Nokia PC Suite
Nokia PC Suite is a software package used to establish an interface between Nokia mobile devices and computers that run the Microsoft Windows operating system. Its first release was in 1997 called Nokia Data Suite, it was integrated into the Ovi service suite. Nokia PC Suite can be used to transfer music and applications, it can be used to send Short Message Service messages or act as a modem to connect the computer to the Internet. A mobile phone can be infrared; some older Nokia phones lack compatibility with versions of the PC Suite. The official site supplies a table that matches each phone model with the most recent compatible version; the latest version of Nokia PC Suite contains several integrated applications, including the File Manager, Application Installer and "Nokia Communication Centre" data viewer. PC Suite users can access on-device features, as well as Nokia PC Sync functionality; some of the earliest devices that worked with Nokia Data Suite were Nokia 3110, Nokia 6110 and Nokia 8110.
Nokia PC Suite has been unimproved, was replaced by Nokia's next generation phone suite software, Nokia Suite, which supported other platforms in addition to Windows. Nokia Suite drops the Lotus Notes client sync support, present in Nokia PC Suite, instead requiring the user to use Lotus Notes' Traveler software; this must be maintained on the Lotus Notes server. The backup feature in PC Suite uses a non-documented binary file format, which can only be used to restore to a phone through the proprietary client; this means. Third-party programs can be used to read the file, but they vary in the amount of information they can retrieve. Nokia PC Sync allows the user to synchronize contacts, notes, to-do items, e-mails and files/folders between a supported Nokia mobile phone and: Microsoft Outlook 2000-2007 Microsoft Outlook Express / Windows Address Book Lotus Organizer 5.0-6.0 Lotus Notes 5.x-8.x Microsoft Windows Vista Contacts Microsoft Windows Vista Calendar Microsoft Internet Explorer and Mozilla Firefox bookmarks Windows 2000/XP files/foldersPC Sync 220.127.116.11 contained a major bug, truncating street addresses which have been edited on the PC to run over more than one line, when synchronized back to the phone.
It was possible to lose large parts of your contacts' address information due to this issue. Nokia PC Suite is unable to update maps and voices for the Nokia Maps application; this requires Nokia Suite. NET framework installed. However, it is possible to download maps for Nokia Maps without need for Nokia Map Loader or Nokia Suite by pointing a web browser directly to the map files on Nokia's Maps server. Available hard disk space: 250 MB Operating system: Windows 7, Windows Vista and Windows XP Professional or Home Connection methods: USB cable, Bluetooth, or Infrared Supported Bluetooth stacks: Microsoft Windows Bluetooth Toshiba Bluetooth stack for Windows XP/2000 v 4.0 WIDCOMM BTW 1.4, 3.0, 4.0, 5.0 IVT BlueSoleil Bluetooth stack Windows XP/2000 use driver version 18.104.22.168 Nokia Nseries, 3250 phones require driver version 22.214.171.124 iNoki - an iPhone app for transfer Nokia PC Suite backup file to iPhone & iPad noki - an explorer for Nokia PC Suite backup file Nokia PC Suite: Asia, Latin America and U.
Nokia 9000 Communicator
The Nokia 9000 Communicator was the first product in Nokia's Communicator series, announced at CeBIT 1996 and introduced into the market on 15 August 1996. The phone was heavy 397 grams but powerful at the time, it is powered by an Intel 24 MHz i386 CPU and has 8 MB of memory, divided between applications, program memory and user data. The operating system is PEN/GEOS 3.0. The Communicator is considered to be the second smartphone on the market, following the HP OmniGo 700LX, a DOS-based palmtop PC with integrated cradle for the Nokia 2110 cellular phone announced in late 1995 and shipping in March 1996, it was advanced, featuring sending and receiving e-mail and fax via its 9.6 kbit/s GSM modem, it had a web browser and business programs. The Communicator is formed of a clamshell design that opens up to reveal a monochrome LCD display with a 640x200 resolution and a full QWERTY keyboard similar to a Psion PDA, it was priced £1,000 in the UK upon launch. Then-CEO of Nokia, Jorma Ollila, said in 2012 regarding the device: "We were five years ahead."
The Nokia 9110 Communicator is the updated model of the Nokia 9000 Communicator in the Communicator series. Its biggest change from the 9000 is. Operating system: GEOS on the PDA side Main applications: Fax, short messages, Wireless imaging: digital camera connectivity, Smart messaging, TextWeb, Web browser, Serial Terminal, Contacts, Calendar, world time clock, Composer. Size: 158 × 56 × 27 mm Weight: 253 g Processor: Embedded AMD Elan SC450 486 processor at 33 MHz Memory: 8 MB total, 4 MB Operating System and applications, 2 MB program execution, 2 MB user data storage, MMC card; the product line was continued in 2000 by the introduction of Nokia 9210 Communicator which introduced a wide TFT colour internal screen, 32-bit ARM9-based RISC CPU at 52 MHz, 16 MB of internal memory, enhanced web abilities and most saw the operating system change to the Symbian operating system. The 9210i launched in 2002 increased the internal memory to 40 MB, video streaming and flash 5 support for the web browser.
The 9xxx Communicators introduced features which evolved into smartphones. The Nokia 9000 Communicator received several awards including: GSM World Award at GSM World Conference 1997 Best Technological Advance by Mobile News UK Best New Product 1997 by Business Week magazine The Nokia 9000 is used by Val Kilmer when he played Simon Templar in the 1997 remake of The Saint, by Anthony Hopkins and Chris Rock in the action comedy Bad Company; the phone is mentioned in Bret Easton Ellis' book Glamorama. Nokia.. First GSM-based communicator product hits the market Nokia Starts Sales of the Nokia 9000 Communicator. Retrieved Apr 30, 2016, from Nokia: http://company.nokia.com/en/news/press-releases/1996/08/15/first-gsm-based-communicator-product-hits-the-market-nokia-starts-sales-of-the-nokia-9000-communicator Nokia.. Nokia 9000 Communicator makes a visible appearance in "THE SAINT". Retrieved Apr 30, 2016, from Nokia: http://company.nokia.com/en/news/press-releases/1997/04/09/nokia-9000-communicator-makes-a-visible-appearance-in-the-saint More info
Russian oligarchs are business oligarchs of the former Soviet republics who accumulated wealth during the era of Russian privatization in the aftermath of the dissolution of the Soviet Union in the 1990s. The failing Soviet state left the ownership of state assets contested, which allowed for informal deals with former USSR officials as a means to acquire state property. Historian Edward L. Keenan has drawn a comparison between the current Russian phenomenon of oligarchs and the system of powerful boyars which emerged in late-Medieval Muscovy; the first modern Russian oligarchs emerged as business-sector entrepreneurs under Mikhail Gorbachev during his period of market liberalization. The term "oligarch" derives from the Ancient Greek word ὀλιγάρχης, a derivative itself from oligarchy ὀλιγαρχία meaning "the rule of the few". By the end of the Soviet era in 1991 and during Mikhail Gorbachev's perestroika, many Russian businessmen imported or smuggled goods such as personal computers and jeans into the country and sold them on the black market, for a hefty profit.
During the 1990s, once Boris Yeltsin became President of Russia in 1991, the oligarchs emerged as well-connected entrepreneurs who started from nearly nothing and became rich through participation in the market via connections to the corrupt, but elected, government of Russia during the state's transition to a market-based economy. The so-called voucher-privatization program enabled a handful of young men to become billionaires by arbitraging the vast difference between old domestic prices for Russian commodities and the prices prevailing on the world market; because they stashed billions of dollars in private Swiss bank accounts rather than investing in the Russian economy, they were dubbed "kleptocrats". These oligarchs became unpopular with the Russian public, are thought of as the cause of much of the turmoil that plagued the country following the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991; the Guardian described the oligarchs as "about as popular with your average Russian as a man idly burning bundles of £50s outside an orphanage".
Post-Soviet business oligarchs include relatives or close associates of government officials government officials themselves, as well as criminal bosses connected to the Russian government who achieved vast wealth by acquiring state assets cheaply during the privatization process controlled by the Yeltsin government of 1991–1999. Specific accusations of corruption are leveled at Anatoly Chubais and Yegor Gaidar, two of the "Young Reformers" chiefly responsible for Russian privatization in the early 1990s. According to David Satter, author of Darkness at Dawn, "what drove the process was not the determination to create a system based on universal values but rather the will to introduce a system of private ownership, which, in the absence of law, opened the way for the criminal pursuit of money and power". In some cases, outright criminal groups – in order to avoid attention – assign front-men to serve as executives and/or "legal" owners of the companies they control. Although the majority of oligarchs were not formally connected with the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, there are allegations that they were promoted by the communist apparatchiks, with strong connections to Soviet power structures and access to the monetary funds of the Communist Party.
Official Russian media depict oligarchs as the enemies of "communist forces". The latter is a stereotype that describes political power that wants to restore Soviet-style communism in Russia. During Yeltsin's presidency oligarchs became influential in Russian politics. With insider information about financial decisions of the government, oligarchs could increase their wealth further; the 1998 Russian financial crisis hit some of the oligarchs hard and those whose holdings were still based on banking lost much of their fortunes. The most influential and exposed oligarchs from the Yeltsin era include Boris Berezovsky, Mikhail Fridman, Vladimir Gusinsky, Mikhail Khodorkovsky, Vladimir Potanin, Alexander Smolensky, Pyotr Aven, Vladimir Vinogradov and Vitaly Malkin, they formed what became known as Semibankirschina, a small group of business moguls with a great influence on Boris Yeltsin and his political environment. Together they controlled from 50% to 70% of all Russian finances between 1996 and 2000.
Fridman, Potanin and Malkin retained their influence in the Putin era, which began in 1999. Khodorkovsky and Gusinsky "have been purged by the Kremlin", according to The Guardian in 2008; the most famous oligarchs of the Putin era include Roman Abramovich, Alexander Abramov, Oleg Deripaska, Mikhail Prokhorov, Alisher Usmanov, German Khan, Viktor Vekselberg, Leonid Mikhelson, Vagit Alekperov, Mikhail Fridman, Vladimir Potanin, Pyotr Aven, Vitaly Malkin. Between 2000 and 2004, Putin engaged in a power-struggle with some oligarchs, reaching a "grand bargain" with them; this bargain allowed the oligarchs to maintain their powers, in exchange for their explicit support of – and alignment with – Putin's government. Many more business people have become oligarchs during Putin's time in power, due to personal relations with Putin, such as the rector of the institute where Putin obtained a degree in 1996, Vladimir Litvinenko, Putin's childhood friend and judo-teacher Arkady Rotenberg. However, other analysts argue that the oligarchic structure has remained intact under Putin, with Putin devoting much
Smartphones are a class of mobile phones and of multi-purpose mobile computing devices. They are distinguished from feature phones by their stronger hardware capabilities and extensive mobile operating systems, which facilitate wider software and multimedia functionality, alongside core phone functions such as voice calls and text messaging. Smartphones include various sensors that can be leveraged by their software, such as a magnetometer, proximity sensors, barometer and accelerometer, support wireless communications protocols such as Bluetooth, Wi-Fi, satellite navigation. Early smartphones were marketed towards the enterprise market, attempting to bridge the functionality of standalone personal digital assistant devices with support for cellular telephony, but were limited by their battery life, bulky form, the immaturity of wireless data services. In the 2000s, BlackBerry, Nokia's Symbian platform, Windows Mobile began to gain market traction, with models featuring QWERTY keyboards or resistive touchscreen input, emphasizing access to push email and wireless internet.
Since the unveiling of the iPhone in 2007, the majority of smartphones have featured thin, slate-like form factors, with large, capacitive screens with support for multi-touch gestures rather than physical keyboards, offer the ability for users to download or purchase additional applications from a centralized store, use cloud storage and synchronization, virtual assistants, as well as mobile payment services. Improved hardware and faster wireless communication have bolstered the growth of the smartphone industry. In the third quarter of 2012, one billion smartphones were in use worldwide. Global smartphone sales surpassed the sales figures for feature phones in early 2013; the first commercially available device that could be properly referred to as a "smartphone" began as a prototype called "Angler" developed by Frank Canova in 1992 while at IBM and demonstrated in November of that year at the COMDEX computer industry trade show. A refined version was marketed to consumers in 1994 by BellSouth under the name Simon Personal Communicator.
In addition to placing and receiving cellular calls, the touchscreen-equipped Simon could send and receive faxes and emails. It included an address book, appointment scheduler, world time clock, notepad, as well as other visionary mobile applications such as maps, stock reports and news; the term "smart phone" or "smartphone" was not coined until a year after the introduction of the Simon, appearing in print as early as 1995, describing AT&T's PhoneWriter Communicator. Beginning in the mid-late 1990s, many people who had mobile phones carried a separate dedicated PDA device, running early versions of operating systems such as Palm OS, Newton OS, Symbian or Windows CE/Pocket PC; these operating systems would evolve into early mobile operating systems. Most of the "smartphones" in this era were hybrid devices that combined these existing familiar PDA OSes with basic phone hardware; the results were devices that were bulkier than either dedicated mobile phones or PDAs, but allowed a limited amount of cellular Internet access.
The trend at the time, that manufacturers competed on in both mobile phones and PDAs was to make devices smaller and slimmer. The bulk of these smartphones combined with their high cost and expensive data plans, plus other drawbacks such as expansion limitations and decreased battery life compared to separate standalone devices limited their popularity to "early adopters" and business users who needed portable connectivity. In March 1996, Hewlett-Packard released the OmniGo 700LX, a modified HP 200LX palmtop PC with a Nokia 2110 mobile phone piggybacked onto it and ROM-based software to support it, it had a 640×200 resolution CGA compatible four-shade gray-scale LCD screen and could be used to place and receive calls, to create and receive text messages and faxes. It was 100% DOS 5.0 compatible, allowing it to run thousands of existing software titles, including early versions of Windows. In August 1996, Nokia released the Nokia 9000 Communicator, a digital cellular PDA based on the Nokia 2110 with an integrated system based on the PEN/GEOS 3.0 operating system from Geoworks.
The two components were attached by a hinge in what became known as a clamshell design, with the display above and a physical QWERTY keyboard below. The PDA provided e-mail; when closed, the device could be used as a digital cellular telephone. In June 1999 Qualcomm released the "pdQ Smartphone", a CDMA digital PCS smartphone with an integrated Palm PDA and Internet connectivity. Subsequent landmark devices included: The Ericsson R380 by Ericsson Mobile Communications; the first device marketed as a "smartphone", it was the first Symbian-based phone, with PDA functionality and limited Web browsing on a resistive touchscreen utilizing a stylus. Users could not install their own software on the device, however; the Kyocera 6035, a dual-nature device with a separate Palm OS PDA operating system and CDMA mobile phone firmware. It supported limited Web browsing with the PDA software treating the phone hardware as an attached modem. Handspring's Treo 180, the first smartphone that integrated the Palm OS on a GSM mobile phone having telephony, SMS messaging and Internet access built in to the OS.
The 180 model had a thumb-type keyboard and the 180g version had a Graffiti handwriting recognition area, instead. In 1999, Japanese wireless provider NTT DoCoMo launched i-mode, a new
The flip or clamshell is a form factor of a mobile phone or other device, in two or more sections that fold via a hinge. If the hinge is on a long edge the device is more to be called clamshell than flip phone. Speaking, the interface components such as keys and display are kept inside the closed clamshell, protecting them from damage and unintentional use while making the device shorter or narrower so it is easier to carry around. In many cases, opening the clamshell offers more surface area than when the device is closed, allowing interface components to be larger and easier to use than on devices which do not flip open. A disadvantage of the clamshell design is the connecting hinge, prone to fatigue or failure; the clamshell form factor is most associated with the cell phone market, as Motorola used to have a trademark on the term "flip phone", but the term "flip phone" has become genericized to be used more than "clamshell" in colloquial speech. The form factor was first used by the laptop manufacturer GRiD for their Compass model in 1982.
In 1983, the Ampere WS-1 laptop used a modern clamshell design. The first Motorola model to support the clamshell design was the MicroTAC, created in 1989, although General Telephone & Electronics held the trademark from the 1970s for its Flip-Phone, until 1993; the design has since been copied by all smartphone manufacturers many times. Motorola is best known for its clamshell models such as the RAZR; the clamshell design has been used in the Nokia Communicator series, with the first model released in 1996. Early models were expensive and Nokia did not adopt the traditional clamshell phone design until 2004. Clamshells were, as of early 2009, the most popular form factor for smartphones in the U. S. However, they have lost ground to touchscreen smartphones. Late 2014 saw a return of flip phones thanks to celebrities like Rihanna, Kate Beckinsale and Anna Wintour. Reasons for their return included their simple nature, being lightweight and their ability to fit in pockets due to their smaller size, preference of buttons.
A reference to a flip phone style communicator is referenced in chapter 3 of "Armageddon 2419 A. D." a science fiction novella by Philip Francis Nowlan which first appeared in the August 1928 issue of the pulp magazine Amazing Stories. The device is described in the following quoted passage "Alan took a compact packet about six inches square from a holster attached to her belt and handed it to Wilma. So far as I could see, it had no special receiver for the ear. Wilma threw back a lid, as though she was opening a book, began to talk; the voice that came back from the machine was as audible as her own." Besides smartphones, devices using the flip form include laptop computers, the Game Boy Advance SP, the Nintendo DS, the Nintendo 3DS, though these are less described as "flip" or "clamshell" compared to smartphones. Other appliances like pocket watches, waffle irons, sandwich toasters, krumkake irons, the George Foreman Grill have long utilised a clamshell design. Bookbinders build archival "clamshell" boxes called Solander cases, in which valuable books or loose papers can be protected from light and dust.
It is an informal name for General Motors full-size station wagons, manufactured from 1971 to 1976, that featured a complex, two-piece "disappearing" tailgate known as the "Glide Away" tailgate. Communicator, the fictional forerunner of the "flip form" smartphone
The Nokia 1100 is a basic GSM mobile phone produced by Nokia. Over 250 million 1100s have been sold since its launch in late 2003, making it the world's best selling phone handset and the best selling consumer electronics device in the world at the time; the model was announced on 27 August 2003 and was discontinued in 2009. The 1100 achieved its popularity despite being made during a time when more modern and advanced devices were available in the market, it was targeted towards developing countries and users who do not require advanced features beyond making calls and SMS text messages, alarm clock, etc. The Nokia 1100 was the company's cheapest mobile phone when it was released to the market, making it ideal for the developing world, its feature set is similar to the previous 5110/3210/3310 models that were among the most popular mobile phones in the world during their time, before handsets developed several new features such as cameras, polyphonic ringtones and colour screens. The Nokia 1100 case was designed at Nokia Design Center in California, patented for the US by the Bulgarian-American designer Dimitre Mehandjiysky.
The software was adapted and ported to the DCT4 platform at Nokia Copenhagen, Denmark by members of the S30 group. Nokia's one billionth phone sold was a Nokia 1100 purchased in Nigeria in 2005. In early 2009, it was in the news due to a firmware flaw in a batch of phones that were manufactured in a plant in Bochum, Germany; the phone could be programmed to receive messages directed to a different phone number, thus receiving sensitive data such as online banking details. This flaw was brought to authorities' attention after some phones were sold for over US$32,000; the 1100 features a built-in flashlight, activated by pressing and holding the C key once, or by pressing it twice to lock it on when the keypad is unlocked. It can be accessed via a menu item; the 1100 and 1101 are only able to play monophonic ringtones, which can be selected from a list of 36 pre-installed tones or from 7 self-composed ones. It features Nokia's traditional-style navigational keypad, which uses a single button to connect and end calls, bi-directional keys and vibrating alert.
The Cingular-branded version features a built-in AOL Instant Messenger client. The 1100 is compatible with Nokia's Xpress-On covers. In addition to the default light blue, orange or black, there are dark blue, red and pink versions offered by Nokia, as well as many 3rd-party covers, it has been designed for developing countries: its keypad and front face have been designed to be as dustproof as possible, its sides are non-slip for humid weather. Other features include a 50-message capacity, stopwatch, calculator, 6 profiles, contacts storage and the ability to compose your own ringtones, it was the first device to run on the entry-level Series 30 software. There are four distinct variations within the series: the 1100a, 1100b, 1101 and the 1108, they differ as follows: The 1100a operates on the GSM-900/1800 network. The 1100b operates on the GSM-850/1900 network; the 1101 replaces the green backlighting with a white backlighting and adds a simple WAP 1.1 browser. The 1108 replaces the green backlighting with a white backlighting.
Made for Asian markets. The phone's firmware version can be checked by dialling *#0000#; the phone uses a GSM method of activation via a SIM card. The Nokia BL-5C battery has a long standby and talk time – this battery is used in more advanced models that have increased power needs for their features, but in the basic 1100 it consumes a fraction of the power and therefore lasts for up to 400 hours between charges; the phone is offered for use with a wide range of mobile phone networks. Nokia List of Nokia products List of best-selling mobile phones Download Nokia 1100 user manual
Nokia Corporation is a Finnish multinational telecommunications, information technology, consumer electronics company, founded in 1865. Nokia's headquarters are in the greater Helsinki metropolitan area. In 2017, Nokia employed 102,000 people across over 100 countries, did business in more than 130 countries, reported annual revenues of around €23 billion. Nokia is a public limited company listed on New York Stock Exchange, it is the world's 415th-largest company measured by 2016 revenues according to the Fortune Global 500, having peaked at 85th place in 2009. It is a component of the Euro Stoxx 50 stock market index; the company has had various industries in over 150 years. It was founded as a pulp mill and had long been associated with rubber and cables, but since the 1990s focuses on large-scale telecommunications infrastructures, technology development, licensing. Nokia is a notable major contributor to the mobile telephony industry, having assisted in the development of the GSM, 3G and LTE standards, is best known for having been the largest worldwide vendor of mobile phones and smartphones for a period.
After a partnership with Microsoft and market struggles, its mobile phone business was bought by the former, creating Microsoft Mobile as its successor in 2014. After the sale, Nokia began to focus more extensively on its telecommunications infrastructure business and on the Internet of things, marked by the divestiture of its Here mapping division and the acquisition of Alcatel-Lucent, including its Bell Labs research organization; the company also experimented with virtual reality and digital health, the latter through the purchase of Withings. The Nokia brand has since returned to the mobile and smartphone market through a licensing arrangement with HMD Global. Nokia continues to be a major patent licensor for most large mobile phone vendors; as of 2018 Nokia is the world's third largest network equipment manufacturer. The company was viewed with national pride by Finns, as its successful mobile phone business made it by far the largest worldwide company and brand from Finland. At its peak in 2000, during the telecoms bubble, Nokia alone accounted for 4% of the country's GDP, 21% of total exports, 70% of the Helsinki Stock Exchange market capital.
Nokia's history dates back to 1865, when Finnish-Swede mining engineer Fredrik Idestam established a pulp mill near the town of Tampere, Finland. A second pulp mill was opened in 1868 near the neighboring town of Nokia, offering better hydropower resources. In 1871, together with friend Leo Mechelin, formed a shared company from it and called it Nokia Ab, after the site of the second pulp mill. Idestam retired in 1896. Mechelin expanded into electricity generation by 1902. In 1904 Suomen Gummitehdas, a rubber business founded by Eduard Polón, established a factory near the town of Nokia and used its name. In 1922, Nokia Ab entered into a partnership with Finnish Rubber Works and Kaapelitehdas, all now jointly under the leadership of Polón. Finnish Rubber Works company grew when it moved to the Nokia region in the 1930s to take advantage of the electrical power supply, the cable company soon did too. Nokia at the time made respirators for both civilian and military use, from the 1930s well into the early 1990s.
In 1967, the three companies - Nokia and Finnish Rubber Works - merged and created a new Nokia Corporation, a new restructured form divided into four major businesses: forestry, cable and electronics. In the early 1970s, it entered the radio industry. Nokia started making military equipment for Finland's defence forces, such as the Sanomalaite M/90 communicator in 1983, the M61 gas mask first developed in the 1960s. Nokia was now making professional mobile radios, telephone switches and chemicals. After Finland's trade agreement with the Soviet Union in the 1960s, Nokia expanded into the Soviet market, it soon widened trade. Nokia co-operated on scientific technology with the Soviet Union; the U. S. government became suspicious of that technologic co-operation after the end of the Cold War détente in the early 1980s. Nokia imported many US-made components and used them for the Soviets, according to U. S. Deputy Minister of Defence, Richard Perle, Nokia had a secret co-operation with The Pentagon that allowed the U.
S. to keep track in technologic developments in the Soviet Union through trading with Nokia. However this was a demonstration of Finland trading with both sides, as it was neutral during the Cold War. In 1977, Kari Kairamo became. By this time Finland were becoming what has been called "Nordic Japan". Under his leadership Nokia acquired many companies. In 1984, Nokia acquired television maker Salora, followed by Swedish electronics and computer maker Luxor AB in 1985, French television maker Oceanic in 1987; this made Nokia the third-largest television manufacturer of Europe. The existing brands continued to be used until the end of the television business in 1996. In 1987, Nokia acquired Schaub-Lorenz, the consumer operations of Germany's Standard Elektrik Lorenz, which included its "Schaub-Lorenz" and "Graetz" brands, it was part of American conglomerate Internationa