Bank of North Dakota
The Bank of North Dakota is a state-owned-run financial institution, based in Bismarck, North Dakota. It is the only state-owned facility of its type in the United States other than the Puerto Rico Government Development Bank. Under state law, the bank is the State of North Dakota doing business as the Bank of North Dakota; the state and its agencies are required to place their funds in the bank, but local governments are not required to do so. Other entities may open accounts at the Bank; these limit its competitiveness in consumer banking. The bank does have an account with the Federal Reserve Bank, but deposits are not insured by the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation, instead being guaranteed by the general fund of the state of North Dakota itself and the taxpayers of the state. BND guarantees student loans, business development loans, state and municipal bonds; the Bank of North Dakota was established by legislative action in 1919 to promote agriculture and industry in North Dakota. Though conceived by populists in the Non-Partisan League, or NPL, as a credit union-style institution to free the farmers of the state from predatory lenders, the bank's functions were blocked by out-of-state financial actors refusing to buy the bonds the bank issued to finance its lending, lending that would have provided competition to the commercial banks.
The business-backed Independent Voters Association pursued shutting down the bank politically. The recall of NPL Governor Lynn Frazier ended the initial plan, with BND taking a more conservative central banking role in state finance; the current president and CEO is Eric Hardmeyer. The bank is overseen by the North Dakota Industrial Commission, composed of the Governor, Attorney General, the Agriculture Commissioner of North Dakota. Bank of North Dakota website Student Loans of North Dakota website Mother Jones - How the Nation’s Only State-Owned Bank Became the Envy of Wall Street North Dakota Industrial Commission Bank of North Dakota Documentary produced by Prairie Public Television The Seattle Times - Economy prompts fresh look at ND’s socialist bank
Treadwell Twichell was an American politician who served in both the North Dakota Senate and the House of Representatives and was elected as North Dakota Speaker in 1907. Twichell was born on November 19, 1864, in Hastings, United States, the son of Luther L. and Sally Twichell. After his father's death in 1880, Treadwell 17, 1eft high school and went to North Dakota to manage his late father's land holdings near Mapleton, North Dakota. Treadwell would remain involved in agriculture for the rest of his life. Treadwell had a sibling, Luther Lathrop, who would be elected as Speaker in 1921. On November 26, 1890, Treadwell married Grace B. Dill of Prescott, who he had four children with. Twichell was elected to two terms in the North Dakota House of Representatives, in 1895 and 1897. In 1899, he was elected to the North Dakota Senate. From 1901 to 1905, Treadwell served as Sheriff of Cass County. In 1907, he was once again elected to the House of Representatives. In 1908, Twichell was nominated for governor at the Progressive Republican Convention but lost to his opponent in the primary.
Mr. Twichell was again elected to the House of Representatives in 1913 and the Senate in 1915, he was known as an advocate of reform legislation and battled aggressively against boss rule in state politics. He was a delegate to a longtime township official, he is credited with building the first gravel highway in North Dakota and organizing the first cooperative elevator enterprise in the state. Twichell died on December 24, 1937, in Mapleton, North Dakota, where he was buried
Bismarck, North Dakota
Bismarck is the capital of the U. S. state of North Dakota and the county seat of Burleigh County. It is the second-most populous city in North Dakota after Fargo; the city's population was estimated in 2017 at 72,865, while its metropolitan population was 132,142. In 2017, Forbes magazine ranked Bismarck as the seventh fastest-growing small city in the United States. Bismarck was founded by European Americans in 1872 on the east bank of the Missouri River, it has been North Dakota's capital city since 1889, when the state was created from the Dakota Territory and admitted to the Union. Bismarck is across the river from Mandan, named after a historic Native American tribe of the area; the two cities make up the core of the Bismarck-Mandan Metropolitan Statistical Area. The North Dakota State Capitol, the tallest building in the state, is in central Bismarck; the state government employs more than 4,600 in the city. As a hub of retail and health care, Bismarck is the economic center of south-central North Dakota and north-central South Dakota.
For thousands of years, present-day central North Dakota was inhabited by indigenous peoples, who created successive cultures. The historic Mandan Native American tribe occupied the area; the Hidatsa name for Bismarck is mirahacii arumaaguash. In 1872 European Americans founded a settlement at what was called Missouri Crossing, so named because the Lewis and Clark Expedition crossed the river there on their exploration of the Louisiana Purchase in 1804-1806, it had been an area of Mandan settlement. The new town was called Edwinton, after Edwin Ferry Johnson, engineer-in-chief for the Northern Pacific Railway, its construction of railroads in the territory attracted settlers. In 1873, the Northern Pacific Railway renamed the city as Bismarck, in honor of German chancellor Otto von Bismarck. Railroad officials hoped to attract German immigrant settlers to the area and German investment in the railroad; the discovery of gold in the nearby Black Hills of South Dakota the following year was a greater impetus for growth.
Thousands of miners came to the area, encroaching on what the Lakota considered sacred territory and leading to heightened tensions with the Native Americans. Bismarck became a freight-shipping center on the "Custer Route" from the Black Hills. In 1883 Bismarck was designated as the capital of the Dakota Territory, in 1889 as the state capital of the new state of North Dakota. Bismarck is located at 46°48′48″N 100°46′44″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has an area of 31.23 square miles, of which, 30.85 square miles is land and 0.38 square miles is water. The city has developed around the center of historic development, it is distinctive because the city's major shopping center, Kirkwood Mall, is in the center city rather than in the suburbs. Several other major retail stores are in the vicinity of Kirkwood Mall, developed near the Bismarck Civic Center; the two Bismarck hospitals, St. Alexius Medical Center and Sanford Health are both downtown; the streets are lined with small restaurants, providing numerous amenities.
Much recent commercial and residential growth has taken place in the city's northern section because of expanding retail centers. Among the shopping centers in northern Bismarck are Gateway Fashion Mall, Northbrook Mall, Arrowhead Plaza, the Pinehurst Square "power center" mall; the North Dakota State Capitol complex is just north of downtown Bismarck. The 19-story Art Deco capitol is the tallest building in the city and the state, at a height of 241.75 feet. The capitol building towers over the city's center and is seen from 20 miles away on a clear day. Completed during the Great Depression in 1934, it replaced a capitol building that burned to the ground in 1930; the capitol grounds house the North Dakota Heritage Center, the North Dakota State Library, the North Dakota Governor's Residence, the State Office Building, the Liberty Memorial Building. The North Dakota State Penitentiary is in eastern Bismarck; the Cathedral District, named after the art deco Cathedral of the Holy Spirit, is an historic neighborhood near downtown Bismarck.
Some homes in this neighborhood date to the 1880s, although many were built in the first decades of the 20th century. At times, the city has proposed widening the streets in the neighborhood to improve traffic flow. Many residents object because such a project would require the removal of many of the towering American elms which line the streets; these have escaped the elm disease. After the completion of Garrison Dam in 1953 by the Army Corps of Engineers, which improved flood control, the floodplain of the Missouri River became a more practical place for development. Significant residential and commercial building has taken place in this area on the south side of the city; the Upper Missouri River is still subject to seasonal flooding. Situated in the middle of the Great Plains, between the geographic centers of the United States and Canada, Bismarck displays a variable four-season humid continental climate. Bismarck's climate is characterized by cold, somewhat snowy and windy winters, hot humid summers.
Thunderstorms occur in spring and summer. The warmest month in Bismarck is July, with a daily mean of 71.1 °F, with wide variations between day and night. The coldest month is January, with a 24-hour average of 12.8 °F. Precipitation peaks from May to September and is rather sparse in the w
Republican Party (United States)
The Republican Party referred to as the GOP, is one of the two major political parties in the United States. The GOP was founded in 1854 by opponents of the Kansas-Nebraska Act, which had expanded slavery into U. S. territories. The party subscribed to classical liberalism and took ideological stands that were anti-slavery and pro-economic reform. Abraham Lincoln was the first Republican president in the history of the United States; the Party was dominant over the Democrats during the Third Party System and Fourth Party System. In 1912, Theodore Roosevelt formed the Progressive Party after being rejected by the GOP and ran unsuccessfully as a third-party presidential candidate calling for social reforms. After the 1912 election, many Roosevelt supporters left the Party, the Party underwent an ideological shift to the right; the liberal Republican element in the GOP was overwhelmed by a conservative surge begun by Barry Goldwater in 1964 that continued during the Reagan Era in the 1980s. After the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the Voting Rights Act of 1965, the party's core base shifted, with the Southern states becoming more reliably Republican in presidential politics and the Northeastern states becoming more reliably Democratic.
White voters identified with the Republican Party after the 1960s. Following the Supreme Court's 1973 decision in Roe v. Wade, the Republican Party made opposition to abortion a key plank of its national party platform and grew its support among evangelicals. By 2000, the Republican Party was aligned with Christian conservatism; the Party's core support since the 1990s comes chiefly from the South, the Great Plains, the Mountain States and rural areas in the North. The 21st century Republican Party ideology is American conservatism, which contrasts with the Democrats' liberal platform and progressive wing; the GOP supports lower taxes, free market capitalism, a strong national defense, gun rights and restrictions on labor unions. The GOP was committed to protectionism and tariffs from its founding until the 1930s when it was based in the industrial Northeast and Midwest, but has grown more supportive of free trade since 1952. In addition to advocating for conservative economic policies, the Republican Party is conservative.
Founded in the Northern states in 1854 by abolitionists, modernizers, ex-Whigs and ex-Free Soilers, the Republican Party became the principal opposition to the dominant Democratic Party and the popular Know Nothing Party. The party grew out of opposition to the Kansas–Nebraska Act, which repealed the Missouri Compromise and opened Kansas Territory and Nebraska Territory to slavery and future admission as slave states; the Northern Republicans saw the expansion of slavery as a great evil. The first public meeting of the general anti-Nebraska movement, at which the name Republican was suggested for a new anti-slavery party, was held on March 20, 1854 in a schoolhouse in Ripon, Wisconsin; the name was chosen to pay homage to Thomas Jefferson's Republican Party. The first official party convention was held on July 1854 in Jackson, Michigan. At the 1856 Republican National Convention, the party adopted a national platform emphasizing opposition to the expansion of slavery into U. S. territories. While Republican candidate John C.
Frémont lost the 1856 United States presidential election to James Buchanan, he did win 11 of the 16 northern states. The Republican Party first came to power in the elections of 1860 when it won control of both houses of Congress and its candidate, former congressman Abraham Lincoln, was elected President. In the election of 1864, it united with War Democrats to nominate Lincoln on the National Union Party ticket. Under Republican congressional leadership, the Thirteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution—which banned slavery in the United States—passed the Senate in 1864 and the House in 1865; the party's success created factionalism within the party in the 1870s. Those who felt that Reconstruction had been accomplished, was continued to promote the large-scale corruption tolerated by President Ulysses S. Grant, ran Horace Greeley for the presidency; the Stalwart faction defended Grant and the spoils system, whereas the Half-Breeds pushed for reform of the civil service. The Pendleton Civil Service Reform Act was passed in 1883.
The Republican Party supported hard money, high tariffs to promote economic growth, high wages and high profits, generous pensions for Union veterans, the annexation of Hawaii. The Republicans had strong support from pietistic Protestants, but they resisted demands for Prohibition; as the Northern postwar economy boomed with heavy and light industry, mines, fast-growing cities, prosperous agriculture, the Republicans took credit and promoted policies to sustain the fast growth. The GOP was dominant over the Democrats during the Third Party System. However, by 1890 the Republicans had agreed to the Sherman Antitrust Act and the Interstate Commerce Commission in response to complaints from owners of small businesses and farmers; the high McKinley Tariff of 1890 hurt the party and the Democrats swept to a landslide in the off-year elections defeating McKinley himself. The Democrats elected Grover Cleveland in 1884 and 1892; the election of William McKinley in 1896 was marked by a resurgence of Republican dominance that lasted until 1932.
McKinley promised that high tariffs would end the severe hardship caused by the Pa
John W. Leedy
John Whitnah Leedy was the 14th Governor of Kansas. Leedy was born near Bellville, Ohio in Richland County, to Samuel Keith and Margaret Leedy, the fifth of six children, his parents were members of the Church of the Brethren. Upon the death of his father in 1853, he went to work for neighbors as a farm hand, he was only able to attend school during a few winters. In 1863, Leedy attempted to join the Union Army, but was rejected because of his age and the intervention of his mother, but in 1864, he ran away from home, following the 163rd Ohio Infantry in which his cousin Jacob M. Leedy was captain of Company D. After the Civil War, Leedy moved to Princeton, Indiana where he served as a clerk in a store for three years, his health in decline, Leedy moved to Carlinville and sought work as a farm hand. He worked for Squire Gore, within five years his health had returned and he had saved enough money to purchase his own farm, he married Sarah Jane Boyd in 1874 and had three children: Clara Romaine, Alice May, John Boyd.
Leedy moved to Coffey County, Kansas near Le Roy in 1880, where he purchased land for a farm. His interest was known as a successful breeder. However, in 1890, his finances began to fail and during the Panic of 1893, Leedy was forced to turn over his farm and all improvements—including his home—to his creditors. A Republican, he became a Democrat in 1872 before joining the Populist Party at its foundation. In 1892, Leedy ran for the Kansas State Senate with both the Democrats nominations, he served in the State Senate from 1892 until 1897. At the Populist Party's 1896 convention, delegates chose Leedy as their gubernational nominee over Congressman William A. Harris. At the time of his nomination, Leedy was poor and he and his family were renting a small house for $15 a month. Leedy defeated the incumbent Republican governor Edmund N. Morrill in the election; as Governor of Kansas, he established a state schoolbook commission and a state printing plant, organized four state regiments for service in the Spanish–American War.
Leedy was known as an outspoken critic of corporations. He was defeated for renomination as governor. In 1901, Leedy movied to Alaska, where he discovered a gold mine and became wealthy, practiced law despite having no formal legal training, he served as mayor of Valdez for two years. In 1908, Leedy took up a homestead near Whitecourt, named after his son-in-law. Leedy became a naturalized British subject, he agitated for reform of Canada's banking system, seeking the institution of the system of small rural-based farms that he had helped establish in Kansas during his governorship. He ran for a seat in the Alberta Legislature in the 1917 Alberta general election as a candidate for the Non-Partisan League in the electoral district of Gleichen and was unsuccessful, he received more than 16 percent of the vote but came in behind Conservative candidate Fred Davis and the defeated incumbent John McArthur. Leedy ran for a seat to the House of Commons of Canada as a Non-Partisan League candidate in the electoral district of Victoria in the 1917 federal election.
He was defeated in the three-way race, finishing third behind anti-conscriptionist Laurier Liberal candidate William Henry White and the Conservative/Unionist candidate, former Alberta MLA James Holden. He was active in the United Farmers of Alberta and after it decided to engage in direct politics in 1921 and was elected government, he and fellow farmer and bank reformer George Bevington pushed the UFA government to establish a government-owned bank but their efforts were negated by the conservative UFA executive and he withdrew from the UFA. At the age of 77, he ran as an Independent on a bank-reform platform in Edmonton in the 1926 provincial election but was not elected. Leedy died in Edmonton, Alberta on March 24, 1935, with no money or other assets; the Kansas State Legislature donated $1,000 to pay his funeral expenses. He is interred at Edmonton Municipal Cemetery, Alberta, Canada. John W. Leedy at Find a Grave Blue Skyways National Governors Association The Political Graveyard Publications concerning Kansas Governor Leedy's administration available via the KGI Online Library
Minnesota is a state in the Upper Midwest and northern regions of the United States. Minnesota was admitted as the 32nd U. S. state on May 11, 1858, created from the eastern half of the Minnesota Territory. The state has a large number of lakes, is known by the slogan the "Land of 10,000 Lakes", its official motto is L'Étoile du Nord. Minnesota is the 12th largest in area and the 22nd most populous of the U. S. states. This area is the center of transportation, industry and government, while being home to an internationally known arts community; the remainder of the state consists of western prairies now given over to intensive agriculture. Minnesota was inhabited by various indigenous peoples for thousands of years prior to the arrival of Europeans. French explorers and fur traders began exploring the region in the 17th century, encountering the Dakota and Ojibwe/Anishinaabe tribes. Much of what is today Minnesota was part of the vast French holding of Louisiana, purchased by the United States in 1803.
Following several territorial reorganizations, Minnesota in its current form was admitted as the country's 32nd state on May 11, 1858. Like many Midwestern states, it remained centered on lumber and agriculture. During the 19th and early 20th centuries, a large number of European immigrants from Scandinavia and Germany, began to settle the state, which remains a center of Scandinavian American and German American culture. In recent decades, immigration from Asia, the Horn of Africa, the Middle East, Latin America has broadened its demographic and cultural composition; the state's economy has diversified, shifting from traditional activities such as agriculture and resource extraction to services and finance. Minnesota's standard of living index is among the highest in the United States, the state is among the best-educated and wealthiest in the nation; the word Minnesota comes from the Dakota name for the Minnesota River: The river got its name from one of two words in the Dakota language,'Mní sóta' which means "clear blue water", or'Mnißota', which means cloudy water.
Native Americans demonstrated the name to early settlers by dropping milk into water and calling it mnisota. Many places in the state have similar names, such as Minnehaha Falls, Minneota, Minnetonka and Minneapolis, a combination of mni and polis, the Greek word for "city". Minnesota is the second northernmost U. S. state and northernmost contiguous state. Its isolated Northwest Angle in Lake of the Woods county is the only part of the 48 contiguous states lying north of the 49th parallel; the state is part of the U. S. region known as part of North America's Great Lakes Region. It shares a Lake Superior water border with Michigan and a land and water border with Wisconsin to the east. Iowa is to the south, North Dakota and South Dakota are to the west, the Canadian provinces of Ontario and Manitoba are to the north. With 86,943 square miles, or 2.25% of the United States, Minnesota is the 12th-largest state. Minnesota has gneisses that are about 3.6 billion years old. About 2.7 billion years ago, basaltic lava poured out of cracks in the floor of the primordial ocean.
The roots of these volcanic mountains and the action of Precambrian seas formed the Iron Range of northern Minnesota. Following a period of volcanism 1.1 billion years ago, Minnesota's geological activity has been more subdued, with no volcanism or mountain formation, but with repeated incursions of the sea, which left behind multiple strata of sedimentary rock. In more recent times, massive ice sheets at least one kilometer thick ravaged the state's landscape and sculpted its terrain; the Wisconsin glaciation left 12,000 years ago. These glaciers covered all of Minnesota except the far southeast, an area characterized by steep hills and streams that cut into the bedrock; this area is known as the Driftless Zone for its absence of glacial drift. Much of the remainder of the state outside the northeast has 50 feet or more of glacial till left behind as the last glaciers retreated. Gigantic Lake Agassiz formed in the northwest 13,000 years ago, its bed created the fertile Red River valley, its outflow, glacial River Warren, carved the valley of the Minnesota River and the Upper Mississippi downstream from Fort Snelling.
Minnesota is geologically quiet today. The state's high point is Eagle Mountain at 2,301 feet, only 13 miles away from the low of 601 feet at the shore of Lake Superior. Notwithstanding dramatic local differences in elevation, much of the state is a rolling peneplain. Two major drainage divides meet in Minnesota's northeast in rural Hibbing, forming a triple watershed. Precipitation can follow the Mississippi River south to the Gulf of Mexico, the Saint Lawrence Seaway east to the Atlantic Ocean, or the Hudson Bay watershed to the Arctic Ocean; the state's nickname, "Land of 10,000 Lakes", is apt, as there are 11,842 Minnesota lakes over 10 acres in size. Minnesota's portion of Lake Superior is the largest at 962,700 acres and deepest body of wate
Minneapolis is the county seat of Hennepin County and the larger of the Twin Cities, the 16th-largest metropolitan area in the United States. As of 2017, Minneapolis is the largest city in the state of Minnesota and 45th-largest in the United States, with an estimated population of 422,331; the Twin Cities metropolitan area consists of Minneapolis, its neighbor Saint Paul, suburbs which altogether contain about 3.6 million people, is the third-largest economic center in the Midwest. Minneapolis lies on both banks of the Mississippi River, just north of the river's confluence with the Minnesota River, adjoins Saint Paul, the state's capital; the city is abundantly rich in water, with 13 lakes, the Mississippi River and waterfalls. It was once a hub for timber; the city and surrounding region is the primary business center between Seattle. In 2011, Minneapolis proper was home to the fifth-highest number of Fortune 500 headquarters in the United States; as an integral link to the global economy, Minneapolis is categorized as a global city.
Minneapolis has one of the largest LGBT populations in the U. S. proportional to its overall population. Noted for its strong music and performing arts scenes, Minneapolis is home to both the award-winning Guthrie Theater and the historic First Avenue nightclub. Reflecting the region's status as an epicenter of folk and alternative rock music, the city served as the launching pad for several of the 20th century's most influential musicians, including Bob Dylan and Prince. Minneapolis has become noted for its underground and independent hip-hop and rap scenes, producing artists such as Brother Ali and Dessa; the name Minneapolis is attributed to Charles Hoag, the city's first schoolmaster, who combined mni, a Dakota Sioux word for water, polis, the Greek word for city. Descendants of first peoples, Dakota Sioux were the region's sole residents when French explorers arrived in 1680. For a time, amicable relations were based on fur trading. More European-American settlers arrived, competing for game and other resources with the Native Americans.
After the Revolutionary War, Great Britain granted the land east of the Mississippi to the United States. In the early 19th century, the United States acquired land to the west from France in the Louisiana Purchase. Fort Snelling, just south of present-day Minneapolis, was built in 1819 by the United States Army, it attracted traders and merchants, spurring growth in the area. The United States government pressed the Mdewakanton band of the Dakota to sell their land, allowing people arriving from the East to settle there. Preoccupied with the Civil War, the United States government reneged on its promises of cash payments to the Dakota, resulting in hunger, the Dakota War of 1862, internment and hardship; the Minnesota Territorial Legislature authorized Minneapolis as a town in 1856, on the Mississippi's west bank. Minneapolis incorporated as a city in 1867, the year rail service began between Minneapolis and Chicago, it joined with the east-bank city of St. Anthony in 1872. Minneapolis developed around Saint Anthony Falls, the highest waterfall on the Mississippi River and a source of power for its early industry.
Forests in northern Minnesota were a valuable resource for the lumber industry, which operated seventeen sawmills on power from the waterfall. By 1871, the west river bank had twenty-three businesses, including flour mills, woolen mills, iron works, a railroad machine shop, mills for cotton, paper and planing wood. Due to the occupational hazards of milling, six local sources of artificial limbs were competing in the prosthetics business by the 1890s; the farmers of the Great Plains grew grain, shipped by rail to the city's 34 flour mills. Millers have used hydropower elsewhere since the 1st century B. C. but the results in Minneapolis between 1880 and 1930 were so remarkable the city has been described as "the greatest direct-drive waterpower center the world has seen." A father of modern milling in America and founder of what became General Mills, Cadwallader C. Washburn converted his business from gristmills to revolutionary technology, including "gradual reduction" processing by steel and porcelain roller mills capable of producing premium-quality pure white flour quickly.
Some ideas were developed by William Dixon Gray and some acquired through industrial espionage from Hungary by William de la Barre. Charles A. Pillsbury and the C. A. Pillsbury Company across the river were a step behind, hiring Washburn employees to use the new methods; the hard red spring wheat that grows in Minnesota became valuable, Minnesota "patent" flour was recognized at the time as the best in the world. Not until did consumers discover the value in the bran that "... Minneapolis flour millers dumped" into the Mississippi. After 1883, a Minneapolis miller started a new industry when he began to sell bran byproduct as animal feed. Millers cultivated relationships with academic scientists at the University of Minnesota; those scientists backed them politically on many issues, such as in the early 20th century when health advocates in the nascent field of nutrition criticized the flour "bleaching" process. At peak production, a single mill at Washburn-Crosby made enough flour for 12 million loaves of bread each day.
Further, by 1895, through the efforts of silent partner William Hood Dunwoody, Washburn-Crosby exported four