Old Fortress, Corfu
The Old Fortress of Corfu is a Venetian fortress in the city of Corfu. The fortress covers the promontory which contained the old town of Corfu that had emerged during Byzantine times. Before the Venetian era the promontory, which lies between the Gulf of Kerkyra to the North and Garitsa Bay to the south, was defended by Byzantine fortifications which the Venetians replaced with fortifications of their own design; as part of their defensive plans the Venetians separated the promontory from the rest of the city of Corfu by creating the Contrafossa, a moat, a sea channel connecting the Gulf of Kerkyra to the North with the Bay of Garitsa to the South, converting the citadel into an artificial island. The fort repulsed all three major Ottoman sieges: the great siege of 1537, the siege of 1571 and the second great siege of Corfu in 1716; the town of Corfu got its Western name from the twin peaks of the fortress. The earliest indication of fortifications on the site presently occupied by the Old Fortress dates from around the 6th century AD, after the destruction of the ancient city of Corcyra by the Goths.
The Gothic invasion forced the Corcyreans to seek shelter inside fortifications on the peninsula at the tip of the city. Following a hiatus where no political or military developments in the citadel are known between the 7th-10th centuries AD, the first report of renewed fortifications occurs in early 11th century when Anna Komnene refers to it as the "very fortified city of Corfu" in her book the Alexiad; the citadel features two peaks. The western and higher peak, closer to the town, was fortified by the Byzantines around the 12th century AD and was called Castel a Terra or "Castle near the Land" by the Venetians, who called it Castel Nuovo or "New Castle"; the eastern peak was called Castel a Mar or Castel Vecchio by the Venetians and was used as powder magazine for a time. Following the Gothic invasion and until the 13th century, the medieval town of Corfu developed within the boundaries of the peninsula which today is occupied by the Old Fortress. In the early 15th century the Venetians started replacing the old Byzantine fortifications.
Following the first Siege of Corfu by the Ottomans in 1537, the Venetian Governor ordered the construction of new defensive zones incorporating new bastions and towers which exist to this day. Venetian military engineers Savorgnan and Martinengo designed bastions for the Fortress between 1545 and 1555 which are considered masterpieces of military engineering; as part of their defensive plans for the peninsula of the citadel, to secure its perimeter, the Venetians created the Contrafossa, a moat which transformed the citadel into an artificial island. The moat is still known to the locals under its Italian name. Since the creation of Contrafossa, access to the citadel was by a drawbridge, which in modern times has been replaced by a permanent one; the fort repulsed all three major Ottoman sieges: the great siege of 1537, the siege of 1571 and the second great siege of Corfu in 1716. In 1537, during the Third Ottoman–Venetian War, Sultan Suleyman the Magnificent dispatched a force of 25,000 men under the command of admiral Hayreddin Barbarossa to attack Corfu.
The Ottomans landed at Govino Bay, present day Gouvia, proceeded toward Corfu town, destroying the village of Potamos as they made their way toward the City. The Old Fort, Corfu city's only fortification during that period, the castle of Angelokastro were the only two places on the island not in the hands of the invaders at the time. In undefended parts of the island, people were captured as slaves by the Sultan's army. At the Old Fortress, women and the elderly, called the inutili by the Venetians, were turned away and left outside the fort to die or be enslaved; the rejection of the people at the gates angered the Corfiots who lost faith in the effectiveness of Venice's defensive plans. The Corfu fortress was defended by its garrison, as was Angelokastro; as it was retreating from Corfu, the Ottoman army devastated the undefended areas of both Corfu city and the island. In total about 20,000 people who were unable to find shelter in either castle were killed or carried off as slaves. In August 1571, the Ottomans made another attempt at conquering Corfu.
Having seized Parga and Mourtos on the Greek mainland, they attacked the Paxoi islands, landing a force there. An Ottoman force, on its way to the city, first destroyed the village of Potamos. Although the Corfu city castle stood firm, the rest of Corfu was destroyed and the defenseless civilian population outside the castles suffered heavy casualties. Homes and public buildings were burned in the city suburbs. In 1716, during the last Ottoman–Venetian War, the Ottomans made plans to attack Corfu again. In anticipation of the attack, Venice appointed Count Johann Matthias von der Schulenburg in charge of the defence of the fort. In preparation for the Turkish siege, Schulenburg further strengthened the defences of the Old Fortress. On 6 July 1716 Kara Mustafa Pasha brought the Ottoman fleet to Corfu to lay siege to the fort; the Ottomans upon landing in Corfu established themselves in strategic positions and installed artillery situated on the nearby hills of Avrami and Sarocco and started bombarding the citadel.
After fierce fighting with the Ottomans during which Schulenburg and the local Corfiote garrison distinguished themselves in battle, the Ottomans abandoned their plans of capturing the castle and departed Corfu on 19 August 1716 after a siege which lasted seven weeks. In the aftermath of the siege, th
Saint Spyridon Church
The Saint Spyridon Church is a Greek Orthodox church located in Corfu, Greece. It was built in the 1580s, it houses the relics of Saint Spyridon and it is located in the old town of Corfu. It is a single-nave basilica and its bell tower is the highest in the Ionian Islands, it is the most famous church in Corfu. According to traditional accounts, in 1489, after the fall of the Byzantine Empire, the relics of St. Spyridon and St. Theodora Augusta, were brought to Corfu from Constantinople by Greek monk Georgios Kalochairetis, a person of wealth, were kept as property of his family; when his daughter Asimia married one of the scions of the Voulgari family in Corfu she was given the remains of the saint as part of her dowry. Subsequently, the relics of St. Spyridon were housed in a private church owned by the Voulgaris family; the Voulgaris church was located in the San Rocco suburb of Corfu city but had to be demolished when the outer city fortifications were built by the Venetians to protect the citadel after the first great siege of Corfu by the Ottomans in 1537.
In the 1580s, after the demolition of the private church, the saint's remains were moved to their present location in a new church, built within the city fortifications in the Campiello district of the old town. The bell tower of the church is similar in design to its contemporary Greek Orthodox church of San Giorgio dei Greci located in Venice. Inside the church there is a crypt to the right of the iconostasis where the remains of the Saint are kept in a double sarcophagus; the larger of the two is wooden with silver leaf trim. The smaller sarcophagus is surfaced in red velvet and has a removable bottom to facilitate changing the slippers of the saint; the lack of any underground chamber to house the remains of the saint was part of a deliberate design plan to make them as accessible as possible. In the crypt there are 53 incense burners hanging from the ceiling, 18 of which are golden and the rest made of silver; the front of the marble iconostasis resembles the exterior of the entrance of a baroque-style church.
The ceiling of the church is divided into segments depicting scenes from St. Spyridon's life and miracles; the original painter of the church ceiling was Panagiotis Doxaras who created the works in 1727. With the passage of time the Doxaras paintings rotted away and subsequently they were replaced by copies painted by Nikolaos Aspiotis, a member of the Aspiotis family of Corfu; the only remaining trace of Doxaras's work is the gilded border of the iconography. Above the western door of the narthex the imperial coat of arms of the House of Romanov stands as a reminder that the church was under the nominal protection of Russia from 1807-1917. Near the same area a painting depicts the saint touching the head of Constantius II curing the emperor from illness; the Venetian Senate offered a gilded silver lamp bearing the reliefs of the Saint and the lion of St. Mark in commemoration of the miracles of the Saint during the second great siege of Corfu in 1716; the lamp is hanging at the west corner of the nave near the women's quarters.
The inscription on the lamp reads as follows: OB SERVATAM CORCYRAM DIVO SPVRIDIONI TVTELARI SENATVS VENETVS ANNO MDCCXVI Which translates as: "For the Salvation of Corfu, to the Patron Saint Spyridon, the Senate of Venice, 1716 AD". The largest lamp in the church is found near the pulpit and was offered to the saint by the Venetian High Admiral Andrea Pisani and the rest of the Venetian leaders with the inscription: DIVO SPVRIDIONI TVTELARI VTRAQVE CLASSE PROTECTA ANDREA PISANI SVPREMO DVCE VTRIVSQVE CLASSIS NOBILES EX VOTO ANNO MDCCXVII Which translates: "To the Patron Saint Spyridon for having protected the two fleets under the leadership of Andrea Pisani, Commander in Chief of the two fleets, the noblemen in votive offering, 1717 AD"
Vido is an island of the Ionian Islands group of Greece. It is a small island at the mouth of the port of Corfu. Island was involved in Siege of Corfu, Russo-Ottoman allies captured it from French on 28 February 1799. During the First World War, the island of Corfu served as an island hospital and quarantine for sick Serbian soldiers following the epic retreat of the Serbian army and part of the civilian population through Montenegro and Albania in 1915 following the Austro-German-Bulgarian invasion of Serbia. While the main camps of the recuperating army were on Corfu itself, the sick and near-dying soldiers, were treated on Vido to prevent epidemics. In spite of Allied material help, the conditions of both the improvised medical facilities and many of the patients on the island resulted in a high fatality rate. Due to small area of the island and its rocky soil, it soon became necessary to bury the dead in the sea. Over 5,000 people were buried at sea near the island of Vido. A monument of gratitude to the Greek nation was erected at Vido by Serbs in the 1930s.
The waters around Vido island are sometimes referred to as the Blue Sea Tomb, after a poem written by Milutin Bojić after World War I. Serbian mausoleum Serbian Campaign
Lecce is a historic city of 95,766 inhabitants in southern Italy, the capital of the province of Lecce, the second province in the region by population, as well as one of the most important cities of Apulia. It is the main city of the Salentine Peninsula, a sub-peninsula at the heel of the Italian Peninsula and is over 2,000 years old; because of the rich Baroque architectural monuments found in the city, Lecce is nicknamed "The Florence of the South". The city has a long traditional affinity with Greek culture going back to its foundation. To this day, in the Grecìa Salentina, a group of towns not far from Lecce, the griko language is still spoken. In terms of industry, the "Lecce stone"—a particular kind of limestone—is one of the city's main exports, because it is soft and workable, thus suitable for sculptures. Lecce is an important agricultural centre, chiefly for its olive oil and wine production, as well as an industrial centre specializing in ceramic production. Vito Fazzi Medical Center is the biggest medical center in Apulia.
According to legend, a city called Sybar existed at the time of the Trojan War, founded by the Messapii. It was conquered by the Romans in the 3rd century BC. Under the emperor Hadrian the city was moved 3 kilometres to the northeast, taking the name of Licea or Litium. Lecce was connected to the Hadrian Port. Orontius of Lecce, locally called Sant'Oronzo, is considered to have served as the city's first Christian bishop and is Lecce's patron saint. After the fall of the Western Roman Empire, Lecce was sacked by the Ostrogoth king Totila in the Gothic Wars, it was restored to Roman rule in 549, remained part of the Eastern Empire for five centuries, with brief conquests by Saracens, Lombards and Slavs. After the Norman conquest in the 11th century, Lecce regained commercial and political importance, flourishing in the subsequent Hohenstaufen and Angevine rule; the County of Lecce was one of the largest and most important fiefs in the Kingdom of Sicily from 1053 to 1463, when it was annexed directly to the crown.
From the 15th century, Lecce was one of the most important cities of southern Italy, starting in 1630, it was enriched with precious Baroque monuments. To avert invasion by the Ottomans, a new line of walls and a castle were built by Charles V, in the first part of the 16th century. In 1656, a plague broke out in the city. In 1943, fighter aircraft based in Lecce helped support isolated Italian garrisons in the Aegean Sea during World War 2; because they were delayed by the Allies, they couldn't prevent a defeat. In 1944 and 1945, B-24 long-range bombers of the 98th Heavy Bomber Group attached to the 15th U. S. Army Air Force were based in Lecce, from where the crews flew missions over Italy, the Balkans, Austria and France. Church of the Holy Cross: Construction of the Chiesa di Santa Croce) was begun in 1353, but work halted until 1549, it was completed only by 1695; the church has a richly decorated façade with animals, grotesque figures and vegetables, a large rose window. Next to the church is the Government Palace, a former convent.
Lecce Cathedral: The church was built in 1144, rebuilt in 1230 totally restored in the 1659–70 by Giuseppe Zimbalo, who built the five storey 70-metre high bell tower, with an octagonal loggia. San Niccolò and Cataldo The church is an example of Italo-Norman architecture, it was founded by Tancred of Sicily in 1180. In 1716 the façade was rebuilt, with the addition of numerous statues, but maintaining the original Romanesque portal; the walls were frescoed during the 15th-17th centuries. Celestine Convent: Built in Baroque-style by Giuseppe Zimbalo; the courtyard was designed by Gabriele Riccardi. Santa Irene: This church was commissioned in 1591 by the Theatines and dedicated to Saint Irene; the architect was Francesco Grimaldi). It has a large façade showing different styles in lower parts. Above the portal stands a statue of Ste Irene by Mauro Manieri; the interior is rather sober. The main altarpiece is a copy of the St Michael the Archangel by Guido Reni; the high altar has a Transport of the Holy Ark by Oronzo Tiso.
In the right transept is one of the largest altars in Lecce, dedicated to Saint Cajetan. Nearby is the Rococo altar of Saint Andrew Avellino. From the mid-17th century is the Altar of St Orontius by Francesco Antonio Zimbalo, followed by the altar of Saint Irene with a canvas by Giuseppe Verrio, nine busts of saints housing relics and a large statue of the saint; the altar of Saint Stephen has the Stoning of St. Stephen by Verrio. San Matteo: This church was built in 1667, it has a typical central Italy Baroque style. It has two columns on the façade, only one of, decorated, though only partially. According to a local legend, the jealous devil killed the sculptor. Santa Maria degli Angeli Santa Chiara: This church was built in 1429–1438, rebuilt in 1687. San Francesco della Scarpa: Known as the "church without façade" as the latter has been demolished in the 19th century restorations; the most ancient section dates to the 13th-14th centuries. Notable are a large statue of Saint Joseph. Column of statue of St Oronzo: wa
Temple of Artemis, Corfu
The Temple of Artemis is an Archaic Greek temple in Corfu, built in around 580 BC in the ancient city of Korkyra, in what is known today as the suburb of Garitsa. The temple was dedicated to Artemis, it is known as the first Doric temple built with stone. It is considered the first building to have incorporated all of the elements of the Doric architectural style. Few Greek temple reliefs from the Archaic period have survived, the large fragments of the group from the pediment are the earliest significant survivals; the temple was a peripteral–styled building with a pseudodipteral configuration. Its perimeter was rectangular, with width of 23.46 m and length 49 m with an eastward orientation so that light could enter the interior of the temple at sunrise. It was one of the largest temples of its time; the metope of the temple was decorated, since remnants of reliefs featuring Achilles and Memnon were found in the ancient ruins. The temple has been described as a milestone of Ancient Greek architecture and one of 150 masterpieces of Western architecture.
The Corfu temple architecture may have influenced the design of an archaic sanctuary structure found at St. Omobono in Italy, near Tiber in Ancient Rome, at the time of the Etruscans, which incorporates similar design elements. If still in use by the 4th-century, the temple would have been closed during the persecution of pagans in the late Roman Empire, when the Christian Emperors issued edicts prohibiting non-Christian worship. Kaiser Wilhelm II, while vacationing at his summer palace of Achilleion in Corfu and while Europe was preparing for war, was involved in excavations at the site of the ancient temple; the ruins were found during the Napoleonic Wars by soldiers of French General François-Xavier Donzelot as they were digging, preparing for trench warfare. Kaiser Wilhelm II had a "lifelong obsession" with the Gorgon sculpture, attributed to his attendance at seminars on Greek Archaeology while at the University of Bonn; the seminars were given by archaeologist Reinhard Kekulé von Stradonitz, who became the Kaiser's advisor.
Kaiser himself, while residing at his summer palace of Achilleion in Corfu and while Europe was preparing for war, was involved in excavations at the site of the ancient temple. In 1911 the Kaiser, along with Greek archaeologist Federiko Versakis on behalf of the Greek Archaeological Society and the famous German archaeologist Wilhelm Dörpfeld on behalf of the German Archaeological Institute, started excavations at the Artemis Temple of Corfu; the Kaiser's activities in Corfu at the time involved both archaeological matters. The excavations involved political manoeuvering due to the antagonism that had developed between the two principal archaeologists at the Corfu Temple site. Little remains today on the site, with only the foundation of the temple and other fragments still existing there. However, the existing ruins have provided sufficient information for a complete reconstruction of the architectural details of the temple; the building was supported around its perimeter by colonnades consisting of two rows of eight columns each for the front and back of the building, while the sides were supported by two rows of seventeen columns each.
At the centre of the temple, there was a rectangular inner chamber or cella 9.4 m wide and 34.4 m long, subdivided in three spaces by two colonnades consisting of ten columns each. The temple of Artemis in Corfu and the Parthenon are the only Greek temples with eight columns between antae; the outer colonnade of eight by seventeen columns called the peristyle, had enough separation from the inner chamber that a second colonnade could be added in the interior. The Corfu Temple, does not have this inner colonnade, for economy reasons; this configuration of a single colonnade, in a space allowing for a second, is called pseudodipteral. The Artemis Temple in Corfu is the earliest known example of this architectural style; the front and back of the temple featured two pediments, of which only the western one survives in good condition, while the eastern pediment lies in fragments. The pediments were decorated with mythical figures, sculpted in high relief; this is the first known example of a decorated pediment in Greece.
Both pediments appear to be decorated in an identical manner and they feature a large relief of the Gorgon Medusa, more than 9 ft. high. The pediment measures 9 ft. 4 inches high at the centre. The sculptures incorporated in these pediments are considered the first substantial specimens of Greek sculpture from a Doric building; the western pediment along with other architectural fragments are exhibited at the Archaeological Museum of Corfu. The pediment has been described by The New York Times as the "finest example of Archaic temple sculpture extant"; the pediment depicts Medusa in a stylised fashion. The Medusa is wearing a mini–skirt which allows her legs freedom of movement while she is fleeing from Perseus, her motion is further indicated by the formulaic positioning of her legs in the so–called Knielauf position which stylistically resembles a swastika. The Gorgon is shown with a girdle of intertwined serpents; the presence of the snakes, adds a demonic quality as well as an element of danger.
Two more snakes radiate outward from her neck. The Medusa figure resembles "Mistress of Animals" deities found in the Near East and resembles Mesopotamian demoness Lamashtu, the equivalent of the Greek deity Lamia, her children
Philharmonic Society of Corfu
The Philharmonic Society of Corfu is today known as a community band in Corfu, Greece. However, when it was founded in 1840, its initial scope was to become the first Greek music academy organised on European prototypes, its first Artistic Director was Nikolaos Halikiopoulos Mantzaros, who retained this office until his death in 1872. The Philharmonic had a organised programme of tuition both in music theory and practice, its students, who for the first time in modern Hellenic history could learn music regardless of their social class, had the opportunity to be taught by professional musicians and teachers basic music theory, counterpoint, composition, as well as piano, vocal music and wind instruments. The tuition of the latter category found its artistic expression through the wind band of the philharmonic, an ensemble, which became popular by developing into an integral part of public and religious festivities. Nonetheless, the popularity of the band was so strong, that in the end in the public opinion of Corfu'band' became synonymous to the'philharmonic'.
This misunderstanding, became a reality after the Second World War because of the financial problems that a non-governmental institution like PSC came across. As well as a result of the shortage of professional teachers. Nonetheless, it was only in 1907, as well as during the 1930s when the symphonic orchestra of the society performed in the Municipal Theatre of Corfu, to much critical acclaim; the symphonic orchestra of the Philharmonic made sporadic appearances until the early postwar years. Since 2003 the orchestra has again commenced its activities. In 1979 Maria Desylla-Kapodistria, former mayor of Corfu and the first female mayor in Greece, bequeathed the Kapodistrias summer home under contract No. 4541/3.11.1979 to the Reading Society of Corfu, the Philharmonic Society of Corfu and the Society of Corfiote Studies for the purpose of converting it to a museum dedicated to the memory of Ioannis Kapodistrias. The Kapodistrias Museum, under the stewardship of the three societies, was formally inaugurated in 1981.
The Museum of the Corfu Philharmonic Society, which occupies the first floor of the Society's building, opened for the public on September 18, 2010. The Museum attempts to present in brief the history of the institution after two centuries of incessant activity. Moreover, the Museum honours Nikolaos Halikiopoulos Mantzaros, the Society’s first artistic director, composer –among others– of the Greek national anthem, well-known music teacher and contrapuntist, as well as inspirer of a whole generation of composers that shaped the music of Ionian Islands, not only, during the 19th century; the Museum of the Corfu Philharmonic Society «Nikolaos Halikiopoulos Mantzaros» consists of five thematic sections, which present its activities and history: Foundation, Organization: Features historical documents related to the Society’s early days and organization. Educational activities: Presents documents and artifacts related to the music pedagogy within the limits of the Society; the concerts: The Philharmonic as a concert society for vocal and orchestral music.
The wind band: Documents, scores and artifacts related to the repertory and the activities of the Society’s wind band. The people and their work: Important composers and teachers, who related themselves through their presence and their works with the history of the Society, as well as with the development of art music in 19th-century Greece. Scores by Spyridon Samaras, Pavlos Carrer, the Liberali brothers, Spyridon Xyndas, Domenikos Padovanis, Dionissios Rodotheatos, Alexander Grek, Napoleon Lambelet, Andreas Seiler, as well as women composers from Ionian Islands are exhibited in this section; the Museum organizes an annual circle of musicological lectures and has initiated a series of musicological publications. It is open Monday to Saturday from 09.30 until 13.30. The entrance is free. List of music museums Kostas Kardamis, “Corfu Philharmonic Society: An overview of its history”, in Six Essays for the Corfu Philharmonic Society, 13–36 Spyridon Motsenigos, Neoelliniki moussiki Philharmonic Society of Corfu Museum of the Philharmonic Society of Corfu
Propaganda is information, not objective and is used to influence an audience and further an agenda by presenting facts selectively to encourage a particular synthesis or perception, or using loaded language to produce an emotional rather than a rational response to the information, presented. Propaganda is associated with material prepared by governments, but activist groups, religious organizations and the media can produce propaganda. In the twentieth century, the term propaganda has been associated with a manipulative approach, but propaganda was a neutral descriptive term. A wide range of materials and media are used for conveying propaganda messages, which changed as new technologies were invented, including paintings, posters, films, radio shows, TV shows, websites. More the digital age has given rise to new ways of disseminating propaganda, for example, through the use of bots and algorithms to create computational propaganda and spread fake or biased news using social media. In a 1929 literary debate with Edward Bernays, Everett Dean Martin argues that, "Propaganda is making puppets of us.
We are moved by hidden strings which the propagandist manipulates." Propaganda is a modern Latin word, the gerundive form of propagare, meaning to spread or to propagate, thus propaganda means that, to be propagated. This word derived from a new administrative body of the Catholic church created in 1622 as part of the Counter-Reformation, called the Congregatio de Propaganda Fide, or informally Propaganda, its activity was aimed at "propagating" the Catholic faith in non-Catholic countries. From the 1790s, the term began being used to refer to propaganda in secular activities; the term began taking a pejorative or negative connotation in the mid-19th century, when it was used in the political sphere. Primitive forms of propaganda have been a human activity as far back as reliable recorded evidence exists; the Behistun Inscription detailing the rise of Darius I to the Persian throne is viewed by most historians as an early example of propaganda. Another striking example of propaganda during Ancient History is the last Roman civil wars during which Octavian and Mark Antony blame each other for obscure and degrading origins, cowardice and literary incompetence, luxury and other slanders.
This defamation took the form of uituperatio, decisive for shaping the Roman public opinion at this time. Propaganda during the Reformation, helped by the spread of the printing press throughout Europe, in particular within Germany, caused new ideas and doctrine to be made available to the public in ways that had never been seen before the 16th century. During the era of the American Revolution, the American colonies had a flourishing network of newspapers and printers who specialized in the topic on behalf of the Patriots; the first large-scale and organised propagation of government propaganda was occasioned by the outbreak of war in 1914. After the defeat of Germany in the First World War, military officials such as Erich Ludendorff suggested that British propaganda had been instrumental in their defeat. Adolf Hitler came to echo this view, believing that it had been a primary cause of the collapse of morale and the revolts in the German home front and Navy in 1918. In Mein Kampf Hitler expounded his theory of propaganda, which provided a powerful base for his rise to power in 1933.
Historian Robert Ensor explains. Most propaganda in Nazi Germany was produced by the Ministry of Public Enlightenment and Propaganda under Joseph Goebbels. World War II saw continued use of propaganda as a weapon of war, building on the experience of WWI, by Goebbels and the British Political Warfare Executive, as well as the United States Office of War Information. In the early 20th century, the invention of motion pictures gave propaganda-creators a powerful tool for advancing political and military interests when it came to reaching a broad segment of the population and creating consent or encouraging rejection of the real or imagined enemy. In the years following the October Revolution of 1917, the Soviet government sponsored the Russian film industry with the purpose of making propaganda films In WWII, Nazi filmmakers produced emotional films to create popular support for occupying the Sudetenland and attacking Poland; the 1930s and 1940s, which saw the rise of totalitarian states and the Second World War, are arguably the "Golden Age of Propaganda".
Leni Riefenstahl, a filmmaker working in Nazi Germany, created one of the best-known propaganda movies, Triumph of the Will. In the US, animation became popular for winning over youthful audiences and aiding the U. S. war effort, e.g. Der Fuehrer's Face, which ridicules Hitler and advocates the value of freedom. US war films in the early 1940s were designed to create a patriotic mindset and convince viewers that sacrifices needed to be made to defeat the Axis Powers. Polish filmmakers in Great Britain created anti-nazi color film Calling mr. Smith about current nazi crimes in occupied Europe and about lies of nazi propaganda; the West and the Soviet Union both used propaganda extensively during the Cold War. Both sides used film, and