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Noise pollution

Noise pollution known as environmental noise or sound pollution, is the propagation of noise with harmful impact on the activity of human or animal life. The source of outdoor noise worldwide is caused by machines and propagation systems. Poor urban planning may give rise to noise disintegration or pollution, side-by-side industrial and residential buildings can result in noise pollution in the residential areas; some of the main sources of noise in residential areas include loud music, lawn care maintenance, electrical generators and people. Documented problems associated with urban environment noise go back as far as ancient Rome. Noise is measured in Decibel. Noise pollution associated with household electricity generators is an emerging environmental degradation in many developing nations; the average noise level of 97.60 dB obtained exceeded the WHO value of 50 dB allowed for residential areas. Research suggests that noise pollution is the highest in low-income and racial minority neighborhoods.

High noise levels can contribute to cardiovascular effects in humans and an increased incidence of coronary artery disease. In animals, noise can increase the risk of death by altering predator or prey detection and avoidance, interfere with reproduction and navigation, contribute to permanent hearing loss. While the elderly may have cardiac problems due to noise, according to the World Health Organization, children are vulnerable to noise, the effects that noise has on children may be permanent. Noise poses a serious threat to a child’s physical and psychological health, may negatively interfere with a child's learning and behavior. Noise pollution affects both behavior. Unwanted sound can damage physiological health. Noise pollution can cause hypertension, high stress levels, hearing loss, sleep disturbances, other harmful and disturbing effects. According to a 2019 review of the existing literature, noise pollution was associated with faster cognitive decline. Sound becomes unwanted when it either interferes with normal activities such as sleep or conversation, or disrupts or diminishes one's quality of life.

Noise-induced hearing loss can be caused by prolonged exposure to noise levels above 85 A-weighted decibels. A comparison of Maaban tribesmen, who were insignificantly exposed to transportation or industrial noise, to a typical U. S. population showed that chronic exposure to moderately high levels of environmental noise contributes to hearing loss. Noise exposure in the workplace can contribute to noise-induced hearing loss and other health issues. Occupational hearing loss is one of the most common work-related illnesses in the U. S. and worldwide. It is less clear. Tolerance for noise is independent of decibel levels. Murray Schafer's soundscape research was groundbreaking in this regard. In his work, he makes compelling arguments about how humans relate to noise on a subjective level, how such subjectivity is conditioned by culture. Schafer notes that sound is an expression of power, as such, material culture tend to have louder engines not only for safety reasons, but for expressions of power by dominating the soundscape with a particular sound.

Other key research in this area can be seen in Fong's comparative analysis of soundscape differences between Bangkok and Los Angeles, California, US. Based on Schafer's research, Fong's study showed how soundscapes differ based on the level of urban development in the area, he found. Fong's findings tie not only soundscape appreciation to subjective views of sound, but demonstrates how different sounds of the soundscape are indicative of class differences in urban environments. Noise pollution can have negative affects on children on the autistic spectrum; those with Autism Spectrum Disorder can have hyperacusis, an abnormal sensitivity to sound. People with ASD who experience hyperacusis may have unpleasant emotions, such as fear and anxiety, uncomfortable physical sensations in noisy environments with loud sounds; this can cause individuals with ASD to avoid environments with noise pollution, which in turn can result in isolation and negatively affect their quality of life. Sudden explosive noises typical of high-performance car exhausts and car alarms are types of noise pollution that can affect people with ASD.

Noise can have a detrimental effect on animals, increasing the risk of death by changing the delicate balance in predator or prey detection and avoidance, interfering the use of the sounds in communication in relation to reproduction and in navigation. These effects may alter more interactions within a community through indirect effects. Acoustic overexposure can lead to permanent loss of hearing. European robins living in urban environments are more to sing at night in places with high levels of noise pollution during the day, suggesting that they sing at night because it is quieter, their message can propagate through the environment more clearly; the same study showed that daytime noise was a stronger predictor of nocturnal singing than night-time light pollution, to which the phenomenon is attributed. Anthropogenic noise reduced the species richness of birds found in Neoptropical urban parks. Zebra finches become less faithful to their partners; this could alter a population's evolutionary trajectory by selecting traits, sapping resources devoted to other activities and thus leading to profound genetic and evoluti

Main Street Historic District (Baton Rouge, Louisiana)

Main Street Historic District is a historic district in downtown Baton Rouge, located along Main Street, from North 4th Street to North 7th Street. The 2.5 acres area comprises a total of 11 historic commercial buildings, dating from c.1890 to c.1935. The historic district was listed on the National Register of Historic Places on November 7, 1985; the historical district contains a total of 11 contributing properties, built between c.1890 and c.1935: Saltz Building, 442 Main Street, 30°27′05″N 91°11′11″W, built 1924. Building at 450-454 Main Street, 30°27′05″N 91°11′10″W, built c.1920. Building at 460 Main Street, 30°27′05″N 91°11′10″W, built c.1935. Building at 500 Main Street, 30°27′05″N 91°11′09″W, built c.1890. Commercial Building #1, 30°27′05″N 91°11′08″W, built c.1912. No more existing. Building at 544-546 Main Street, 30°27′05″N 91°11′07″W, built c.1915. Duggan Building, 618 Main Street, 30°27′05″N 91°11′04″W, built c.1920. Liberto Building, 624-626 Main Street, 30°27′05″N 91°11′03″W, built 1915.

Building at 640 Main Street, 30°27′05″N 91°11′02″W, built c.1925. Building at 654 Main Street, 30°27′05″N 91°11′02″W, built c.1920. Building at 660 Main Street, 30°27′05″N 91°11′01″W, built c.1920. National Register of Historic Places listings in East Baton Rouge Parish, Louisiana

Selous Game Reserve

The Selous Game Reserve is a protected area in southern Tanzania. It has additional buffer zones, it was designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1982 due to its wildlife diversity and undisturbed nature. Some of the typical wildlife of the miombo inhabits the reserve, such as African bush elephant, black rhino, lion, East African wild dog, Cape buffaloes, Masai giraffe, Plains zebra, Nile crocodile. Permanent human habitation is not permitted within the reserve. All human entry and exit is controlled by the Wildlife Division of the Tanzanian Ministry of Natural Resources and Tourism; the area was first designated a protected area in 1896 by the German Governor of Tanganyika Hermann von Wissmann, became a hunting reserve in 1905. The reserve was named after Frederick Selous, a famous big game hunter and early conservationist, who died at Beho Beho in this territory in 1917 while fighting against the Germans during World War I. Scottish explorer and cartographer Keith Johnston had died at Beho Beho in 1879 while leading a Royal Geographical Society expedition to the Great Lakes of Africa with Joseph Thomson.

Since 2005, the protected area is considered a Lion Conservation Unit. A boundary change to allow the use of uranium deposits has been approved; the approval for the boundary change was given by the UNESCO and criticized by environmentalists and organizations e.g. Uranium-Network and Rainforest Rescue. Tanzania president John Magufuli has given an approval of constructing a new Stiegler's Gorge Hydroelectric Power Station of 2,115MW over the Rufiji River; the power station will result to an additional 2,100 megawatts of electricity, more than tripling Tanzania's installed hydropower capacity of 562 megawatts. The project started on 26 July 2019 and should be completed by 2022; the International Union for Conservation of Nature has criticised the Government of Tanzania for failing to consider, the impact of the flooding of nearly 1,000 km2 will have, on both the people and biodiversity of the reserve. Thousands of people are dependent on the river for agriculture. Interesting places in the park include the Rufiji River, which flows into the Indian Ocean opposite Mafia Island and the Stiegler Gorge, a canyon of 100 metres depth and 100 metres width.

Habitats include grassland, typical Acacia savanna and extensive Miombo woodlands. Although total wildlife populations are high, the reserve is large and densities of animals are lower than in the more visited northern tourist circuit of Tanzania. In 1976, the Selous Game Reserve contained about 109,000 elephants the largest population in the world. By 2013, the numbers had dropped to about 13,000 – including a 66% drop from 2009 to 2013. Sources blame corrupt politicians and businessmen who help poachers. Most of the reserve remains set aside for game hunting through a number of leased hunting concessions, but a section of the northern park along the Rufiji River has been designated a photographic zone and is a popular tourist destination. There are several high end lodges and camps situated along the river and lake systems in this area. Rather difficult road access means most visitors arrive by small aircraft from Dar es Salaam, though train access is possible. Walking safaris are permitted in the Selous, boat trips on the Rufiji are a popular activity.

Peter Matthiessen and Hugo van Lawick: Sand Rivers. Aurum Press, London 1981, ISBN 0-906053-22-6. African World Heritage Sites - Selous Selous Game Reserve Official UNESCO website entry e

Watson's Dodd

Watson's Dodd is a fell in the English Lake District, a minor rise on the main ridge of the Helvellyn range in the Eastern Fells, but a prominent shoulder on the west side of that range. At its foot is the imposing crag of Castle Rock, on which rock climbers have developed some 60 named routes. Seen from the west, Watson's Dodd is a noticeable shoulder on the Helvellyn ridge, north of Sticks Pass; the summit stands on the main ridge of the Helvellyn range at the point where the south-west ridge of Great Dodd and the north-west ridge of Stybarrow Dodd meet and merge. From this point a shoulder drops into the valley of the; this shoulder, part of the High Fells of St John's Common, is defined by the deep valleys of Mill Gill to its north and Stanah Gill to its south. It slopes to around the 500 m contour, drops more steeply into the valley over a number of rocky crags. Just before reaching the valley, part of this shoulder rises again to the high, precipitous crag known as Castle Rock. On the eastern side of the ridge the deep valley of Browndale Beck separates Great Dodd from Stybarrow Dodd, so that Watson's Dodd has no eastern flanks at all other than its triangular summit plateau.

The highest point on Watson's Dodd has an elevation of 789 m, a prominence of only 11 m above the slight depression separating it from Stybarrow Dodd. Watson's Dodd stands on the main watershed between the Derwent river system to the west, Ullswater to the east. Streams on the west are now diverted into Thirlmere reservoir. Standing at the top of the Vale of St John's, the nearly vertical Castle Rock juts out from the hillside with rock faces on three sides; the castle-like profile is made still more picturesque by a garland of mixed woodland around the lower slopes. This rock has attracted the admiring views of visitors since the start of tourism to the Lakes. Thomas West in 1778 referred to the valley ‘nobly terminated by the castle-like rock of St. John’. Jonathan Otley in 1823 knew the rock as ‘the massive rock of Green Crag, sometimes called the Castle Rock of St. John's’; the Scottish lawyer and novelist Sir Walter Scott, wrote his romantic narrative-poem The Bridal of Triermain in 1812.

In this, Castle Rock appears as the setting for the Enchanted Castle from which the hero, Sir Roland de Vaux of Triermain, must rescue the maiden, Gyneth. Triermain was the name of a fiefdom in the barony of Gilsland in north-east Cumberland; the association with Walter Scott's poem has sometimes led Castle Rock to be called Castle Rock of Triermain by rock climbers in order to distinguish it from another Castle Rock in Gloucestershire. Climbers have named over 60 routes up the rock; the precipitous North Crag was first climbed by Jim Birkett on April Fools' Day, 1939, by a route called Overhanging Bastion. Since 2011 the North Crag has been considered dangerous because a large crack has opened up at the top creating the potential for a massive rockfall. South Crag is less steep and quicker-drying, holds the less difficult routes; the summit of Castle Rock has an elevation of 339 m, with a prominence of 29 m from the fellside behind it. The summit of Watson's Dodd is a grassy triangular plateau which slopes to the east and is bounded by paths on all three sides.

Its highest point, at the western apex of the triangle, is marked by a small cairn. The view from the summit is ‘sumptuous’. Standing to the west of the main ridge, the summit gives a panoramic view from Blencathra and Skiddaw in the north, round to the Coniston group in the south; the view extends over Thirlmere to the central fells, is bounded by the western and northwestern fells. On a clear day the hills of south-west Scotland are visible. Routes to the top begin from the B5322 road, where parking is available at Legburthwaite or at Stanah village hall. There are no marked paths up the fellside. Keeping to the crest of the ridge leads unfailingly to the summit cairn; the summit may be visited by following the well-used paths along the main Helvellyn ridge, though many ridge walkers appear to bypass the summit. The rocks of Watson's Dodd are all part of the Borrowdale Volcanic Group, formed on the margin of an ancient continent during a period of intense volcanic activity 450 million years ago in the Ordovician Period.

Within that group, the bulk of the rocks forming the fell belong to the Birker Fell Andesite Formation. These rocks are among the earliest of the volcanic rocks of the Borrowdale Volcanic Group, are part of a thick succession of andesite sheets which now outcrop in a wide band around the western and northern sides of the Lake District; these sheets were formed by successive eruptions of mobile andesitic lava from shallow-sided volcanoes. Between the individual lava flows may be beds of volcaniclastic sandstone, sedimentary deposits formed from the erosion of the volcanic rocks; the geological map shows small deposits of this on the fellside, as well as some lapilli-tuff resulting from a more explosive eruption. After the eruptions of the Birker Fell Formation the composition of the erupting magma changed from andesitic to dacitic, as a result the nature of the volcanism became more explosive. In the area to the north of Sticks Pass the Birker Fell andesites are overlain by the Lincomb Tarns Tuff Formation.

This formation is one of the most widespread of the volcanic rocks of the Lake District. This format

William H. Cate

William Henderson Cate was an American politician, a judge, a U. S. Representative from Arkansas. Cate was born near Murfreesboro, Tennessee son of Noah Cate, a Baptist minister, his wife Margaret M. Cate, he attended the common schools, as well as an academy at Virginia. He graduated from the University of Tennessee at Knoxville in 1857. In 1868, he married Virginia E. Warner of Craighead County, the couple had one son. Cate taught school while studying law until the Civil War, he served in the Confederate States Army. After a move to Jonesboro, Arkansas in 1865, Cate studied law, was admitted to the bar in Arkansas in 1866 and commenced the practice of law, he served as a member of the Arkansas House of Representatives 1871-1873 and during the extra session of 1874. He was elected prosecuting attorney in 1878, was appointed and subsequently elected judge of the second judicial circuit of Arkansas in 1884, he organized the Bank of Jonesboro in 1887. Cate presented credentials as a Democratic member-elect to the Fifty-first Congress where he served from March 4, 1889 until March 5, 1890 when he was succeeded by Lewis P. Featherstone.

Featherstone had contested the election after having been put up as a candidate to oppose Cate by The Agricultural Wheel. In an agreement between The Wheel and the Republican Party, the Republicans agreed to support Featherstone against Cate. In return "The Wheel" agreed to support John M. Clayton against Clifton R. Breckinridge; the House Committee on Elections decided in favor of Featherstone. Cate was elected to the Fifty-second Congress which ran from March 4, 1891 until March 3, 1893, he declined to be a candidate for renomination in 1892 to the Fifty-third Congress. He resumed the practice of law in Jonesboro, Arkansas. While on a visit in Toledo, Cate died of cancer on August 23, 1899, he is interred at the City Cemetery in Arkansas. United States Congress. "William H. Cate". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. William H. Cate at Find a Grave This article incorporates public domain material from the Biographical Directory of the United States Congress website

Bathurst Region

The Bathurst Region is a local government area in the Central West region of New South Wales, Australia. The area is located adjacent to the Great Western Highway, Mid-Western Highway, Mitchell Highway and the Main Western railway line. At the 2016 census, the Bathurst Region had a population of 41,300; the administrative centre of the area is located in the city of Bathurst 200 kilometres west of Sydney central business district. The Mayor of Bathurst is Cr. Bobby Bourke, an unaligned politician. In addition to the city of Bathurst, the area includes the suburbs of Kelso and Raglan and the villages of Eglinton, Rockley, Georges Plains, Trunkey Creek, Vittoria, Wattle Flat, Hill End, Meadow Flat and Sallys Flat. Bathurst Regional Council is composed of nine Councillors elected proportionally as a single ward. All Councillors are elected for a fixed four-year term of office; the Mayor is elected by the Councillors at the first meeting of the Council, in September annually. The most recent election of Councillors was held on 9 September 2017, the makeup of the Council is as follows: The current Council, elected in 2017, in order of election, is: Bathurst was proclaimed a city in 1885.

The Bathurst Region was created on 26 May 2004 as a result of a merger of Bathurst City and Evans Shire. A 2015 review of local government boundaries recommended that the Bathurst Region merge with the Oberon Shire to form a new council with an area of 7,443 square kilometres and support a population of 47,000; the outcome of an independent review was expected to be completed by mid–2016. Bathurst has sister city relations with the following city: Ōkuma, since 1991 Official website