A gundalow is a type of flat-bottom cargo vessel once common in Maine and New Hampshire rivers. They first appeared in the mid-1600s, reached maturity of design in the 1700 and 1800s, lingered into the early 1900s before vanishing as commercial watercraft. Up to 70 feet long, they characteristically employed tidal currents for propulsion, with a single huge lateen sail brailed to a heavy yard to harness favorable winds. Common cargoes were bricks, cattle and other bulk raw materials downriver, finished goods up. Gundalows were very active delivering cordwood to brickworks upriver to fire their kilns, picking up cargoes of finished bricks in return. A form of sailing barge similar to a scow, gundalows were fitted with a pivoting leeboard lieu of a fixed keel, giving them an exceptionally shallow draft and allowing them to "take the hard" both for loading and unloading cargoes and maintenance. A gundalow's yard was attached to a stump mast and counterweighted, pivoting down while still under sail to shoot under bridges while maintaining the boat's way.
Cannon-sporting gunboat style gundalows with fixed masts and square yards were built and deployed on Lake Champlain by both British and American forces during the American Revolutionary War, meeting in combat at the Battle of Valcour Island. A replica gundalow, the Piscataqua, is maintained by a Portsmouth, New Hampshire non-profit and employed extensively in both grade school educational programs and raising environmental awareness among neighboring New Hampshire and Maine seacoast communities. It's precursor, the Captain Edward Adams, built with traditional materials and methods in the 1980s, is preserved as a memorial in Dover, New Hampshire along the Cocheco River, one of the tidal headwaters of the Piscataqua River separating the states of Maine and New Hampshire. Noble train of artillery Battle of Valcour Island Cross-Grained & Wiley Waters: A Guide to the Piscataqua Maritime Region, Jeffrey W. Bolster, Editor. H. Customs District from the days of Queen Elizabeth and the planting of Strawberry Banke to the times of Abraham Lincoln and the waning of the American clipper, William G. Saltonstall, New York, Russell & Russell The Piscataqua Gundalow: Workhorse for a Tidal Basin Empire, Richard E. Winslow, III, Portsmouth, NH, Peter Randall, Publisher 2002 The Way of the Ship: America’s Maritime History Reenvisioned, 1600-2000, Alex Roland, W. Jeffrey Bolster, Alexander Keyssar, Wiley, NY, 2007 Description and drawings at The Gundalow Company web page: www.gundalow.org
Glens Falls, New York
Glens Falls is a city in Warren County, New York, United States and is the central city of the Glens Falls Metropolitan Statistical Area. The population was 14,700 at the 2010 census; the name was given by Colonel Johannes Glen, the falls referring to a large waterfall in the Hudson River at the southern end of the city. Glens Falls is a city in the southeast corner of Warren County, surrounded by the town of Queensbury to the north and west, by the Hudson River and Saratoga County to the south. Glens Falls is known as "Hometown U. S. A.", a title Look Magazine gave it in 1944. The city has referred to itself as the "Empire City." As a halfway point between Fort Edward and Fort William Henry, the falls was the site of several battles during the French and Indian War and the Revolutionary War. The then-hamlet was destroyed by fire twice during the latter conflict, forcing the Quakers to abandon the settlement until the war ended in 1783. Fire ravaged the village in 1864, 1884, 1902; the area was called Chepontuc referred to as the "Great Carrying Place," but was renamed "The Corners" by European-American settlers.
In 1766 it was renamed Wing's Falls for Abraham Wing – the leader of the group of Quakers who established the permanent settlement – and for the falls on the Hudson River. Wing's claim to the name of the falls and the hamlet was transferred to Colonel Johannes Glen of Schenectady in 1788, either on collection of a debt, as a result of a game of cards, or in exchange for hosting a party for mutual friends, depending on which local legend is believed. Colonel Glen changed the name to "Glen's Falls," though it was printed with varying spelling such as "Glenn's," or "Glens"; the spelling "Glens Falls" came to be the common usage. A post office was established in 1808. Glens Falls became an incorporated village in 1839, was re-incorporated in 1874 and 1887, expanding the village to what would become the city limits when the state legislature granted the city charter in 1908, at which time the city became independent from the town of Queensbury. In 2003, with permission from Queensbury, Glens Falls annexed 49 acres of the town.
The land, known as Veterans Field or the Northway Industrial Park, is on Veterans Road between Luzerne Road and Sherman Avenue and is just east of I-87. The land was vacant at the time. A thin, 0.5 miles strip of Sherman Avenue was part of this annexation, to comply with state law on contiguity of annexed land. As a result, the city and town share co-own this stretch of highway. Glens Falls has two historic districts listed on the National Register of Historic Places and the equivalent New York State Register of Historic places; the Fredella Avenue historic district includes a series of unique concrete block structures. The Three Squares Historic District makes up most of the Central Business District. In addition, several individual structures are listed, some below. Glens Falls does not have a local preservation law protecting these historic resources from demolition or alteration. Crandall Public Library – While the library has existed since 1893, it did not have a permanent home until 1931, with the completion of the library building in City Park, on property local entrepreneur Henry Crandall willed to the library.
Charles A. Platt designed Robert Rheinlander built it; the city completed the building's first renovation and expansion, involving the demolition of the 1969 addition, in November 2008. The library is a part of the Southern Adirondack Library System. Civil War Monument – A limestone obelisk at the intersection of Glen and Bay streets, the monument was dedicated in 1872 to honor the 644 men from Queensbury who served in the Civil War. Ninety-five names, those of the men who died, are engraved on the monument. Many battles of the war are listed. DeLong House – Presently the home of the Glens Falls/Queensbury Historical Association and the Chapman Historical Museum. A Greek Revival and Second Empire edifice on the corner of Bacon Streets. A Queen Anne style carriage barn is part of the property; the Feeder Canal– Across from this historic canal is a hydro-electric power-plant on the Hudson River at Glens Falls. The canal was created around 1820 to feed water into the Champlain Canal. During the early 19th century, the New York State Canal System was crucial to the development of the state's economy.
Lime, marble and agricultural commodities were shipped from Glens Falls from the docks at the base of Canal Street. First Presbyterian Church - The congregation was chartered in 1803, it was designed by Ralph Adams Cram in his "presbyterian style" of neo-gothic architecture. Fort Amherst Road – Located near this road is the site of the former Fort Amherst. While the fort no longer exists, parts of the wood foundations were known as late as 1880; the fort constituted a block house marking the halfway point on the road between Fort Edward and Fort William Henry at the head of Lake George. This fort system, erected by the British, was built to secure the colony's northern territories from French incursions during the French and Indian War. A restored fort house complex is available for viewing in the nearby town of Fort Ann. Louis Fiske Hyde House – The center among a triplet of revival-type residences constructed for the daughters of Samuel Pruyn by the architects Robert Rheinlander and Henry Forbes Bigelow, Hyde House houses The Hyde Collection, a world-class museum of European and contemporary art.
The principal collection is presented in its original domestic context as a private collection. The Oldest Building in Glens Falls – In 1864 a massive fire destroyed most of buildings in
Ethan Allen was a farmer, land speculator, writer, lay theologian, American Revolutionary War patriot, politician. He is best known as one of the founders of the U. S. state of Vermont, for the capture of Fort Ticonderoga early in the American Revolutionary War along with Benedict Arnold. He was the father of Frances Allen. Born in rural Connecticut, Allen had a frontier upbringing but received an education that included some philosophical teachings. In the late 1760s he became interested in the New Hampshire Grants, buying land there and becoming embroiled in the legal disputes surrounding the territory. Legal setbacks led to the formation of the Green Mountain Boys, whom Allen led in a campaign of intimidation and property destruction to drive New York settlers from the Grants; when the American Revolutionary War broke out and the Boys seized the initiative and captured Fort Ticonderoga in May 1775. In September 1775 Allen led a failed attempt on Montreal that resulted in his capture by British authorities.
First imprisoned aboard Royal Navy ships, he was paroled in New York City, released in a prisoner exchange in 1778. Upon his release, Allen returned to the Grants, which had declared independence in 1777, resumed political activity in the territory. In addition to continuing resistance to New York's attempts to assert control over the territory, Allen was active in efforts by Vermont's leadership for recognition by Congress, he participated in controversial negotiations with the British over the possibility of Vermont becoming a separate British province. Allen wrote accounts of his exploits in the war that were read in the 19th century, as well as philosophical treatises and documents relating to the politics of Vermont's formation, his business dealings included successful farming operations, one of Connecticut's early iron works, land speculation in the Vermont territory. Land purchased by Allen and his brothers included tracts of land that became Burlington, Vermont, he was twice married.
Ethan Allen was born in Litchfield, the first-born child of Joseph and Mary Baker Allen, both descended from English Puritans. The family moved to the town of Cornwall shortly after his birth; the move to Cornwall grew out of Allen's father's quest for freedom of religion during a time of turmoil: the Great Awakening, when Puritans were separating into churches with differing dogmas, in particular about the proper form of conversion: by works or by grace. His lifelong interest in philosophy and ideas emerged against the backdrop of his father's involvement in these Puritan debates and his father's refusal to convert to the covenant by grace; as a boy Allen excelled at quoting the Bible and was known for disputing the meaning of passages. Seven siblings, all of whom survived to adulthood, joined the family between Allen's birth in 1738 and 1751. Allen had two sisters, his brothers Ira and Heman would become prominent figures in the early history of Vermont. Although not much is known about Allen's childhood, the town of Cornwall was frontier territory in the 1740s.
By the time Allen reached his teens, the area, while still a difficult area in which to make a living, began to resemble a town, with wood-frame houses beginning to replace the rough cabins of the early settlers. Joseph Allen died in 1755. Allen had, before his father's death, begun studies under a minister in the nearby town of Salisbury with the goal of gaining admission to Yale College. Allen's brother Ira recalled that at a young age, Allen was curious and interested in learning. Allen was forced to end his studies upon his father's death. While he volunteered for militia service in 1757 in response to French movements resulting in the siege of Fort William Henry, his unit received word while en route that the fort had fallen, turned back. Though the French and Indian War continued over the next several years, Allen did not participate in any further military activities, is presumed to have tended his farm, at least until 1762. In that year, he became part owner of an iron furnace in Salisbury.
He married Mary Brownson, a woman five years his senior, from the nearby town of Roxbury, in July 1762. They first settled in Cornwall, but moved the following year to Salisbury with their infant daughter Loraine. Allen proceeded to develop the iron works; the expansion of the iron works was costly to Allen. The Allen brothers sold their interest in the iron works in October of 1765. By most accounts Allen's first marriage was an unhappy one, his wife was rigidly religious, prone to criticizing him, able to read and write. In contrast, Allen's behavior was sometimes quite flamboyant. In spite of these differences the marriage survived until Mary's death in 1783. Allen and Mary had five children only two of whom reached adulthood. Allen's exploits in those years introduced him to the wrong side of the justice system, which would become a recurring feature of his life. In one incident, he and his brother Heman went to the farm of a neighbor, some of whose pigs had escaped onto their land, seized the pigs.
The neighbor sued to have the animals returned to him.
Battle of Machias
The Battle of Machias was the first naval engagement of the American Revolutionary War known as the Battle of the Margaretta, fought around the port of Machias, Maine. Following the outbreak of the war, British authorities enlisted Loyalist merchant Ichabod Jones to supply the troops who were under the Siege of Boston. Two of his merchant ships arrived in Machias on June 2, 1775, accompanied by the British armed sloop HMS Margaretta, commanded by Midshipman James Moore; the townspeople of Machias arrested him. They tried to arrest Moore, but he escaped through the harbor; the townspeople seized one of Jones' ships, armed it alongside a second local ship, sailed out to meet Moore. After a short confrontation, Moore was fatally wounded, his vessel and crew were captured; the people of Machias captured additional British ships, fought off a large force that tried to take control of the town in the Battle of Machias in 1777. Privateers and others operating out of Machias continued to harass the Royal Navy throughout the war.
The American Revolutionary War began on April 19, 1775 with the Battles of Lexington and Concord in the Province of Massachusetts Bay, after which the Continental Army under the command of George Washington besieged the British army in the Siege of Boston. The besieged British were led by General Thomas Gage and Admiral Samuel Graves, both did business with the people of Machias. Gage required lumber to build barracks for the additional troops arriving in the besieged city, Graves wanted to recover the guns from the HMS Halifax shipwreck, intentionally run aground in Machias Bay by a local pilot in February 1775; the ship's guns were reported to be of interest to the Patriots of Machias. Graves authorized Machias merchant Ichabod Jones to carry flour and other food supplies to Machias aboard his ships Unity and Polly, which would be exchanged for Gage's needed lumber. To guarantee that this trade would happen, Graves sent Midshipman James Moore from his flagship HMS Preston to command the armed schooner HMS Margaretta and accompany the two merchant vessels.
Moore had additional orders to retrieve. On June 2, 1775, Jones' ships arrived in the port at Machias. However, they were met with resistance from the townspeople when Jones refused to sell his pork and flour unless he was allowed to load lumber for Boston. In a meeting on June 6, 1775, the townspeople voted against doing business with Jones; the hostile climate forced Jones to take action by ordering Moore to bring Margaretta within firing distance of the town. The threat prompted the townspeople to meet for a second time, they voted to permit trade. Unity was docked at the wharf to begin unloading the supplies. Following the vote, Jones announced that he would only do business with those who had voted in favor of trade; this angered those. As a result, Colonel Benjamin Foster, a local militia leader, conspired with militia from neighboring towns to capture Jones, This was inspired by the actions of the Brunswick militiamen in Thompson's War a month earlier. Foster's plan was to seize Jones at church on June 11, but the plan failed when Jones noticed the group of men approaching the building.
Moore managed to get back to his ship, while Jones escaped into the woods and did not emerge until two days later. The men of Machias regrouped the next day, Foster took around 20 men, including his brother, Wooden Foster, to East Machias where they seized Unity and constructed deck breastworks to serve as protection, they commandeered a local schooner named Falmouth Packet. The other militia men traveled on land to find the place where Margaretta was anchored and demanded surrender. After refusing to surrender, Moore sailed to where Polly was attempted to recover her. There was an inconsequential exchange of gunfire with the militia men who were located on the shore, Moore was able to raise anchor and travel to a safe anchorage; the remaining men armed themselves with muskets and axes to set out after Margaretta. After escaping the Machias men, Margaretta was forced to jibe into brisk winds, which resulted in the main boom and gaff breaking away, crippling its navigability. Once Moore was in Holmes Bay he took its spar and gaff to replace Margaretta's.
Moore took its pilot, Robert Avery, captive. Unity crew of about 30 Machias men elected Jeremiah O'Brien as their captain and sailed out to chase down Margaretta. Since Unity was a much faster sailing vessel, O'Brien's crew caught up to the crippled Margaretta, while Falmouth Packet lagged behind. Upon seeing Unity approaching, Moore opened full sail and cut away his boats in an attempt to escape; as Unity pulled closer, Moore opened fire. Unity crew pulled alongside Margaretta. Led by Joseph Getchell and O'Brien's brother, Unity crew stormed on board. Both sides exchanged musket shots. Moore was taken down by Samuel Watts with a musket shot to the chest. Once Falmouth Packet caught up to the attack, it managed to pull along the other side of Moore's ship. With the combination of both crews, they were able to overwhelm Margaretta. Since Moore was grievously wounded in the battle, his second-in-command, Midshipman Richard Stillingfleet, surrendered the crew and the vessel. Moore was put into the care of Ichabod Jones's nephew, Stephen Jones.
However, Moore's wounds were too severe and he died the following day. Three other members of Moore's crew were killed, including Robert Avery; the remaining crew members of the British schooner were held at Machias for a month handed
Henry Knox Trail
The Henry Knox Trail known as the Knox Cannon Trail, is a network of roads and paths that traces the route of Colonel Henry Knox's "noble train of artillery" from Crown Point to the Continental Army camp outside Boston, Massachusetts early in the American Revolutionary War. Knox was commissioned by Continental Army commander George Washington in 1775 to transport 59 cannons from captured forts on Lake Champlain, 30 from Fort Ticonderoga and 29 from Crown Point, to the army camp outside Boston to aid the war effort there against British forces, they included forty-three heavy brass and iron cannons, six cohorns, eight mortars, two howitzers. Knox, using sledges pulled by teams of oxen to haul these cannons, many weighing over a ton, crossed an icy Lake George in mid-winter, he proceeded to travel through rural New York and the snow-covered Berkshire Mountains of Massachusetts arriving to the aid of the beleaguered Continental Army in January 1776. In 1926, the 150th anniversary of Knox's march, the states of New York and Massachusetts both began installing commemorative plaques at 56 locations in the two states that trace the route the expedition passed through.
The exact nature of the collaboration between the two states is unclear, however the work was completed in 1927. The New York markers' bronze reliefs were designed by Henry James Albright, the Massachusetts reliefs by Henry L. Norton. In 1975, the marker locations between Kinderhook, New York and Alford, Massachusetts were updated after new research found Knox did not pass through Claverack, New York. A new marker was added to the trail at Roxbury Heritage State Park in Boston in 2009, adjacent to a house owned by General John Thomas, who guided the weapons received from Knox to their final placement on Dorchester Heights overlooking Boston. Knox Trail monuments – As of 13 May 2010 includes photos of the fifteen markers from Rensselaer to Westfield
The Continental Army was formed by the Second Continental Congress after the outbreak of the American Revolutionary War by the ex-British colonies that became the United States of America. Established by a resolution of the Congress on June 14, 1775, it was created to coordinate the military efforts of the Thirteen Colonies in their revolt against the rule of Great Britain; the Continental Army was supplemented by local militias and volunteer troops that remained under control of the individual states or were otherwise independent. General George Washington was the commander-in-chief of the army throughout the war. Most of the Continental Army was disbanded in 1783; the 1st and 2nd Regiments went on to form the nucleus of the Legion of the United States in 1792 under General Anthony Wayne. This became the foundation of the United States Army in 1796; the Continental Army consisted of soldiers from all 13 colonies and, after 1776, from all 13 states. When the American Revolutionary War began at the Battles of Lexington and Concord on April 19, 1775, the colonial revolutionaries did not have an army.
Each colony had relied upon the militia, made up of part-time citizen-soldiers, for local defense, or the raising of temporary "provincial regiments" during specific crises such as the French and Indian War of 1754–63. As tensions with Great Britain increased in the years leading to the war, colonists began to reform their militias in preparation for the perceived potential conflict. Training of militiamen increased after the passage of the Intolerable Acts in 1774. Colonists such as Richard Henry Lee proposed forming a national militia force, but the First Continental Congress rejected the idea. On April 23, 1775, the Massachusetts Provincial Congress authorized the raising of a colonial army consisting of 26 company regiments. New Hampshire, Rhode Island, Connecticut soon raised similar but smaller forces. On June 14, 1775, the Second Continental Congress decided to proceed with the establishment of a Continental Army for purposes of common defense, adopting the forces in place outside Boston and New York.
It raised the first ten companies of Continental troops on a one-year enlistment, riflemen from Pennsylvania, Maryland and Virginia to be used as light infantry, who became the 1st Continental Regiment in 1776. On June 15, 1775, the Congress elected by unanimous vote George Washington as Commander-in-Chief, who accepted and served throughout the war without any compensation except for reimbursement of expenses. On July 18, 1775, the Congress requested all colonies form militia companies from "all able bodied effective men, between sixteen and fifty years of age." It was not uncommon for men younger than sixteen to enlist as most colonies had no requirement of parental consent for those under twenty-one. Four major-generals and eight brigadier-generals were appointed by the Second Continental Congress in the course of a few days. After Pomeroy did not accept, John Thomas was appointed in his place; as the Continental Congress adopted the responsibilities and posture of a legislature for a sovereign state, the role of the Continental Army became the subject of considerable debate.
Some Americans had a general aversion to maintaining a standing army. As a result, the army went through several distinct phases, characterized by official dissolution and reorganization of units. Soldiers in the Continental Army were citizens who had volunteered to serve in the army, at various times during the war, standard enlistment periods lasted from one to three years. Early in the war the enlistment periods were short, as the Continental Congress feared the possibility of the Continental Army evolving into a permanent army; the army never numbered more than 17,000 men. Turnover proved a constant problem in the winter of 1776–77, longer enlistments were approved. Broadly speaking, Continental forces consisted of several successive armies, or establishments: The Continental Army of 1775, comprising the initial New England Army, organized by Washington into three divisions, six brigades, 38 regiments. Major General Philip Schuyler's ten regiments in New York were sent to invade Canada; the Continental Army of 1776, reorganized after the initial enlistment period of the soldiers in the 1775 army had expired.
Washington had submitted recommendations to the Continental Congress immediately after he had accepted the position of Commander-in-Chief, but the Congress took time to consider and implement these. Despite attempts to broaden the recruiting base beyond New England, the 1776 army remained skewed toward the Northeast both in terms of its composition and of its geographical focus; this army consisted of 36 regiments, most standardized to a single battalion of 768 men strong and formed into eight companies, with a rank-and-file strength of 640. The Continental Army of 1777–80 evolved out of several critical reforms and political decisions that came about when it became apparent that the British were sending massive forces to put an end to the American Revolution; the Continental Congress passed the "Eighty-eight Battalion Resolve", ordering each state to contribute one-battalion regiments in proportion to their population, Washington subsequently received authority to raise an additional 16 battalions.
Enlistment terms extended to three years or to "the length of the war" to avoid the year-end crises that deplet
Battle of Bunker Hill
The Battle of Bunker Hill was fought on June 17, 1775, during the Siege of Boston in the early stages of the American Revolutionary War. The battle is named after Bunker Hill in Charlestown, peripherally involved in the battle, it was the original objective of both the colonial and British troops, though the majority of combat took place on the adjacent hill which became known as Breed's Hill. On June 13, 1775, the leaders of the colonial forces besieging Boston learned that the British were planning to send troops out from the city to fortify the unoccupied hills surrounding the city, which would give them control of Boston Harbor. In response, 1,200 colonial troops under the command of William Prescott stealthily occupied Bunker Hill and Breed's Hill. During the night, the colonists constructed a strong redoubt on Breed's Hill, as well as smaller fortified lines across the Charlestown Peninsula. By daybreak of June 17, the British became aware of the presence of colonial forces on the Peninsula and mounted an attack against them that day.
Two assaults on the colonial positions were repulsed with significant British casualties. The colonists retreated to Cambridge over Bunker Hill, leaving the British in control of the Peninsula; the battle was a tactical, though somewhat Pyrrhic victory for the British, as it proved to be a sobering experience for them, involving many more casualties than the Americans had incurred, including a large number of officers. The battle had demonstrated that inexperienced militia were able to stand up to regular army troops in battle. Subsequently, the battle discouraged the British from any further frontal attacks against well defended front lines. American casualties were comparatively much fewer, although their losses included General Joseph Warren and Major Andrew McClary, the final casualty of the battle; the battle led the British to adopt a more cautious planning and maneuver execution in future engagements, evident in the subsequent New York and New Jersey campaign, arguably helped rather than hindered the American forces.
Their new approach to battle was giving the Americans greater opportunity to retreat if defeat was imminent. The costly engagement convinced the British of the need to hire substantial numbers of foreign mercenaries to bolster their strength in the face of the new and formidable Continental Army. Boston, situated on a peninsula, was protected from close approach by the expanses of water surrounding it, which were dominated by British warships. In the aftermath of the battles of Lexington and Concord on April 19, 1775, the colonial militia, a force of about 15,000 men, had surrounded the town, besieged it. Under the command of Artemas Ward, they controlled the only land access to Boston itself, lacking a navy, were unable to contest British domination of the waters of the harbor; the British troops, a force of about 6,000 under the command of General Thomas Gage, occupied the city, were able to be resupplied and reinforced by sea. In theory, they were thus able to remain in Boston indefinitely.
However, the land across the water from Boston contained a number of hills, which could be used to advantage. If the militia could obtain enough artillery pieces, these could be placed on the hills and used to bombard the city until the occupying army evacuated it or surrendered, it was with this in mind that the Knox Expedition, led by Henry Knox transported cannon from Fort Ticonderoga to the Boston area. The Charlestown Peninsula, lying to the north of Boston, started from a short, narrow isthmus at its northwest and extended about 1 mile southeastward into Boston Harbor. Bunker Hill, with an elevation of 110 feet, lay at the northern end of the peninsula. Breed's Hill, at a height of 62 feet, was more nearer to Boston; the town of Charlestown occupied flats at the southern end of the peninsula. At its closest approach, less than 1,000 feet separated the Charlestown Peninsula from the Boston Peninsula, where Copp's Hill was at about the same height as Breed's Hill. While the British retreat from Concord had ended in Charlestown, General Gage, rather than fortifying the hills on the peninsula, had withdrawn those troops to Boston the day after that battle, turning the entire Charlestown Peninsula into a no man's land.
Throughout May, in response to orders from Gage requesting support, the British received reinforcements, until they reached a strength of about 6,000 men. On May 25, three generals arrived on HMS Cerberus: William Howe, John Burgoyne, Henry Clinton. Gage began planning with them to break out of the city, finalizing a plan on June 12; this plan began with the taking of the Dorchester Neck, fortifying the Dorchester Heights, marching on the colonial forces stationed in Roxbury. Once the southern flank had been secured, the Charlestown heights would be taken, the forces in Cambridge driven away; the attack was set for June 18. On June 13, the Massachusetts Provincial Congress was notified, by express messenger from the Committee of Safety in Exeter, New Hampshire, that a New Hampshire gentleman "of undoubted veracity" had, while visiting Boston, overheard the British commanders making plans to capture Dorchester and Charlestown. On June 15, the Massachusetts Committee of Safety decided that additional defenses needed to be erected.
General Ward directed General Israel Putnam to set up defenses on the Charlestown Peninsula on Bunker Hill. On the night of June 16, colonial Colonel William Prescott led about 1,200 men onto the peninsula in order to set up positions from which artillery fire could be directed