Nokia Corporation is a Finnish multinational telecommunications, information technology, consumer electronics company, founded in 1865. Nokia's headquarters are in the greater Helsinki metropolitan area. In 2018, Nokia employed 103,000 people across over 100 countries, did business in more than 130 countries, reported annual revenues of around €23 billion. Nokia is a public limited company listed on New York Stock Exchange, it is the world's 415th-largest company measured by 2016 revenues according to the Fortune Global 500, having peaked at 85th place in 2009. It is a component of the Euro Stoxx 50 stock market index; the company has operated in various industries over the past 150 years. It was founded as a pulp mill and had long been associated with rubber and cables, but since the 1990s has focused on large-scale telecommunications infrastructures, technology development, licensing. Nokia is a major contributor to the mobile telephony industry, having assisted in the development of the GSM, 3G and LTE standards, was once the largest worldwide vendor of mobile phones and smartphones.
After a partnership with Microsoft and subsequent market struggles, its mobile phone business was bought by Microsoft, creating Microsoft Mobile as its successor in 2014. After the sale, Nokia began to focus more extensively on its telecommunications infrastructure business and on Internet of things technologies, marked by the divestiture of its Here mapping division and the acquisition of Alcatel-Lucent, including its Bell Labs research organization; the company also experimented with virtual reality and digital health, the latter through the purchase of Withings. The Nokia brand has since returned to the mobile and smartphone market through a licensing arrangement with HMD Global. Nokia continues to be a major patent licensor for most large mobile phone vendors; as of 2018, Nokia is the world's third-largest network equipment manufacturer. The company was viewed with national pride by Finns, as its mobile phone business made it by far the largest worldwide company and brand from Finland. At its peak in 2000, during the telecoms bubble, Nokia alone accounted for 4% of the country's GDP, 21% of total exports, 70% of the Helsinki Stock Exchange market capital.
Nokia's history dates to 1865, when Finnish-Swede mining engineer Fredrik Idestam established a pulp mill near the town of Tampere, Finland. A second pulp mill was opened in 1868 near the neighboring town of Nokia, offering better hydropower resources. In 1871, together with friend Leo Mechelin, formed a shared company from it and called it Nokia Ab, after the site of the second pulp mill. Idestam retired in 1896. Mechelin expanded into electricity generation by 1902. In 1904 Suomen Gummitehdas, a rubber business founded by Eduard Polón, established a factory near the town of Nokia and used its name. In 1922, Nokia Ab entered into a partnership with Finnish Rubber Works and Kaapelitehdas, all now jointly under the leadership of Polón. Finnish Rubber Works company grew when it moved to the Nokia region in the 1930s to take advantage of the electrical power supply, the cable company soon did too. Nokia at the time made respirators for both civilian and military use, from the 1930s well into the early 1990s.
In 1967, the three companies – Nokia and Finnish Rubber Works – merged and created a new Nokia Corporation, restructured into four major businesses: forestry, cable and electronics. In the early 1970s, it entered the radio industry. Nokia started making military equipment for Finland's defence forces, such as the Sanomalaite M/90 communicator in 1983, the M61 gas mask first developed in the 1960s. Nokia was now making professional mobile radios, telephone switches and chemicals. After Finland's trade agreement with the Soviet Union in the 1960s, Nokia expanded into the Soviet market, it soon widened trade. Nokia co-operated on scientific technology with the Soviet Union; the U. S. government became suspicious of that co-operation after the end of the Cold War détente in the early 1980s. Nokia imported many US-made components and used them for the Soviets, according to U. S. Deputy Minister of Defence, Richard Perle, Nokia had a secret co-operation with The Pentagon that allowed the U. S. to keep track of technology developments in the Soviet Union through trading with Nokia.
This was a demonstration of Finland trading with both sides. In 1977, Kari Kairamo became. By this time, Finland was becoming what has been called "Nordic Japan". Under his leadership Nokia acquired many companies including television maker Salora in 1984, followed by Swedish electronics and computer maker Luxor AB in 1985, French television maker Oceanic in 1987; this made Nokia the third-largest television manufacturer of Europe. The existing brands continued to be used until the end of the television business in 1996. In 1987, Nokia acquired Schaub-Lorenz, the consumer operations of Germany's Standard Elektrik Lorenz, which included its "Schaub-Lorenz" and "Graetz" brands, it was part of American conglomerate International Telephone & Telegraph, after the acquisition products w
Preston is a community in Cambridge, Canada in the Regional Municipality of Waterloo, Ontario. Prior to 1973 it was an independent city, incorporated in 1915, but amalgamation with the town of Hespeler, the city of Galt and the village of Blair formed the new municipality of Cambridge. Parts of the surrounding townships were included. No population data is available for the former Preston since the Census reports cover only the full area of Cambridge, though the combined population of the census tracts covering the majority of Preston reported a population of 20,008 as of the 2016 Canada Census; the first mayor of Cambridge was Claudette Millar. There was considerable resistance among the local population to this "shotgun marriage" arranged by the provincial government and a healthy sense of rivalry had always governed relations among the three communities. Today, though many residents refer to their area of Cambridge as being Galt or Preston or Hespeler; each unique centre has its own history, well documented in the Cambridge City Archives.
The former Preston is located on the western side of the city at the confluence of the Grand River and Speed River. Downtown Preston is considered to be bounded on the north by the entrance to Riverside Park on King Street, on the south by the King and Bishop plaza. Preston was formed on land belonging to the German Company Tract, along the Speed River, purchased earlier from the Six Nations Indians; the name Preston is named for the hometown of William Scollick, surveyor and a native of Preston, Lancashire in England. In the 1800s a group of German-speaking Mennonites from Pennsylvania arrived in the area and purchased land in the area. Among the first settlers to arrive in what was to become Preston was John Erb, a Mennonite from Lancaster County, who arrived in 1805, he bought 7,500 acres including land at the confluence of the Grand and Speed Rivers in what became Preston. It was John Erb who bought the 7,500 acres of land and settled it in 1805, he built a sawmill in 1806 and a gristmill in 1807.
This settlement became known as Cambridge Mills. In the early 1800s, the area included homes, a store, an inn, small shops operated by artisans and craftsmen immigrants from Germany; the Erb sons had hired William Scollick for their development business and the latter completed a full survey in 1834 and convinced the Erbs to rename the Cambridge Mills area Preston. After Erb's death in 1832, a son sold off property on both sides of the Speed River. What became Preston started as a large settlement on the north side. There were only 250 inhabitants in 1836, many from Pennsylvania, but the population had reached about 1600 by 1855, with some 70% from Germany. By the area had eight hotels and taverns; some of these hotels, such as the North American Hotel from the 1840s and the Del Monte and the Sulphur Springs, were built to accommodate visitors who arrived via the Great Road to benefit from the mineral springs. The high sulphur content was believed to be useful for those with rheumatism; the Canadian Gazetter of 1846 indicates a population of about 600 inhabitants, two churches, a post office that receives mail each day, a steam grist mill, tradesmen of various types.
At the time, there was no significant industry. The Preston post office opened in 1837 and the population continued to grow because of immigration from Germany. Preston was incorporated as a village in 1853; the population declined in the late 1800s but by 1900, it had increased to 2,000 because of the new electric railway systems that started in 1894. In 1911, the line reached Hespeler and Waterloo; this made visiting other communities and carrying of goods convenient. Due to continued growth, by 1879 there were many industries such as a foundry, carriage manufacturer, potteries and a furniture company; this was the year that the Cherry Flour Mills started, which would become the Dover Flour Mills, a Preston company that still operates today. By 1888, the Preston Springs Hotel called the Del Monte Hotel and owned by Robert Walder, was operating; the building still stands. In the late 19th century, it featured five acres of grounds with lawns; the primary draw was the mineral baths in the hotel's basement, said to "cleanse" the body.
The high sulphur content was believed to be useful for those with rheumatism. A competing facility, the Suplphur Springs Hotel, next door, opened in the mid 1890s, a nearby hotel, the North American, had opened in 1840. Walder sold the Del Monte in 1903. R. Kauffman, renamed it Preston Springs, the facility remained successful as a health spa until 1940. After the war, it closed for some years becoming a retirement and care facility, until closing in 1990, when the building was boarded up. In 2000, some exterior repairs were completed; the owner in mid-2018 was Haastown Holdings Preston Inc. A news report in January 2020 detailed the history of the property and stated that because it was no longer safe, the City of Cambridge had issued an order for demolition. On September 30, 1899 Preston was incorporated as a town with a population of just under 11,000; the Great Road between Dundas and Berlin as well as the railroad connections helped the community to continue growing into an important industrial centre.
Products made here included flour, agricultural implements, stoves and textiles. Preston grew
The 2001 Singer Sri Lankan Airlines Rugby 7s was the third year of the Singer Sri Lankan Airlines Rugby 7s tournament. All matches were played at Bogambara Stadium in Kandy, Sri Lanka on 15 and 16 September 2001. 2001 was the second year that the competition was expanded to include non-Asian rugby playing nations, with teams from the Belgium, Czech Republic and Germany competing. Chinese Taipei defeated South Korea in the final to take the Cup for the second time, becoming the first team to win the cup twice; the Czech Republic and Denmark won the Plate finals respectively. Malaysia 21 - 00 Czech Republic Sri Lanka 26 - 19 South Korea Malaysia 14 - 12 Sri Lanka South Korea 35 - 14 Czech Republic Sri Lanka 28 - 05 Czech Republic South Korea 24 - 07 Malaysia Singapore 05 - 00 Arabian Gulf Belgium 20 - 10 China Singapore 14 - 00 Belgium Arabian Gulf 24 - 19 China Belgium 14 - 00 Arabian Gulf China 14 - 12 Singapore Kazakhstan 38 - 07 India Germany 26 - 05 Hong Kong Germany 54 - 00 India Hong Kong 19 - 12 Kazakhstan Germany 19 - 05 Kazakhstan Hong Kong 50 - 00 India Thailand 26 - 00 Sri Lanka Barbarians Denmark 31 - 12 Thailand Chinese Taipei 12 - 00 Denmark Chinese Taipei 47 - 00 Sri Lanka Barbarians Denmark 14 - 12 Sri Lanka Barbarians Thailand 24 - 19 Chinese Taipei