Non-governmental organization

Non-governmental organizations are organizations that are independent of any government. They are non-profit. Many of them are active in social areas. However, NGOs can be lobby groups for corporations, such as the World Economic Forum. NGOs are a subgroup of all organizations founded by citizens, which include clubs and other associations that provide services and premises only to members. Sometimes the term is used as a synonym of "civil society organization" to refer to any association founded by citizens, but this is not how the term is used in the media or everyday language, as recorded by major dictionaries; the explanation of the term by is ambivalent: " any non-profit, voluntary citizens' group, organized on a local, national or international level," but goes on to restrict the meaning in the sense used by most English speakers and the media: "Task-oriented and driven by people with a common interest, NGOs perform a variety of service and humanitarian functions, bring citizen concerns to Governments and monitor policies and encourage political participation through provision of information."NGOs are funded by donations, but some avoid formal funding altogether and are run by volunteers.

NGOs are diverse groups of organizations engaged in a wide range of activities, take different forms in different parts of the world. Some may have charitable status, while others may be registered for tax exemption based on recognition of social purposes. Others may be fronts for religious, or other interests. Since the end of World War II, NGOs have had an increasing role in international development in the fields of humanitarian assistance and poverty alleviation. Russia had about 277,000 NGOs in 2008. India is estimated to have had around 2 million NGOs in 2009, just over one NGO per 600 Indians, many times the number of primary schools and primary health centres in India; the term "NGO" is not always used consistently. In some countries the term NGO is applied to an organization that in another country would be called an NPO, vice versa. Political parties and trade unions are considered NGOs only in some countries. There are many different classifications of NGOs in use; the most common focus is on "orientation" and "level of operation".

An NGO's orientation refers to the type of activities. These activities might include human rights, improving health, or development work. An NGO's level of operation indicates the scale at which an organization works, such as local, national, or international; the term "non-governmental organization" was first coined in 1945, when the United Nations was created. The UN, itself an intergovernmental organization, made it possible for certain approved specialized international non-state agencies — i.e. non-governmental organizations — to be awarded observer status at its assemblies and some of its meetings. The term became used more widely. Today, according to the UN, any kind of private organization, independent of government control can be termed an "NGO", provided it is not-for-profit, but not an opposition political party. Public surveys reveal that NGOs enjoy a high degree of public trust, which can make them a useful – but not always sufficient – proxy for the concerns of society and stakeholders.

NGO/GRO types can be understood by their level of operation. Charitable orientation involves a top-down effort with little participation or input by beneficiaries, it includes NGOs with activities directed toward meeting the needs of the disadvantaged people/groups. Service orientation includes NGOs with activities such as the provision of health, the family planning, or the education services. In these activities, the programme is held by the NGOs, the people are expected to participate in it and to receive the service. Participatory orientation is characterized by self-help projects where local people are involved in the implementation of a project by contributing cash, land, labour, etc. In the classical community development project, participation begins with the definition of need and continues to the planning and the implementation stages. Empowering orientation aims to help poor people develop a clearer understanding of the social and economic factors affecting their lives, to strengthen their awareness of their own potential power to control their lives.

There is maximum involvement of the beneficiaries with NGOs acting as facilitators. Community-based organizations arise out of people's own initiatives, they can be responsible for raising the consciousness of the urban poor, helping them understand their rights in accessing required services and providing such services. City-wide organizations include organizations such as chambers of commerce and industry, coalitions of business, ethnic or educational groups, associations of community organizations. State NGOs include state-level organizations and groups; some state NGOs work under the guidance of National and International NGOs. National NGOs include national organizations such as the YMCAs/YWCAs, professional associations and similar groups; some assist local NGOs. International NGOs range from secular agencies such as Save the Children, to religiously motivated groups, they can be responsible for implementing projects. Apart from "NGO", there are alternative or overlapping terms


Thaniyavarthanam is a 1987 Malayalam drama film written by A. K. Lohithadas and directed by Sibi Malayil, it stars Mammootty as school teacher Bala Gopalan, Thilakan as the uncle of the matrilineal family, Mukesh as Gopinathan, Kaviyoor Ponnamma. Mammootty won Kerala Film Critics Awards for best actor. Thilakan won Kerala State film awards for best supporting actor. Upon release, it received critical acclaim; the film discusses a variety of topics such as superstition and orthodoxy in rural Kerala, attitudes towards mental illness, the difference of attitudes between people of different generations, the decline of once-proud Nair "joint families". It was actor Thilakan; the movie ran 100 days. The story is set in a rural village in Kerala. Bala Gopalan, a school drawing teacher in Government service, has a serene life, with two children, a wife, a mother and a younger brother - Gopi and an younger sister, he is part of a declining, yet proud, Nair joint family in the village. Elder members of the family are rooted in orthodoxy.

Balan has an uncle, locked up in a dimly lit room in the house, mentally challenged. The belief among the family is that one male from each generation will go mad as a person from some past generation had sinned by throwing the idol of goddess in a well, he became a lunatic. This curse is supposed to pass down through generations. Balan's uncle dies and the talk of the village became - "Who would be next - Balan or Gopi?" One night changes it all. The whole house is woken up in the middle of night; the elder members of the family suspects. The news somehow gets out. Villagers start suspecting Balan of following the footsteps of his ancestors into madness. Now the village evaluates and judges each and every move he makes, his actions are misinterpreted. He applies for an extended transfer from service; some members of his family suspects that he has gone mad. The situation turns him confused. Gopi and educated, consults Balan with a medically qualified physician; the physician declares him sane. But village doesn't agree.

In the meantime, Balan's wife is forced to leave the house with their children. The family fixes the marriage of his younger sister while hiding the fact the she has a "challenged" elder brother. Balan is admitted in an asylum and undergoes treatment, he is released after a few days - both mentally and physically broken - and confines to the dark room his uncle once lived. Balan seems to be surrendered to the society. Balan's mother poisons him - on the day of the ritual for forgiveness from the goddess - to free him from the world. Apart from the main story line concerning Balan the movie makes a subtle sketch of the life of people in a "matriarchal" society; the uncle of Balan enjoys so much influence in the family affairs that he becomes a catalyst to the hero's slow but steady decline to lunacy. Mammootty as Bala Gopalan, drawing teacher Saritha as Indu Asha Jayaram as Sumitra Parvathy Mukesh as Gopinathan - younger brother of Bala Gopalan - progressive in mindset Thilakan as Balan's Uncle Kaviyoor Ponnamma as Balan's Mother Philomina as Balan's Grandmother Innocent as Headmaster Babu Namboothiri as Sreedharan Sonia as Anitha M. Balagopalan Valsala Menon as Balan's Aunt Prathapachandran as Balan's Father-in-Law Oduvil Unnikrishnan as Raman Karthavu Bobby Kottarakkara as Narayanan The music was composed by M. G. Radhakrishnan.

Mental illness in film List of films featuring mental illness Thaniyavarthanam on IMDb

Law enforcement in Abkhazia

Law enforcement in Abkhazia is now de jure the responsibility of the International Police and the United Nations as the international organizations such as United Nations, EC, Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, NATO, World Trade Organization, Council of the European Union, Commonwealth of Independent States, most sovereign states do not recognize Abkhazia as an independent state. As a result, Abkhazia is de facto independent but remains a de jure part of Georgia, with internal security somewhat precarious, it has its own law enforcement organizations such as militia, subject to the Ministry of the Internal Affairs of the de facto government. The UN has played various roles during the conflict and peace process: a military role through its observer mission; the UN's position has been. Any settlement must be negotiated and based on autonomy for Abkhazia legitimized by referendum under international observation once the multi-ethnic population has returned. OSCE expressed concern and condemnation over ethnic cleansing of Georgians in Abkhazia during the 1994 Budapest Summit Decision and at the Lisbon Summit Declaration in 1996.

The OSCE] has engaged in dialogue with officials and civil society representatives in Abkhazia from NGOs and the media, regarding human dimension standards and is considering a presence in Gali. Abkhazian militia enforce Abkhaz law. Georgia regards the Abkhaz militia as unlawful formations. In the current situation, agencies attempted to enforce any kind of security or law on behalf of the Abkhazian government is met with opposition, sometimes force, from Georgian forces; such was the case on July 26, 2006 when Georgian police announced that they had engaged "criminal gangs", Abkhazian militia, on the de facto border. On 20 June 2014, acting Minister of Internal Affairs Raul Lolua reported that Abkhazia had ten thieves in law, nine of which ethnic Abkhaz and one Georgian, that the police had thwarted the initiation of one more. Military of Abkhazia