In spirituality, nondualism called non-duality, means "not two" or "one undivided without a second". Nondualism refers to a mature state of consciousness, in which the dichotomy of I-other is "transcended", awareness is described as "centerless" and "without dichotomies". Although this state of consciousness may seem to appear spontaneous, it follows prolonged preparation through ascetic or meditative/contemplative practice, which may include ethical injunctions. While the term "nondualism" is derived from Advaita Vedanta, descriptions of nondual consciousness can be found within Hinduism, Buddhism and western Christian and neo-Platonic traditions; the Asian idea of nondualism developed in the Vedic and post-Vedic Hindu philosophies, as well as in the Buddhist traditions. The oldest traces of nondualism in Indian thought are found in the earlier Hindu Upanishads such as Brihadaranyaka Upanishad, as well as other pre-Buddhist Upanishads such as the Chandogya Upanishad, which emphasizes the unity of individual soul called Atman and the Supreme called Brahman.
In Hinduism, nondualism has more become associated with the Advaita Vedanta tradition of Adi Shankara. In the Buddhist tradition non-duality is associated with the teachings of emptiness and the two truths doctrine the Madhyamaka teaching of the non-duality of absolute and relative truth, the Yogachara notion of "mind/thought only" or "representation-only"; these teachings, coupled with the doctrine of Buddha-nature have been influential concepts in the subsequent development of Mahayana Buddhism, not only in India, but in East Asian and Tibetan Buddhism, most notably in Chán and Vajrayana. Western Neo-Platonism is an essential element of both Christian contemplation and mysticism, of Western esotericism and modern spirituality Unitarianism, Transcendentalism and Perennialism; when referring to nondualism, Hinduism uses the Sanskrit term Advaita, while Buddhism uses Advaya."Advaita" is from Sanskrit roots a, not. The term "nondualism" and the term "advaita" from which it originates are polyvalent terms.
The English word's origin is the Latin duo meaning "two" prefixed with "non-" meaning "not". "Advaya" is a Sanskrit word that means "identity, not two, without a second," and refers to the two truths doctrine of Mahayana Buddhism Madhyamaka. One of the earliest uses of the word Advaita is found in verse 4.3.32 of the Brihadaranyaka Upanishad, in verses 7 and 12 of the Mandukya Upanishad. The term appears in the Brihadaranyaka Upanishad in the section with a discourse of the oneness of Atman and Brahman, as follows: An ocean is that one seer, without any duality, thus did Yajnavalkya teach him. This is his highest goal, this is his highest success, this is his highest world, this is his highest bliss. All other creatures live on a small portion of that bliss; the English term "nondual" was informed by early translations of the Upanishads in Western languages other than English from 1775. These terms have entered the English language from literal English renderings of "advaita" subsequent to the first wave of English translations of the Upanishads.
These translations commenced in the monumental Sacred Books of the East. Max Müller rendered "advaita" as "Monism". However, some scholars state that "advaita" is not monism. Nondualism is a fuzzy concept. According to Espín and Nickoloff, "nondualism" is the thought in some Hindu and Taoist schools, which speaking:... teaches that the multiplicity of the universe is reducible to one essential reality." However, since there are similar ideas and terms in a wide variety of spiritualities and religions and modern, no single definition for the English word "nonduality" can suffice, it is best to speak of various "nondualities" or theories of nonduality. David Loy, who sees non-duality between subject and object as a common thread in Taoism, Mahayana Buddhism, Advaita Vedanta, distinguishes "Five Flavors Of Nonduality": The negation of dualistic thinking in pairs of opposites; the Yin-Yang symbol of Taoism symbolises the transcendence of this dualistic way of thinking. Monism, the nonplurality of the world.
Although the phenomenal world appears as a plurality of "things", in reality they are "of a single cloth". Advaita, the nondifference of subject and object, or nonduality between subject and object. Advaya, the identity of phenomena and the Absolute, the "nonduality of duality and nonduality", c.q. the nonduality of relative and ultimate truth as found in Madhyamaka Buddhism and the two truths doctrine. Mysticism, a mystical unity between God and man; the idea of nondualism is contrasted with dualism, with dualism defined as the view that the universe and the nature of existence consists of two realities, such as the God and the world, or as God and Devil, or as mind and matter, so on. Ideas of nonduality are taught in some western religions and philosophies, it has gained attraction and popularity in modern western spirituality and New Age-thinking. Different theories and concepts which can be linked to nonduality are taught in a wide variety of religious traditions; these in
Robert Tailboys was a younger son of Elizabeth Blount and Gilbert Tailboys, 1st Baron Tailboys of Kyme. Through his mother he was the half brother of Henry FitzRoy, 1st Duke of Richmond and Somerset, the only illegitimate offspring acknowledged by Henry VIII, King of England, he was most the youngest child of Elizabeth Blount and her first husband Gilbert Tailboys. He was named Robert for his father's grandfather Robert Tailboys, his birth came between his elder brother's George's birth in 1524 and his father's death in 1530, therefore at the time of his death in 1542 he was still a minor. His birth was towards the end of the marriage since there is so little information known about him. Robert was the last direct male line of the Tailboys. In his mother's Gower manuscript his signature is one of those, it has been suggested. It has been speculated. Following his death, his sister Elizabeth inherited the barony
The climate of Antarctica is the coldest on Earth. The continent is extremely dry, averaging 166 mm of precipitation per year. Snow melts on most parts of the continent, after being compressed, becomes the glacier ice that makes up the ice sheet. Weather fronts penetrate far into the continent, because of the katabatic winds. Most of Antarctica has an ice-cap climate with cold extremely dry weather; the highest temperature recorded on Antarctica was 20.75 °C at Comandante Ferraz Antarctic Station on 9 February 2020, beating the previous record of 18.3 °C at Esperanza Base, on the northern tip of the Antarctic Peninsula, on 6 February 2020, A higher temperature of 19.8 °C recorded at Signy Research Station on 30 January 1982 was the record for the Antarctic region encompassing all land and ice south of 60° S. The lowest air temperature record, the lowest reliably measured temperature on Antarctica was set on 21 July 1983, when −89.2 °C was observed at Vostok Station. For comparison, this is 10.7 °C colder than subliming dry ice.
The altitude of the location is 3,488 meters. Satellite measurements have identified lower ground temperatures, with −93.2 °C having been observed at the cloud-free East Antarctic Plateau on 10 August 2010. The lowest recorded temperature of any location on Earth's surface at 81.8°S 63.5°E / -81.8. This unnamed part of the Antarctic plateau, between Dome A and Dome F, was measured on 10 August 2010, the temperature was deduced from radiance measured by the Landsat 8 and other satellites, discovered during a National Snow and Ice Data Center review of stored data in December 2013 but revise by researcher on 25 June 2018; this temperature is not directly comparable to the –89.2 °C reading quoted above, since it is a skin temperature deduced from satellite-measured upwelling radiance, rather than a thermometer-measured temperature of the air 1.5 m above the ground surface. The mean annual temperature of the interior is −57 °C; the coast is warmer. Monthly means at McMurdo Station range from −26 °C in August to −3 °C in January.
At the South Pole, the highest temperature recorded was −12.3 °C on 25 December 2011. Along the Antarctic Peninsula, temperatures as high as 15 °C have been recorded, though the summer temperature is below 0 °C most of the time. Severe low temperatures vary with latitude and distance from the ocean. East Antarctica is colder than West Antarctica because of its higher elevation; the Antarctic Peninsula has the most moderate climate. Higher temperatures occur in January along the coast and average below freezing; the total precipitation on Antarctica, averaged over the entire continent, is about 166 millimetres per year. The actual rates vary from high values over the Peninsula to low values (as little as 50 millimetres in the high interior. Areas that receive less than 250 millimetres of precipitation per year are classified as deserts. All Antarctic precipitation falls as snow. Rainfall is rare and occurs during the summer in coastal areas and surrounding islands. Note that the quoted precipitation is a measure of its equivalence to water, rather than being the actual depth of snow.
The air in Antarctica is very dry. The low temperatures result in a low absolute humidity, which means that dry skin and cracked lips are a continual problem for scientists and expeditioners working in the continent; the weather in Antarctica can be variable, the weather conditions can change in short periods of time. There are various classifications for describing weather conditions in Antarctica. Nearly all of Antarctica is covered by a sheet of ice. Antarctica contains more than 70 % of its fresh water. If all the land-ice covering Antarctica were to melt — around 30 million cubic kilometres of ice — the seas would rise by over 60 metres; this is, however unlikely within the next few centuries. The Antarctic is so cold that with increases of a few degrees, temperatures would remain below the melting point of ice. Higher temperatures are expected to lead to more precipitation; this would increase the amount of ice in Antarctica, offsetting one third of the expected sea level rise from thermal expansion of the oceans.
During a recent decade, East Antarctica thickened at an average rate of about 1.8 centimetres per year while West Antarctica showed an overall thinning of 0.9 centimetres per year. For the contribution of Antarctica to present and future sea level change, see sea level rise; because ice flows, albeit the ice within the ice sheet is younger than the age of the sheet itself. About 75% of the coastline of Antarctica is shelf ice; the majority of shelf ice consists of floating ice, a lesser amount consists of glaciers that move from the land mass into the sea. Ice shelves lose mass through breakup of glacial ice, or basal meltin