Marty Kaplan is the Norman Lear Professor of Entertainment and Society at the USC Annenberg School for Communication & Journalism and the founding director of the Norman Lear Center for the study of the impact of entertainment on society. His career has spanned government and politics, the entertainment industry and journalism. Kaplan graduated from Harvard College summa cum laude in molecular biology and won the Le Baron Russell Briggs prize for delivering the English Oration at commencement, he was president of the Harvard Lampoon and of the Signet Society. Kaplan was elected to the editorial boards of the Harvard Crimson and the Harvard Advocate and was the first Harvard undergraduate to serve on all three of its oldest publications; the recipient of a Marshall Scholarship from the British government, he received a master's degree in English with First Class Honours from Cambridge University in England. As a Danforth Foundation Fellow, he received a Ph. D. in Modern Thought and Literature from Stanford University.
Kaplan served in the administration of President Jimmy Carter as chief speechwriter to Vice President Walter F. Mondale, as executive assistant to the U. S. Commissioner of Education, Ernest L. Boyer; as deputy campaign manager of Mondale's presidential campaign, he directed the campaign's speechwriting and research operations. He worked with Boyer on education policy while a program officer at the Aspen Institute, a guest scholar at the Brookings Institution, a senior advisor at the Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching. Kaplan worked at the Walt Disney Studios for 12 years, as vice president of production for live-action feature films and as a writer-producer under exclusive contract, he has credits on The Distinguished Gentleman, starring Eddie Murphy, an award-winning political comedy which he wrote and executive produced. Kaplan created and hosted So What Else Is News?, the nationally syndicated Air America Radio program examining media politics and pop culture. On public radio, he was a featured commentator on NPR's All Things Considered, on "Marketplace," where his beat was the business of entertainment.
Today he is a Senior Columnist at The Forward. From its inception through 2017 he has been a blogger on the home page of The Huffington Post. For 10 years he was a columnist for the Jewish Journal, his columns have won six First Place prizes from the Los Angeles Press Club. He was deputy op-ed editor and a columnist for the Washington Star and a commentator on the CBS Morning News. Kaplan was associate dean of the USC Annenberg School for 10 years and is the founding director of the School's Norman Lear Center, a center of research and innovation whose mission is to study and shape the impact of media and entertainment on society, his Lear Center research includes the political coverage on U. S. local TV news broadcasts, the effects on audiences of public health messages in entertainment storylines. In 1986, Kaplan married Susan Estrich, a lawyer, author, political operative, feminist advocate, future political commentator for Fox News, they have two children. They divorced. Norman Lear Center bio Annenberg page The final So What Else... blog post USC Center on Public Diplomacy
Denholm Mitchell Elliott, was an English actor, with more than 120 film and television credits. Some of his well-known roles include the abortionist in Alfie, Marcus Brody in Raiders of the Lost Ark and Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade, Coleman in Trading Places, Mr. Emerson in A Room with a View. Elliott earned critical acclaim in his career, he was nominated for the Academy Award for Best Supporting Actor for his performance in A Room with a View and won the BAFTA Award for Best Actor in a Supporting Role in three consecutive years in the 1980s, becoming the only actor to have achieved this. The American film critic Roger Ebert described him as "the most dependable of all British character actors." The New York Times called him "a star among supporting players" and "an accomplished scene-stealer". Elliott was born in the son of Nina and Myles Layman Farr Elliott. Myles was a barrister who had read law and Arabic at Cambridge before fighting with the Glosters at Gallipoli and in Mesopotamia.
In 1930 Myles Elliott was appointed solicitor-general to the Mandatory Government in Palestine. Three years following a series of controversial government prosecutions, he was assassinated outside the King David Hotel and buried in the Protestant Cemetery on Mount Zion. Elliott's elder brother Neil was land agent to Lady Anne Cavendish-Bentinck. Elliott trained at the Royal Academy of Dramatic Art in London, he was asked to leave the academy after one term. As Elliott recalled, "They wrote to my mother and said,'Much as we like the little fellow, he's wasting your money and our time. Take him away!'"In the Second World War, he joined the Royal Air Force, training as a wireless operator/air gunner and serving with No. 76 Squadron RAF under the command of Leonard Cheshire. On the night of 23/24 September 1942, his Handley Page Halifax DT508 bomber took part in an air raid on the U-boat pens at Flensburg, Germany; the aircraft was subsequently ditched in the North Sea near Sylt, Germany. Only Elliott and two crewmen survived, he spent the rest of the war in a prisoner of war camp in Silesia.
While imprisoned, he became involved in amateur dramatics. After making his film debut in Dear Mr. Prohack, he went on to play a wide range of parts ineffectual and seedy characters, such as the drunken journalist Bayliss in Defence of the Realm, the criminal abortionist in Alfie, the washed-up film director in The Apprenticeship of Duddy Kravitz. Elliott and Natasha Parry played, he took over for an ill Michael Aldridge for one season of The Man in Room 17 Elliott made many television appearances, which included plays by Dennis Potter such as Follow the Yellow Brick Road and Treacle, Blade on the Feather. He starred in the BBC's adaptation of Charles Dickens's short story The Signalman. In the 1980s he won three consecutive British Academy of Film and Television Arts awards—Best Supporting Actor for Trading Places as Dan Aykroyd's kindly butler, A Private Function, Defence of the Realm—as well as an Academy Award nomination for A Room with a View, he became familiar to a wider audience as the well-meaning but addlepated Dr. Marcus Brody in Raiders of the Lost Ark and Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade.
A photograph of his character appears in Indiana Jones and the Kingdom of the Crystal Skull, a reference is made to Brody's death. A statue was dedicated to Marcus outside Marshall College, the school where Indy teaches. In 1988 Elliott was the Russian mole Povin, around whom the entire plot revolves, in the television miniseries Codename: Kyril. Having filmed Michael Winner's The Wicked Lady, Elliott was quoted in a BBC Radio interview as saying that Marc Sinden and he "are the only two British actors I am aware of who have worked with Winner more than once, it wasn't for love, but curiously, I never saw any of the same crew twice.". Elliott had worked with Sir Donald Sinden, in the film The Cruel Sea, he co-starred with Katharine Hepburn and Harold Gould in the television film Mrs. Delafield Wants to Marry and with Nicole Kidman in Bangkok Hilton. In 1988 Elliott was appointed a commander of the Order of the British Empire for his services to acting, his career included many stage performances, including with the Royal Shakespeare Company, a well-acclaimed turn as the twin brothers in Jean Anouilh's Ring Round the Moon.
His scene-stealing abilities led Gabriel Byrne, his co-star in Defence of the Realm, to say: "Never act with children, dogs, or Denholm Elliott."Despite being described by British Film Institute's Screenonline as an actor of "versatile understanding and immaculate technique," Elliott described himself as an instinctive actor and was a critic of Stanislavski's system of acting, saying, "I mistrust and am rather bored with actors who are of the Stanislavski school who think about detail." Bisexual, Elliott was married twice: first to actress Virginia McKenna for a few months in 1954, in an open marriage, to American actress Susan Robinson, with whom he had two children and Jennifer. Jennifer committed suicide in 2003. Elliott was diagnosed with HIV in 1987 and died of AIDS-related tuberculosis at his home in Santa Eulària des Riu on Ibiza, Spain, on 6 October 1992 at the age of 70. Tributes were paid by actors Sir Donald Sinden and Sir Peter Ustinov, playwright Dennis Potter, former wife Virginia McKenna.
Christopher D'Olier Reeve was an American actor who played DC comic book superhero Superman, beginning with the acclaimed Superman, for which he won a BAFTA Award. Reeve appeared in other critically acclaimed films such as The Bostonians, Street Smart and The Remains of the Day, he received a Screen Actors Guild Award and a Golden Globe Award nomination for his performance in the television remake of Rear Window. On May 27, 1995, Reeve was left quadriplegic after being thrown from a horse during an equestrian competition in Culpeper, Virginia, he needed a portable ventilator to breathe for the rest of his life. He lobbied on behalf of people with spinal cord injuries and for human embryonic stem cell research, founding the Christopher Reeve Foundation and co-founding the Reeve-Irvine Research Center. Christopher D'Olier Reeve was born on September 25, 1952, in New York City, the son of Barbara Pitney Lamb, a journalist, Franklin D'Olier Reeve, a teacher, novelist and scholar. Reeve was of entirely English ancestry, with many family lines, in America since the early 17th century.
His paternal grandfather, Colonel Richard Henry Reeve, had been the CEO of Prudential Financial for over 25 years. Reeve's father was a Princeton University graduate studying for a master's degree in Russian at Columbia University before the birth of his son, Christopher. Despite being born wealthy, Franklin Reeve spent summers working at the docks with longshoremen. Reeve's mother had been a student at Vassar College in Poughkeepsie, but transferred to Barnard College to be closer to Franklin, whom she had met through a family connection, they had another son, born on October 6, 1953. Franklin and Barbara divorced in 1956, she moved with her two sons to Princeton, New Jersey, where they attended Nassau Street School; that year, Franklin Reeve married Helen Schmidinger, a Columbia University graduate student. Barbara Pitney Lamb married Tristam B. Johnson, a stockbroker, in 1959. Johnson enrolled Christopher and his brother, Benjamin, in Princeton Country Day School, which merged with Miss Fine's School for Girls to become the co-educational Princeton Day School.
Reeve excelled academically and onstage. The sportsmanship award at Princeton Day School's invitational hockey tournament was named in Reeve's honor. Reeve admitted that he put pressure on himself to act older than he was in order to gain his father's approval. Reeve found his passion for acting in 1962 at age nine when he was cast in an amateur version of the operetta The Yeomen of the Guard. In mid-1968, at age fifteen, Reeve was accepted as an apprentice at the Williamstown Theatre Festival in Williamstown, Massachusetts; the other apprentices were college students, but Reeve's older appearance and maturity helped him fit in with the others. In a workshop, he played a scene from A View from the Bridge, chosen to be presented in front of an audience. After the performance, actress Olympia Dukakis said to him, "I'm surprised. You've got a lot of talent. Don't mess it up." The next summer, Reeve was hired at the Harvard Summer Repertory Theater Company in Cambridge for $44 per week. He played a Russian sailor in The Belyayev in A Month in the Country.
Famed theater critic Elliot Norton called his performance as Belyayev "startlingly effective." The 23-year-old lead actress in the play, a Carnegie Mellon graduate, turned out to be Reeve's first romance. She was engaged to a fellow Carnegie Mellon graduate at the time. Reeve's romance with the actress fizzled a few months when the age difference became an issue. Reeve was involved with Scientology but opted out of becoming a member, he subsequently voiced criticism of the organization. After graduating from Princeton Day School in June 1970, Reeve acted in plays in Maine, he planned to go to New York City to find a career in theater. However, at the advice of his mother, he applied for college, he was accepted into Princeton University in New Jersey. Reeve said that he chose Cornell because it was distanced from New York City and because of the temptations of working as an actor versus finishing college, as he had promised his mother and step-father. Reeve joined the theater department in Cornell, played Pozzo in Waiting for Godot, Segismundo in Life Is a Dream, Hamlet in Rosencrantz and Guildenstern Are Dead, Polixenes in The Winter's Tale.
Late in his freshman year, Reeve received a letter from Stark Hesseltine, a high-powered New York City agent who had discovered Robert Redford and who represented actors such as Richard Chamberlain, Michael Douglas, Susan Sarandon. Hesseltine wanted to represent him. Reeve was excited and kept re-reading the letter to make sure of what it said. Reeve was anxious to get on with his career; the two met, but Reeve was surprised to find that Hesseltine supported his promise to his mother and step-father to complete college. They decided that instead of dropping out of school, Reeve would come to New York once a month to meet casting agents and producers to find wor
Mary Lucy Denise Henner is an American actress, radio host, author. She began her career appearing in the original production of the musical Grease in 1971, before making her screen debut in the 1977 comedy-drama film Between the Lines. In 1977, Henner was cast in her breakthrough role as Elaine O'Connor Nardo in the ABC/NBC sitcom Taxi, a role she played until 1983 and received five Golden Globe Award nominations, she has had co-starring roles in films such as Hammett, The Man Who Loved Women, Cannonball Run II, Johnny Dangerously, Rustlers' Rhapsody, L. A. Story, Noises Off, she returned to television with a starring role in the CBS sitcom Evening Shade, had leading roles in many made-for-television movies. Henner was born in Chicago, the daughter of Loretta Callis, who died of arthritis at age 58 and Joseph Henner, who died of a heart attack at age 52, her maternal grandparents were Greek and her paternal grandparents were Polish. Henner was raised on the northwest side of Chicago in the Logan Square neighborhood.
She is the third of six children. Her mother was president of the National Association of Dance and Affiliated Arts and ran the Henner Dance School for 20 years. Henner took her first dance class at age two went on to teaching dance at her family's studio when she was 14 and choreographed shows at local high schools and colleges until leaving the Chicago area during her third year of college. While a student at the University of Chicago in the Hyde Park neighborhood of Chicago, Henner originated the role of "Marty" in the Kingston Mines production of Grease in 1971; when the show was discovered and moved to Broadway, she was asked to reprise the role. Additional Broadway credits for Henner include Over Here!, with Travolta, revivals of Pal Joey, Social Security, The Tale of the Allergist's Wife. Her first film appearance was in the 1977 sleeper-hit Between the Lines, co-starring then-unknowns Jeff Goldblum, Lindsay Crouse, John Heard, Jill Eikenberry, her second role was opposite Richard Gere in the 1978 film Bloodbrothers.
Henner came to prominence with the role of Elaine Nardo in the situation comedy Taxi, portraying a single mother working as a cabbie who aspired to a life in the New York City art scene. She was the leading lady in the 1982 film Hammett directed by Wim Wenders, produced by Francis Ford Coppola and starring her first husband Frederic Forrest. In 1983, Henner starred opposite Burt Reynolds in The Man Who Loved Women, directed by Blake Edwards. Reynolds asked Henner to join the cast of Cannonball Run II that year along with Shirley MacLaine and Dom DeLuise, she was the leading lady in the 1984 film Johnny Dangerously, playing love interest to Michael Keaton. In 1985 she once again appeared alongside John Travolta in Perfect. In 1991 she appeared opposite Steve Martin in L. A. Story as Trudi, a role for which she received a nomination for an American Comedy Award as the Funniest Supporting Female in a Motion Picture. From 1990 through 1994, she appeared opposite Burt Reynolds in the situation comedy Evening Shade, which starred Ossie Davis and Hal Holbrook.
She appeared in Noises Off and in Man on the Moon, a film about her Taxi co-star Andy Kaufman. Henner played herself. Henner guested on Hollywood Squares, she provided the voice for Gotham City socialite Veronica Vreeland in Batman: The Animated Series, reprising the role in the animated films Batman: Mask of the Phantasm and Batman & Mr. Freeze: SubZero. In 1994, she hosted her own daytime talk show, for 165 episodes. Henner starred as the domineering mother of the bride in the Brooks & Dunn video "You Can't Take the Honky Tonk Out of the Girl" in 2003. In 2006 and 2007, Henner was the host of the television series America's Ballroom Challenge. Henner said on an episode of The Ellen DeGeneres Show, in early 2008, that she has never danced ballroom and would like to go on a season of Dancing with the Stars, which would come true in 2016 for the season 23 of Dancing with the Stars, she hosted FitTV and The Discovery Channel's Shape Up Your Life, based on her books. Henner was a contestant on NBC's first The Celebrity Apprentice, in 2008.
She was fired by Donald Trump in the eighth episode, but was brought back to help fellow contestant Trace Adkins in the final task of the show. Henner, who has superior autobiographical memory, was a consultant for the CBS drama Unforgettable, which starred Poppy Montgomery as Carrie Wells, a woman with the same ability. Henner guest-starred as Carrie's aunt. In August 2012, Henner won $25,000 for the charity Physicians Committee for Responsible Medicine as a celebrity contestant on Live! with Kelly "Grilling with the Stars" contest for her Healthy/Easy Grilled Mushroom and Heirloom Tomato dish. Henner has written nine books on diet and memory, the most prominent being Total Health Makeover, in which she explains the virtues of a non-dairy diet in conjunction with food combining and exercise, she leads monthly classes on her website, www.marilu.com, designed to help people integrate these steps into a healthier, more active lifestyle. Both of her parents died in their 50s. Henner has been host of television's The Art of Living, produced by United States Media Television.
Henner rejoined the cast for its 13th season on The All-Star Celebrity Apprentice where she was joined by fellow Apprentice alumni. She pla
Turner Classic Movies
Turner Classic Movies is an American movie-oriented pay-TV network operated by Warner Bros. Entertainment, a subsidiary of AT&T's WarnerMedia. Launched in 1994, TCM is headquartered at Turner's Techwood broadcasting campus in the Midtown business district of Atlanta, Georgia; the channel's programming consisted of classic theatrically released feature films from the Turner Entertainment film library – which comprises films from Warner Bros. and Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer. However, TCM licenses films from other studios, shows more recent films; the channel is available in the United States, the United Kingdom, Malta, Latin America, Italy, Cyprus, the Nordic countries, the Middle East and Asia-Pacific. In 1986, eight years before the launch of Turner Classic Movies, Ted Turner acquired the Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer film studio for $1.5 billion. Concerns over Turner Entertainment's corporate debt load resulted in Turner selling the studio that October back to Kirk Kerkorian, from whom Turner had purchased the studio less than a year before.
As part of the deal, Turner Entertainment retained ownership of MGM's library of films released up to May 9, 1986. Turner Broadcasting System was split into two companies; the film library of Turner Entertainment would serve as the base form of programming for TCM upon the network's launch. Before the creation of Turner Classic Movies, films from Turner's library of movies aired on the Turner Broadcasting System's advertiser-supported cable network TNT – along with colorized versions of black-and-white classics such as The Maltese Falcon. Turner Classic Movies debuted on April 14, 1994, at 6 p.m. Eastern Time, with Ted Turner launching the channel at a ceremony in New York City's Times Square district; the date and time were chosen for their historical significance as "the exact centennial anniversary of the first public movie showing in New York City". The first movie broadcast on TCM was the 1939 film Gone with the Wind, the same film that served as the debut broadcast of its sister channel TNT six years earlier in October 1988.
At the time of its launch, TCM was available to one million cable television subscribers. The network served as a competitor to AMC—which at the time was known as "American Movie Classics" and maintained a identical format to TCM, as both networks focused on films released prior to 1970 and aired them in an uncut and commercial-free format. AMC had broadened its film content to feature colorized and more recent films by 2002. In 1996, Turner Broadcasting System merged with Time Warner which, besides placing Turner Classic Movies and Warner Bros. Entertainment under the same corporate umbrella gave TCM access to Warner Bros.' Library of films released after 1950. In the early 2000s, AMC abandoned its commercial-free format, which led to TCM being the only movie-oriented basic cable channel to devote its programming to classic films without commercial interruption or content editing. On March 4, 2019, Time Warner's new owner AT&T announced a planned reorganization that would dissolve Turner Broadcasting.
TCM, along with Cartoon Network, Adult Swim, over-the-top video company Otter Media, will be moved directly under Warner Bros.. Speaking about the move, then-Warner Bros. CEO Kevin Tsujihara explained that TCM was "a natural fit with Warner Bros." due the company's massive film library. In 2000, TCM started the annual Young Composers Film Competition, inviting aspiring composers to participate in a judged competition that offers the winner of each year's competition the opportunity to score a restored, feature-length silent film as a grand prize, mentored by a well-known composer, with the new work subsequently premiering on the network; as of 2006, films that have been rescored include the 1921 Rudolph Valentino film Camille, two Lon Chaney films: 1921's The Ace of Hearts and 1928's Laugh, Clown and Greta Garbo's 1926 film The Temptress. In April 2010, Turner Classic Movies held the first TCM Classic Film Festival, an event—now held annually—at the Grauman's Chinese Theater and the Grauman's Egyptian Theater in Hollywood.
Hosted by Robert Osborne, the four-day long annual festival celebrates Hollywood and its movies, featured celebrity appearances, special events, screenings of around 50 classic movies including several newly restored by The Film Foundation, an organization devoted to preserving Hollywood's classic film legacy. Turner Classic Movies operates as a commercial-free service, with the only advertisements on the network being shown between features – which advertise TCM products, network promotions for upcoming special programs and the original trailers for films that are scheduled to be broadcast on TCM, featurettes about classic film actors and actresses. In addition to this, extended breaks between features are filled with theatrically released movie trailers and classic short subjects – from series such as The Passing Parade, Crime Does Not Pay, Pete Smith Specialties, Robert Benchley – under the banner name TCM Extras (formerly On
Broadway theatre known as Broadway, refers to the theatrical performances presented in the 41 professional theatres, each with 500 or more seats located in the Theater District and Lincoln Center along Broadway, in Midtown Manhattan, New York City. Along with London's West End theatre, Broadway theatre is considered to represent the highest level of commercial theatre in the English-speaking world; the Theater District is a popular tourist attraction in New York City. According to The Broadway League, for the 2017–2018 season total attendance was 13,792,614 and Broadway shows had US$1,697,458,795 in grosses, with attendance up 3.9%, grosses up 17.1%, playing weeks up 2.8%. The majority of Broadway shows are musicals. Historian Martin Shefter argues that "'Broadway musicals', culminating in the productions of Richard Rodgers and Oscar Hammerstein, became enormously influential forms of American popular culture" and contributed to making New York City the cultural capital of the Western Hemisphere.
New York did not have a significant theatre presence until about 1750, when actor-managers Walter Murray and Thomas Kean established a resident theatre company at the Theatre on Nassau Street, which held about 280 people. They presented Shakespeare ballad operas such as The Beggar's Opera. In 1752, William Hallam sent a company of twelve actors from Britain to the colonies with his brother Lewis as their manager, they established a theatre in Williamsburg and opened with The Merchant of Venice and The Anatomist. The company moved to New York in the summer of 1753, performing ballad operas and ballad-farces like Damon and Phillida; the Revolutionary War suspended theatre in New York, but thereafter theatre resumed in 1798, the year the 2,000-seat Park Theatre was built on Chatham Street. The Bowery Theatre opened followed by others. By the 1840s, P. T. Barnum was operating an entertainment complex in Lower Manhattan. In 1829, at Broadway and Prince Street, Niblo's Garden opened and soon became one of New York's premiere nightspots.
The 3,000-seat theatre presented all sorts of non-musical entertainments. In 1844, Palmo's Opera House opened and presented opera for only four seasons before bankruptcy led to its rebranding as a venue for plays under the name Burton's Theatre; the Astor Opera House opened in 1847. A riot broke out in 1849 when the lower-class patrons of the Bowery objected to what they perceived as snobbery by the upper class audiences at Astor Place: "After the Astor Place Riot of 1849, entertainment in New York City was divided along class lines: opera was chiefly for the upper middle and upper classes, minstrel shows and melodramas for the middle class, variety shows in concert saloons for men of the working class and the slumming middle class."The plays of William Shakespeare were performed on the Broadway stage during the period, most notably by American actor Edwin Booth, internationally known for his performance as Hamlet. Booth played the role for a famous 100 consecutive performances at the Winter Garden Theatre in 1865, would revive the role at his own Booth's Theatre.
Other renowned Shakespeareans who appeared in New York in this era were Henry Irving, Tommaso Salvini, Fanny Davenport, Charles Fechter. Theatre in New York moved from downtown to midtown beginning around 1850, seeking less expensive real estate. In the beginning of the 19th century, the area that now comprises the Theater District was owned by a handful of families and comprised a few farms. In 1836, Mayor Cornelius Lawrence opened 42nd Street and invited Manhattanites to "enjoy the pure clean air." Close to 60 years theatrical entrepreneur Oscar Hammerstein I built the iconic Victoria Theater on West 42nd Street. Broadway's first "long-run" musical was a 50-performance hit called The Elves in 1857. In 1870, the heart of Broadway was in Union Square, by the end of the century, many theatres were near Madison Square. Theatres did not arrive in the Times Square area until the early 1900s, the Broadway theatres did not consolidate there until a large number of theatres were built around the square in the 1920s and 1930s.
New York runs continued to lag far behind those in London, but Laura Keene's "musical burletta" The Seven Sisters shattered previous New York records with a run of 253 performances. It was at a performance by Keene's troupe of Our American Cousin in Washington, D. C. that Abraham Lincoln was shot. The first theatre piece that conforms to the modern conception of a musical, adding dance and original music that helped to tell the story, is considered to be The Black Crook, which premiered in New York on September 12, 1866; the production was five-and-a-half hours long, but despite its length, it ran for a record-breaking 474 performances. The same year, The Black Domino/Between You, Me and the Post was the first show to call itself a "musical comedy". Tony Pastor opened the first vaudeville theatre one block east of Union Square in 1881, where Lillian Russell performed. Comedians Edward Harrigan and Tony Hart produced and starred in musicals on Broadway between 1878 and 1890, with book and lyrics by Harrigan and music by his father-in-law David Braham.
These musical comedies featured characters and situations taken from the everyday life of New York's lower classes and represented a significant step forward from vaudeville and burlesque, towards a more literate form. They starred high quality singers, instead of the women of questionable repute who had starred in earlier m
Sir Michael Caine, is an English actor and author. He has appeared in more than 130 films in a career spanning 70 years and is considered a British film icon. Known for his cockney accent, Caine was born in South London, where during his early childhood, he and his parents lived in a rented flat on Urlwin Street, in Camberwell, he made his breakthrough in the 1960s with starring roles in British films, including Zulu, The Ipcress File, for which he was nominated for an Academy Award, The Italian Job, Battle of Britain. His roles in the 1970s included Get Carter, The Last Valley, for which he earned his second Academy Award nomination, The Man Who Would Be King, A Bridge Too Far, he achieved some of his greatest critical success in the 1980s, with Educating Rita, earning him the BAFTA and Golden Globe Award for Best Actor. In 1986, he received an Academy Award for Best Supporting Actor for his performance in Woody Allen's Hannah and Her Sisters. Caine played Ebenezer Scrooge in The Muppet Christmas Carol.
This was his first starring role in several years, which led to a career resurgence in the late 1990s, receiving his second Golden Globe Award for his performance in Little Voice in 1998, receiving his second Academy Award for Best Supporting Actor for The Cider House Rules, the following year. Caine played Nigel Powers in the 2002 parody Austin Powers in Goldmember, Alfred Pennyworth in Christopher Nolan's The Dark Knight Trilogy, he appeared in several other of Nolan's films, including The Prestige and Interstellar. He appeared in Alfonso Cuarón's Children of Men and Matthew Vaughn's action comedy film Kingsman: The Secret Service; as of February 2017, films in which he has starred have grossed over $3.5 billion domestically, over $7.8 billion worldwide. Caine is ranked as the twentieth-highest-grossing box office star. Caine is one of only two actors nominated for an Academy Award for acting in every decade from the 1960s to the 2000s, the other one being Jack Nicholson. Caine appeared in seven films that featured in the British Film Institute's 100 greatest British films of the 20th century.
In 2000, Caine received a BAFTA Fellowship, was knighted by Queen Elizabeth II in recognition of his contribution to cinema. Michael Caine was born Maurice Joseph Micklewhite on 14 March 1933 in St Olave's Hospital in Rotherhithe, London, his father, Maurice Joseph Micklewhite Sr. was a fish market porter, while his mother, Ellen Frances Marie Burchell, was a cook and charwoman. He was brought up in his mother's Protestant religion. Caine had an elder maternal half-brother named David William Burchell, a younger full brother, Stanley Micklewhite, he grew up in Southwark and during the Second World War, he was evacuated to North Runcton near King's Lynn in Norfolk where he had a pet carthorse called Lottie. After the war, his father was demobilised, the family were rehoused by the council in Marshall Gardens at the Elephant and Castle in a prefabricated house made in Canada, as much of London's housing stock had been damaged during the Blitz in 1940–1941: The prefabs, as they were known, were intended to be temporary homes while London was reconstructed, but we ended up living there for eighteen years and for us, after a cramped flat with an outside toilet, it was luxury.
In 1944, he passed his eleven-plus exam. After a year there he moved to Wilson's Grammar School in Camberwell, which he left at sixteen after gaining a School Certificate in six subjects, he worked as a filing clerk and messenger for a film company in Victoria Street and film producer Jay Lewis in Wardour Street. From 28 April 1952, when he was called up to do his national service until 1954, he served in the British Army's Royal Fusiliers, first at the BAOR HQ in Iserlohn, on active service during the Korean War, he had gone into Korea feeling sympathetic to communism, coming as he did from a poor family, but the experience left him permanently repelled. He experienced a situation where he knew he was going to die, the memory of which stayed with him and formed his character, he detailed the incident in The Elephant to Hollywood. Caine would like to see the return of national service to help combat youth violence, stating: "I'm just saying, put them in the Army for six months. You're there to learn.
You belong to the country. When you come out, you have a sense of belonging, rather than a sense of violence." Caine began his acting career at the age of 20 in Horsham, when he responded to an advertisement in The Stage for an assistant stage manager who would perform small walk-on parts for the Horsham-based Westminster Repertory Company who were performing at the Carfax Electric Theatre. Adopting the stage name "Michael Scott", in July 1953 he was cast as the drunkard Hindley in the Company's production of Wuthering Heights, he moved to the Lowestoft Repertory Company in Suffolk for a year when he was 21. It was here, he has described the first nine years of his career as "really brutal" as well as "more like purgatory than paradise". Whilst in Lowestoft rep at the Arcadia Theatre