-chief and co-owner of the newspaper, founded by Alexander Hamilton. Over the next half century, the Post would become the most respected paper in the city and, from the election of Andrew Jackson
Switzerland the Swiss Confederation, is a country situated in western and southern Europe. It consists of 26 cantons, the city of Bern is the seat of the federal authorities; the sovereign state is a federal republic bordered by Italy to the south, France to the west, Germany to the north, Austria and Liechtenstein to the east. Switzerland is a landlocked country geographically divided between the Alps, the Swiss Plateau and the Jura, spanning a total area of 41,285 km2. While the Alps occupy the greater part of the territory, the Swiss population of 8.5 million people is concentrated on the plateau, where the largest cities are to be found: among them are the two global cities and economic centres Zürich and Geneva. The establishment of the Old Swiss Confederacy dates to the late medieval period, resulting from a series of military successes against Austria and Burgundy. Swiss independence from the Holy Roman Empire was formally recognized in the Peace of Westphalia in 1648; the country has a history of armed neutrality going back to the Reformation.
It pursues an active foreign policy and is involved in peace-building processes around the world. In addition to being the birthplace of the Red Cross, Switzerland is home to numerous international organisations, including the second largest UN office. On the European level, it is a founding member of the European Free Trade Association, but notably not part of the European Union, the European Economic Area or the Eurozone. However, it participates in the Schengen Area and the European Single Market through bilateral treaties. Spanning the intersection of Germanic and Romance Europe, Switzerland comprises four main linguistic and cultural regions: German, French and Romansh. Although the majority of the population are German-speaking, Swiss national identity is rooted in a common historical background, shared values such as federalism and direct democracy, Alpine symbolism. Due to its linguistic diversity, Switzerland is known by a variety of native names: Schweiz. On coins and stamps, the Latin name – shortened to "Helvetia" – is used instead of the four national languages.
Switzerland is one of the most developed countries in the world, with the highest nominal wealth per adult and the eighth-highest per capita gross domestic product according to the IMF. Switzerland ranks at or near the top globally in several metrics of national performance, including government transparency, civil liberties, quality of life, economic competitiveness and human development. Zürich and Basel have all three been ranked among the top ten cities in the world in terms of quality of life, with the first ranked second globally, according to Mercer in 2018; the English name Switzerland is a compound containing Switzer, an obsolete term for the Swiss, in use during the 16th to 19th centuries. The English adjective Swiss is a loan from French Suisse in use since the 16th century; the name Switzer is from the Alemannic Schwiizer, in origin an inhabitant of Schwyz and its associated territory, one of the Waldstätten cantons which formed the nucleus of the Old Swiss Confederacy. The Swiss began to adopt the name for themselves after the Swabian War of 1499, used alongside the term for "Confederates", used since the 14th century.
The data code for Switzerland, CH, is derived from Latin Confoederatio Helvetica. The toponym Schwyz itself was first attested in 972, as Old High German Suittes perhaps related to swedan ‘to burn’, referring to the area of forest, burned and cleared to build; the name was extended to the area dominated by the canton, after the Swabian War of 1499 came to be used for the entire Confederation. The Swiss German name of the country, Schwiiz, is homophonous to that of the canton and the settlement, but distinguished by the use of the definite article; the Latin name Confoederatio Helvetica was neologized and introduced after the formation of the federal state in 1848, harking back to the Napoleonic Helvetic Republic, appearing on coins from 1879, inscribed on the Federal Palace in 1902 and after 1948 used in the official seal.. Helvetica is derived from the Helvetii, a Gaulish tribe living on the Swiss plateau before the Roman era. Helvetia appears as a national personification of the Swiss confederacy in the 17th century with a 1672 play by Johann Caspar Weissenbach.
Switzerland has existed as a state in its present form since the adoption of the Swiss Federal Constitution in 1848. The precursors of Switzerland established a protective alliance at the end of the 13th century, forming a loose confederation of states which persisted for centuries; the oldest traces of hominid existence in Switzerland date back about 150,000 years. The oldest known farming settlements in Switzerland, which were found at Gächlingen, have been dated to around 5300 BC; the earliest known cultural tribes of the area were members of the Hallstatt and La Tène cultures, named after the archaeological site of La Tène on the north side of Lake Neuchâtel. La Tène culture developed and flourished during the late Iron Age from around 450 BC under some influence from the Gree
The New York Times
The New York Times is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership. Founded in 1851, the paper has won more than any other newspaper; the Times is ranked 17th in the world by circulation and 2nd in the U. S; the paper is owned by The New York Times Company, publicly traded and is controlled by the Sulzberger family through a dual-class share structure. It has been owned by the family since 1896. G. Sulzberger, the paper's publisher, his father, Arthur Ochs Sulzberger Jr. the company's chairman, are the fourth and fifth generation of the family to helm the paper. Nicknamed "The Gray Lady", the Times has long been regarded within the industry as a national "newspaper of record"; the paper's motto, "All the News That's Fit to Print", appears in the upper left-hand corner of the front page. Since the mid-1970s, The New York Times has expanded its layout and organization, adding special weekly sections on various topics supplementing the regular news, editorials and features.
Since 2008, the Times has been organized into the following sections: News, Editorials/Opinions-Columns/Op-Ed, New York, Sports of The Times, Science, Home and other features. On Sunday, the Times is supplemented by the Sunday Review, The New York Times Book Review, The New York Times Magazine and T: The New York Times Style Magazine; the Times stayed with the broadsheet full-page set-up and an eight-column format for several years after most papers switched to six, was one of the last newspapers to adopt color photography on the front page. The New York Times was founded as the New-York Daily Times on September 18, 1851. Founded by journalist and politician Henry Jarvis Raymond and former banker George Jones, the Times was published by Raymond, Jones & Company. Early investors in the company included Edwin B. Morgan, Christopher Morgan, Edward B. Wesley. Sold for a penny, the inaugural edition attempted to address various speculations on its purpose and positions that preceded its release: We shall be Conservative, in all cases where we think Conservatism essential to the public good.
We do not believe that everything in Society is either right or wrong. In 1852, the newspaper started a western division, The Times of California, which arrived whenever a mail boat from New York docked in California. However, the effort failed. On September 14, 1857, the newspaper shortened its name to The New-York Times. On April 21, 1861, The New York Times began publishing a Sunday edition to offer daily coverage of the Civil War. One of the earliest public controversies it was involved with was the Mortara Affair, the subject of twenty editorials in the Times alone; the main office of The New York Times was attacked during the New York City Draft Riots. The riots, sparked by the beginning of drafting for the Union Army, began on July 13, 1863. On "Newspaper Row", across from City Hall, Henry Raymond stopped the rioters with Gatling guns, early machine guns, one of which he manned himself; the mob diverted, instead attacking the headquarters of abolitionist publisher Horace Greeley's New York Tribune until being forced to flee by the Brooklyn City Police, who had crossed the East River to help the Manhattan authorities.
In 1869, Henry Raymond died, George Jones took over as publisher. The newspaper's influence grew in 1870 and 1871, when it published a series of exposés on William Tweed, leader of the city's Democratic Party—popularly known as "Tammany Hall" —that led to the end of the Tweed Ring's domination of New York's City Hall. Tweed had offered The New York Times five million dollars to not publish the story. In the 1880s, The New York Times transitioned from supporting Republican Party candidates in its editorials to becoming more politically independent and analytical. In 1884, the paper supported Democrat Grover Cleveland in his first presidential campaign. While this move cost The New York Times a portion of its readership among its more progressive and Republican readers, the paper regained most of its lost ground within a few years. After George Jones died in 1891, Charles Ransom Miller and other New York Times editors raised $1 million dollars to buy the Times, printing it under the New York Times Publishing Company.
However, the newspaper was financially crippled by the Panic of 1893, by 1896, the newspaper had a circulation of less than 9,000, was losing $1,000 a day. That year, Adolph Ochs, the publisher of the Chattanooga Times, gained a controlling interest in the company for $75,000. Shortly after assuming control of the paper, Ochs coined the paper's slogan, "All The News That's Fit To Print"; the slogan has appeared in the paper since September 1896, has been printed in a box in the upper left hand corner of the front page since early 1897. The slogan was a jab at competing papers, such as Joseph Pulitzer's New York World and William Randolph Hearst's New York Journal, which were known for a lurid and inaccurate reporting of facts and opinions, described by the end of the century as "yellow journalism". Under Ochs' guidance, aided by Carr