North Dakota

North Dakota is a U. S. state in northern regions of the United States. It is the nineteenth largest in area, the fourth smallest by population, the fourth most sparsely populated of the 50 states. North Dakota was admitted to the Union on November 2, 1889, along with its neighboring state, South Dakota, its capital is Bismarck, its largest city is Fargo. In the 21st century, North Dakota's natural resources have played a major role in its economic performance with the oil extraction from the Bakken formation, which lies beneath the northwestern part of the state; such development has led to population growth and reduced unemployment, resulting in North Dakota's having the second lowest unemployment rate in the nation. North Dakota contains the tallest man-made structure in the KVLY-TV mast. North Dakota is a Midwestern state of the United States, it lies at the center of the North American continent. The geographic center of North America is near the town of Rugby. Bismarck is the capital of North Dakota, Fargo is the largest city.

Soil is North Dakota's most precious resource. It is the base of the state's great agricultural wealth. North Dakota has enormous mineral resources; these mineral resources include billions of tons of lignite coal. In addition, North Dakota has large oil reserves. Petroleum was discovered in the state in 1951 and became one of North Dakota's most valuable mineral resources. In the early 2000s, the emergence of hydraulic fracturing technologies enabled mining companies to extract huge amounts of oil from the Bakken shale rock formation in the western part of the state. North Dakota's economy is based more on farming than the economies of most other states. Many North Dakota factories manufacture farm equipment. Many of the state's merchants rely on agriculture. Farms and ranches cover nearly all of North Dakota, they stretch from the flat Red River Valley in the east, across rolling plains, to the rugged Badlands in the west. The chief crop, wheat, is grown in nearly every county. North Dakota flaxseed.

It is the country's top producer of barley and sunflower seeds and a leader in the production of beans, lentils, oats and sugar beets. Few white settlers came to the North Dakota region before the 1870s because railroads had not yet entered the area. During the early 1870s, the Northern Pacific Railroad began to push across the Dakota Territory. Large-scale farming began during the 1870s. Eastern corporations and some families established huge wheat farms covering large areas of land in the Red River Valley; the farms made such enormous profits. White settlers, attracted by the success of the bonanza farms, flocked to North Dakota increasing the territory's population. In 1870, North Dakota had 2,405 people. By 1890, the population had grown to 190,983. North Dakota was named for the Sioux people; the Sioux called meaning allies or friends. One of North Dakota's nicknames is the Peace Garden State; this nickname honors the International Peace Garden, which lies on the state's border with Manitoba, Canada.

North Dakota is called the Flickertail State because of the many flickertail ground squirrels that live in the central part of the state. North Dakota is in the U. S. region known as the Great Plains. The state shares the Red River of the North with Minnesota to the east. South Dakota is to the south, Montana is to the west, the Canadian provinces of Saskatchewan and Manitoba are to the north. North Dakota is near the middle of North America with a stone marker in Rugby, North Dakota marking the "Geographic Center of the North American Continent". With an area of 70,762 square miles, North Dakota is the 19th largest state; the western half of the state consists of the hilly Great Plains as well as the northern part of the Badlands, which are to the west of the Missouri River. The state's high point, White Butte at 3,506 feet, Theodore Roosevelt National Park are in the Badlands; the region is abundant in fossil fuels including crude oil and lignite coal. The Missouri River forms Lake Sakakawea, the third largest artificial lake in the United States, behind the Garrison Dam.

The central region of the state is divided into the Missouri Plateau. The eastern part of the state consists of the flat Red River Valley, the bottom of glacial Lake Agassiz, its fertile soil, drained by the meandering Red River flowing northward into Lake Winnipeg, supports a large agriculture industry. Devils Lake, the largest natural lake in the state, is found in the east. Eastern North Dakota is overall flat. Most of the state is covered in grassland. Natural trees in North Dakota are found where there is good drainage, such as the ravines and valley near the Pembina Gorge and Killdeer Mountains, the Turtle Mountains, the hills around Devil's Lake, in the dunes area of McHenry County in central North Dakota, along the Sheyenne Valley slopes and the Sheyenne delta; this diverse terrain supports nearly 2,000 species of plants. North Dakota has a continental climate with cold winters; the temperature differences are significant because of its far inland position and being in the center of the Northern Hemisphere, with equal distances to the North Pole and the Equator.

As such, summers are subtropical, but winters are cold enough to ensure plant hardiness

Beyond Thirty and The Man-Eater

Beyond Thirty and The Man-Eater is a collection of two short novels by Edgar Rice Burroughs. Both were written in 1915. Neither work appeared in book form in Burroughs' lifetime; the first book versions were limited editions were issued by Lloyd Arthur Eshbach's Fantasy Press fanzine in 1955. Both works have since been published separately. Beyond Thirty The Man-Eater The story was influenced by the events of World War I, reflects U. S. sentiments at the time of writing. When the war broke out, Americans were predominantly isolationist and wary of being drawn into a European war. Burroughs imagines a future two centuries onward in which that view prevailed and the western hemisphere severed contact with the rest of the world; the eastern hemisphere has exhausted itself in war and Europe descended into barbarism while the Americas, sheltered from the destruction, have continued to advance and joined peacefully into the union of Pan-America. By the twenty-second century the entire world east of the 30th meridian west and west of the 175th meridian east has become terra incognita to Pan-America.

In 2137, Pan-American Navy Lieutenant Jefferson Turck is commander of the aero-submarine Coldwater, tasked with patrolling the 30th meridian from Iceland to the Azores. Disaster strikes when the vessel's anti-gravitation screens fail, dooming it to wallow upon the surface of the ocean, the engines fail, leaving it adrift; as its wireless radio has failed as well, Turck cannot summon help. It is implied that the perfidy of the Coldwater’s second officer is behind its misfortunes, as well as the abandonment at sea of Turck and three crewmen in a small boat while attempting repairs. Adrift and his companions are forced to make shore in forbidden England. Turck falls into the hands of raiders from the Abyssinian Empire, a black super-state ruling all of Africa, most of Europe, the Arabian peninsula. While the Abyssinians' technology is equivalent to that of the nineteenth century, the white savages that populate Europe in Turck’s time are no match for them; the Abyssinians consider whites a lower order and take them as slaves.

Turck too is pressed into slavery. Becoming the personal servant of an Abyssinian colonel he is treated better than many of his fellow slaves, but is rankled by his status. Turck's master takes him to the court of the Abyssinian Emperor, Menelek XIV. Menelek is portrayed as gross and cruel once a great man, but now corrupted by power. Turck watches powerless as white slave women are offered to the emperor for his harem, including the heroine Victory, queen of the primitives of England. Turck succeeds in rescuing Victory and makes his way with her to the rival empire of China. Communications between the hemispheres are re-opened, with commerce to follow, Turck, despite violating the edict against crossing the 30th meridian, is hailed as a hero in Pan-America. Jefferson Scott, Jr. and Robert Gordon, hunters in the Belgian Congo, are thrown together with missionaries Sangamon and Mary Morton and their daughter Ruth. Scott marries Ruth, Gordon is entrusted with stock certificates to be taken back to Scott's father in America.

Scott and the elder Mortons are killed by the native Wakandas. The stock certificates, have gone astray, with only a single sheet of paper having been delivered to the elder Scott. Nineteen years pass. On the death of Jefferson Scott, Sr. Virginia Scott is to inherit the estate, but the will cannot be located, Scott Taylor, her grandfather’s disinherited nephew, appears to claim a half share. Proposing to Virginia in an effort to obtain it all, he is rebuffed, whereupon he disputes her right to any of the estate, pretending she is illegitimate. Ruth attempts to prove her marriage to Virginia's father by writing to Robert Gordon, who witnessed the ceremony, but he is now deceased, her appeal reaches his son Dick Gordon instead. Moved but unable to provide the desired proof, Gordon writes back of his intention to sail to Africa to seek documentation of the marriage there. Taylor follows him with the intention of murder. Discovering this, Virginia sets out for Africa. Gordon reaches the ruins of the old mission and finds there a sealed envelope, with which he begins his trek back to the coast.

Taylor and his confederates Kelley and Gootch await him in ambush in a native village. They kill a lioness. Virginia is imprisoned by the villains. Meanwhile, Gordon discovers and frees the captured lion, which returns to the village seeking the killers of its mate; the lion arrives just as the villains are about to rape and kill Virginia, kills Gootch while others flee. Virginia is stalked by a hyena. Gordon, who happens to be nearby, shoots the beast, she warns him against Taylor, who appears with Kelley, seeking her. Seizing Gordon's gun, she drives the villains off, they return to America and separate, Gordon somehow neglecting to give her the envelope. Meanwhile, the lion has been captured by hunters and sold to an itinerant American circus, in which he is billed as "Ben, King of Beasts, the Man-Eating Lion." Realizing his omission, Gordon visits the Scott home to d

JNR Class ED79

The Class ED79 was a Bo-Bo wheel arrangement AC electric locomotive type operated on passenger and freight services in the north of Japan from 1986 by Japanese National Railways, by Hokkaido Railway Company and Japan Freight Railway Company until 2016. ED79-0: Numbers ED79-1 – 21 ED79-50: Numbers ED79-51 – 60 ED79-100: Number ED79-101 – 113 21 Class ED79-0 locomotives were converted between 1986 and 1987 at JNR's Omiya and Naebo Workshops from former Class ED75-700 locomotives to haul both freight and passenger trains through the undersea Seikan Tunnel between the main island of Honshu and the northern island of Hokkaido, which opened in March 1988; the gear ratio was reduced from the 4.44 of the original ED75 locomotives to 3.38, giving a top speed of 110 km/h better suited to express passenger and freight workings. With the privatization of JNR on 1 April 1987, all 21 locomotives were transferred to the ownership of JR Hokkaido. Daytime Kaikyo services hauled by Class ED79 locomotives between Aomori and Hakodate through the Seikan Tunnel were discontinued in 2002, replaced by the Hakucho and Super Hakucho limited express services using electric multiple unit trains).

In 2006, the Nihonkai sleeping car service no longer ran through the tunnel, JR Freight ceased using JR Hokkaido locomotives on freight services, due to the increased availability of Class EH500 locomotives. By 1 April 2013, nine Class ED79-0 locomotives remained in service, owned by JR Hokkaido and based at Hakodate Depot; these were used to haul the Cassiopeia, Twilight Express, Hamanasu overnight services between Aomori and Hakodate via the Seikan Tunnel. All remaining locomotives had been withdrawn by March 2016; the fleet details are shown below. From February 2000, eight locomotives received differing Doraemon liveries. 10 Class ED79-50 locomotives were built between 1989 and 1990 by Toshiba for JR Freight for use on freight services through the Seikan Tunnel. These locos were finished from new in the then-new JR Freight livery of pale purple and two-tone blue, with maroon cab doors; as of March 2015, nine out of the original ten Class ED79-50 locomotives remained in service, owned by JR Freight and based at Goryokaku Depot.

These were used in pairs to haul freight services between Higashi-Aomori and Goryokaku via the Seikan Tunnel. All were scheduled to be withdrawn by March 2016 when the line voltage through the Seikan Tunnel was raised from 20 kV AC to 25 kV AC with the opening of the Hokkaido Shinkansen; the withdrawal dates. 13 Class ED79-100 locomotives were converted between 1986 and 1987 at JNR's Omiya and Naebo Workshops from former Class ED75-700 locomotives. As with the ED79-0 subclass, these were intended to haul freight and passenger trains through the undersea Seikan Tunnel between Honshu and Hokkaido, but as a cost-saving measure, only one cab end was equipped with the necessary ATC equipment, so these locomotives were only able to operate in multiple with an ED79-0 locomotive and were not permitted to run singly through the tunnel. An ED79-100 locomotive would be coupled at the northern end of an ED75-0. With the privatization of JNR on 1 April 1987, all 13 locomotives were transferred to the ownership of JR Hokkaido, although they were loaned for use on JR Freight services until 2006.

The last remaining member of the sub-class was withdrawn in March 2009. The fleet details are shown below; the ED79 classification for this locomotive type is explained below. E: Electric locomotive D: Four driving axles 7x: AC locomotive with maximum speed exceeding 85 km/h