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Norfolk Island

Norfolk Island, is located in the Pacific Ocean between Australia, New Zealand, New Caledonia, 1,412 kilometres directly east of mainland Australia's Evans Head, about 900 kilometres from Lord Howe Island. Together with the neighbouring Phillip Island and Nepean Island, the three islands collectively form the Territory of Norfolk Island, one of the Commonwealth of Australia's external territories. At the 2016 Australian census, it had 1748 inhabitants living on a total area of about 35 km2, its capital is Kingston. The first known settlers in Norfolk Island were East Polynesians but they were long gone when Great Britain settled it as part of its 1788 settlement of Australia; the island served as a convict penal settlement from 6 March 1788 until 5 May 1855, except for an 11-year hiatus between 15 February 1814 and 6 June 1825, when it lay abandoned. On 8 June 1856, permanent civilian residence on the island began when it was settled from Pitcairn Island. In 1914 the UK handed Norfolk Island over to Australia to administer as an external territory.

Native to the island, the evergreen Norfolk Island pine is a symbol of the island and is pictured on its flag. The pine is a key export for Norfolk Island, being a popular ornamental tree on mainland Australia, worldwide. Norfolk Island was uninhabited when first settled by Europeans, but evidence of earlier habitation was obvious. Archaeological investigation suggests that, in the thirteenth or fourteenth century, the island was settled by East Polynesian seafarers, either from the Kermadec Islands north of New Zealand, or from the North Island of New Zealand. However, both Polynesian and Melanesian artefacts have been found, so it is possible that people from New Caledonia close to the north reached Norfolk Island. Human occupation must have ceased; the relative isolation of the island, its poor horticultural environment, were not favourable to long-term settlement. The first European known to have sighted and landed on the island was Captain James Cook, on 10 October 1774, on his second voyage to the South Pacific on HMS Resolution.

He named it after Mary Howard, Duchess of Norfolk. Sir John Call argued the advantages of Norfolk Island in that it was uninhabited and that New Zealand flax grew there. In 1786, the British government included Norfolk Island as an auxiliary settlement, as proposed by John Call, in its plan for colonisation of the Colony of New South Wales; the decision to settle Norfolk Island was taken due to Empress Catherine II of Russia's decision to restrict sales of hemp. All the hemp and flax required by the Royal Navy for cordage and sailcloth was imported from Russia; when the First Fleet arrived at Port Jackson in January 1788, Governor Arthur Phillip ordered Lieutenant Philip Gidley King to lead a party of 15 convicts and seven free men to take control of Norfolk Island, prepare for its commercial development. They arrived on 6 March. During the first year of the settlement, called "Sydney" like its parent, more convicts and soldiers were sent to the island from New South Wales. Robert Watson, arrived with the First Fleet as quartermaster of HMS Sirius, was still serving in that capacity when the ship was wrecked at Norfolk Island in 1790.

Next year, he cultivated a grant of 60 acres on the island. As early as 1794, Lieutenant-Governor of New South Wales Francis Grose suggested its closure as a penal settlement, as it was too remote and difficult for shipping and too costly to maintain; the first group of people left in February 1805, by 1808, only about 200 remained, forming a small settlement until the remnants were removed in 1813. A small party remained to slaughter stock and destroy all buildings, so that there would be no inducement for anyone from other European powers, to visit and lay claim to the place. From February 1814 until June 1825, the island was abandoned. In 1824 the British government instructed the Governor of New South Wales, Thomas Brisbane, to occupy Norfolk Island as a place to send "the worst description of convicts", its remoteness seen as a disadvantage, was now viewed as an asset for the detention of recalcitrant male prisoners. The convicts detained have long been assumed to be hardcore recidivists, or'doubly-convicted capital respites' – that is, men transported to Australia who committed fresh colonial crimes for which they were sentenced to death, but were spared the gallows on condition of life at Norfolk Island.

However, a 2011 study, using a database of 6458 Norfolk Island convicts, has demonstrated that the reality was somewhat different: more than half were detained at Norfolk Island without receiving a colonial conviction, only 15% had been reprieved from a death sentence. Furthermore, the overwhelming majority of convicts sent to Norfolk Island had committed non-violent property offences, the average length of detention there was three years; the British government began to wind down the second penal settlement after 1847, the last convicts were removed to Tasmania in May 1855. The island was abandoned because transportation from the United Kingdom to Van Diemen's Land had ceased in 1853, to be replaced by penal servitude in the UK; the next settlement began on 8 June 1856, as the descendants of Tahitians and the HMS Bounty mutineers, including those of Fletcher Christian, were resettled from the Pitcairn Islands, which had become too small for their growing population. On 3 May 1856, 193 people had left Pitcairn Islands aboard the Morayshire.

On 8 June 194 people arrived. The Pitcairners occupied many of the buildings re

Cherry Girl

Cherry Girl is a Japanese action/drama film featuring Japanese singer-songwriter Kumi Koda and actresses MEGUMI and Yuko Ito. It is written by Osamu Suzuki; the film was scored by Koda Kumi's studio album Black Cherry and was featured on the second DVD of the album. The film was inspired by Charlie's Angels, which could be seen with its action scenes and with the three women given orders via telephone. Kumi Koda, the main focus of the film, released a music video centered around the film's theme on her Cherry Girl/Unmei single. Cherry Girl centers around three female bartenders, who use the bar to run a private detective agency. Kumi, Meg and Yu play agents, he contacts the three women via Vodafone cell phone to give them job orders. The film opens with a bar scene of the women serving their customers, alongside a conversation Kumi, Yu and Meg are having, talking about past love interests. Kumi tells them that during one of her relationships, she had found a hair in the man's bed, which did not belong to her, broke up with the man a week later.

The scene is played an action scene of the trio. Meg alerts the other two of a suspicious character entering the bar, who they find had a pocket knife; as the women are getting massages, Goro gives the trio a job order by a woman named Mari, played by Mari Hoshino, who believes her fiance, M. Hotta, is having affairs with multiple people, wants the women to get him to stop the affairs before they are married, she says how she is suspicious of Hotta's secretary, Rie Fumiko. Kumi watches relaying the information to Meg and Yu, she sends a picture via cellphone as Hotta sits in the back seat and Rie takes a seat in the front. She takes on several disguises as she follows the duo, failing to come up with evidence of him cheating. Failing to gain any information over the course of a week, the trio discusses the case, now believing Hotta to be "perfect." Still wanting to please their customer, the trio decide to crash a party Hotta will be attending, which hosts many celebrities. Kumi and Yu see Hotta enter with Rie.

Kumi begins a conversation with Hotta, during which Yu drops her hand bag. As she and Hotta exchange apologies, she takes the opportunity to swipe his cell phone and his wallet. Afterwards, Kumi meets Takeda. Once the trio return to the bar, Kumi tells Meg and Yu that it was "love at first sight" and he gave her a token to remember him; the other women are skeptical. Goro calls, asking if there has been any success with Mari's investigation, to which they admit they have not found anything. Before he hangs up, Kumi asks him what he thinks about true love, where he tells her that a meeting is controlled by destiny, it is revealed that Kumi had met Goro when she had an private investigator investigate a past love interest. When the P. I rejected her, not believing her boyfriend to be having an affair, Goro overheard and offered her information and a job opportunity. Afterwards, Kumi sees Mari and Takeda out in public together and Meg is curious as to why Takeda, Hotta's vice president, would take Mari to Hotta's office.

After the trio discover Mari and Takeda are trying take over the company, they talk to Hotta, who asks them to find the truth to save his company. When they break into Hotta's office, they find Mari. Mari tries to escape, but Yu stops her and mocks the fact that Mari thought her manipulation would work; the trio fight Takeda and, after he falls, Mari places herself over him to protect him. She explains that, as Hotta's company grew, Takeda was pushed off to the side, so she tried to frame Hotta as having multiple lovers so he would have to give up the company due to bad publicity. Kumi tells her that, by manipulating both Hotta and Takeda, she is hurting Takeda and it would be best to tell the truth; the film them shows the trio at their bar, discussing the revelations made about Mari betraying Hotta, Goro congratulates them on a job well done. After they say goodbye, the trio talk about Goro; as they talk, a scene is shown where Rie Fumiko runs into Goro, with him only recognizing her after she has walked away.

It is learned that Hotta knew the girls were following him and of the tracking devices they were using to target him due to his secretary relaying the information to him each time. As it had turned out, sans the trio and Goro, was in the scheme. Hotta tells him how everything worked out, while Mari smiles in the background, they had set Kumi, Yu and Meg up and, while they were in Hotta's office fighting Takeda, an explosive was placed in their vehicle, which exploded as they approached. Koda Kumi as Kumi, one of the investigators who works for Goro, she tends to make judgements based on, rather than logic. MEGUMI as Meg, one of the investigators who works for Goro, she is the one to give Kumi the hard truth, rather than allow her to live in naïveté. Yuko Ito as Yu, one of the investigators who works for Goro, she is quiet, but the most technologically advanced of the trio, being able to hack multiple types of systems. Goro Inagaki as Goro, the boss, he is the one who gives Kumi, Meg and Yu orders and the one who accepts the clients the trip investigate.

Mari Hoshino as Mari, the client Goro accepts and the fiancé of Hotta, the CEO of the Roppungi company. Jai West as Hotta, the CEO of the Roppungi company and the fiancé of Mari. Ishida Hiroyasu as Rie Fumiko, M. Hotta's secretary and the woman Mari belie

Juan Alamia

Juan Alamia was an American soldier who served as a Rough Rider in the Spanish–American War. Alamia was born to Francisca Ybarra in Point Isabel, Texas, his siblings were Jose Roman Alamia, Maria de la Paz Alamia, Gregoria Alamia, Vivian Alamia, Lorenzo Alamia, Antonio Alamia, Bernardo Alamia, Julio Alamia, Josefina Alamia. On May 27, 1898 Juan Alamia mustered in under the name John B. Alamia in San Antonio, Texas to serve in First United States Volunteer Cavalry known as the Rough Riders. Alamia was a member of B Troop commanded by Captain James H. McClintock; the conflict between Spain and the United States centered on the question of Cuba, where for several years insurgents had been fighting a guerrilla war against their colonial rulers. S. Congress recognized Cuban independence and authorized the use of American military force to ensure it. Alamia's regiment trained at Camp Wood in San Antonio for a month before embarking for Cuba. While living in Brownsville, Texas Juan Alamia worked as a telegrapher for Western Union along with his younger brother, Jose Roman.

His work took him across the river to Mexico. Supporters of Lucio Blanco, one of Carranza's generals, ordered Alamia to send a wire message to Mexico City telling opposing forces that all was serene in Matamoros and to come on into the city. In fact and his supporters were laying a trap. Alamia failed to follow the directions he was given and sent a communication to Mexico City of the true circumstances on the border. Alamia married Maria Kohlman, a New Mexico territory native, in 1901, they had three children: Mary F. Alamia, Peter Ciro Alamia, Joseph Albert Alamia. On May 9, 1913 Lucio Blanco captured the town of Mexico. Blanco's attack drove many across the river into Texas. Between Reynosa and Matamoros is a place called Río Bravo. On May 10, 1913 Lucio Blanco appeared at Mexico; this is located 40 miles west from the cities of Matamoros. Alamia and eleven others were confronted by his men; the twelve declined to join the army being led by Blanco. The twelve were executed. To display his disdain for Americans, he strung two others from a mesquite tree.

His death occurred on May 1913 in Rio Bravo, Mexico. Captain Everette Anglin gave testimony before a committee of the Foreign Relations Committee of the United States Senate investigating the outrages of citizens of the United States in Mexico. From his first hand testimony we learn of some of the circumstances surrounding Alamia's death. Anglin, unaware of Blanco's capabilities, arrived at Blanco's camp at Rio Bravo attempting to reclaim horses belonging to Texans from the Rancho Salteña. Blanco refused to return them. After Anglin protested that they belonged to Americans Blanco showed his disdain for Americans pointing to Alamia whose body and the other two men were still hanging from a tree near the river bank. Anglin was horrified at the site of Alamia. Anglin returned to the United States where he reported the incident to Juan Alamia's brother Jose Roman Alamia, serving as Hidalgo County's tax collector; the ranch where he was executed is known as Las Alacranes, which translates to "the scorpions".

The ranch has been held by the Garza family for many generations. A lady in the Garza family cut Juan Alamia down from the tree. Others feared cutting him down for fear of retribution from General Blanco, she went to the place where Alamia and another man were hanging. She put his body in the wagon and took it to a place across the river from Bill Brewster's Ranch were a person in a skiff took the body across the river, he was buried in the family plot in the old Brownsville cemetery. His life went unrecognized for years except for a corrido still sung in Rio Bravo and amongst the Garza family at "Las Alacranes" ranch in Rio Bravo, Mexico. Upon the marriage of a descendant of Juan Alamia and the brave lady who retrieved his body from the mesquite tree, the story in the corrido was shared. Adrienne Peña-Garza told her father, a member of the state legislature, of the story shared with her by her husband Aquiles Jaime Garza, her father found the crumbling tomb of Juan Alamia in the old Brownsville cemetery and searched through old family records to piece together his story so that it could be told.

On August 5, 2003, the Texas Legislature honored the life and service of this brave and nearly forgotten American with a resolution telling his story