The art and technology of papermaking addresses the methods and materials used to make paper and cardboard, these being used for printing and packaging, among many other purposes and useful products. Today all paper is manufactured using industrial machinery, while handmade paper survives as a specialized craft and a medium for artistic expression. In papermaking, a dilute suspension consisting of separate cellulose fibres in water is drained through a sieve-like screen, so that a mat of randomly interwoven fibres is laid down. Water is further removed from this sheet by pressing, sometimes aided by suction or vacuum, or heating. Once dry, a flat and strong sheet of paper is achieved. Before the invention and current widespread adoption of automated machinery, all paper was made by hand, formed or laid one sheet at a time by specialized laborers. Today those who make paper by hand use tools and technologies quite similar to those existing hundreds of years ago, as developed in China and Asia, or those further modified in Europe.
Handmade paper is still appreciated for its distinctive uniqueness and the skilled craft involved in making each sheet, in contrast with the higher degree of uniformity and perfection at lower prices achieved among industrial products. While monitoring and action by concerned citizens, as well as improvements within the industry itself are limiting the worst abuses, papermaking continues to be of concern from an environmental perspective, due to its use of harsh chemicals, its need for large amounts of water, the resulting contamination risks, as well as trees being used as the primary source of wood pulp. Paper made from other fibers, cotton being the most common, tends to be valued higher than wood-based paper. Hemp paper had been used in China for wrapping and padding since the eighth century BCE.. Paper with legible Chinese writings on it has been dated to 8 BCE; the traditional inventor attribution is of Cai Lun, an official attached to the Imperial court during the Han Dynasty, said to have invented paper about 105 CE using mulberry and other bast fibres along with fishnets, old rags, hemp waste.
Paper used as a writing medium had become widespread by the 3rd century and, by the 6th century, toilet paper was starting to be used in China as well. During the Tang Dynasty paper was folded and sewn into square bags to preserve the flavour of tea, while the Song Dynasty was the first government to issue paper-printed money. In the 8th century, papermaking spread to the Islamic world, where the process was refined, machinery was designed for bulk manufacturing. Production began in Samarkand, Damascus, Cairo and Muslim Spain. In Baghdad, papermaking was under the supervision of the Grand Vizier Ja'far ibn Yahya. Muslims invented a method to make a thicker sheet of paper; this innovation helped transform papermaking from an art into a major industry. The earliest use of water-powered mills in paper production the use of pulp mills for preparing the pulp for papermaking, dates back to Samarkand in the 8th century; the earliest references to paper mills come from the medieval Islamic world, where they were first noted in the 9th century by Arabic geographers in Damascus.
Traditional papermaking in Asia uses the inner bark fibers of plants. This fiber is soaked, cooked and traditionally hand-beaten to form the paper pulp; the long fibers are layered to form translucent sheets of paper. In Eastern Asia, three traditional fibers are abaca and gampi. In the Himalayas, paper is made from the lokta plant. Today, this paper is used for calligraphy, book arts, three-dimensional work, including origami. In Europe, papermaking moulds using metallic wire were developed, features like the watermark were well established by 1300 CE, while hemp and linen rags were the main source of pulp, cotton taking over after Southern plantations made that product in large quantities. Papermaking was not popular in Europe due to not having many advantages over papyrus and parchment, it wasn't until the 15th century with the invention of the movable type printing and its demand for paper that many paper mills entered production, papermaking became an industry. Modern papermaking began in the early 19th century in Europe with the development of the Fourdrinier machine.
This machine produces a continuous roll of paper rather than individual sheets. These machines are large; some produce paper 150 meters in length and 10 meters wide. They can produce paper at a rate of 100 km/h. In 1844, Canadian Charles Fenerty and German F. G. Keller had associated process to make use of wood pulp in papermaking; this innovation ended the nearly 2,000-year use of pulped rags and start a new era for the production of newsprint and almost all paper was made out of pulped wood. Papermaking, regardless of the scale on which it is done, involves making a dilute suspension of fibres in water, called "furnish", forcing this suspension to drain through a screen, to produce a mat of interwoven fibres. Water is removed from this mat of fibres using a press; the method of manual papermaking changed little over time, despite advances in technologies. The process of manufacturing handmade paper can be generalized into five steps: Separating the useful fibre from the rest of raw materials. Beating down the fibre into pulp Adjusting the colour, chemical and other properties of the paper by adding special chemical premixes Screening the resulting solution Pressing and drying to get the actual paperScreening the fibre involves using a mesh made from
Food presentation is the art of modifying, arranging, or decorating food to enhance its aesthetic appeal. The visual presentation of foods is considered by chefs at many different stages of food preparation, from the manner of tying or sewing meats, to the type of cut used in chopping and slicing meats or vegetables, to the style of mold used in a poured dish; the food itself may be decorated as in elaborately iced cakes, topped with ornamental sometimes sculptural consumables, drizzled with sauces, sprinkled with seeds, powders, or other toppings, or it may be accompanied by edible or inedible garnishes. The presentation of food has been used as a show of wealth and power; such displays emphasize the complexity of a dish's composition as opposed to its flavors. For instance, ancient sources recall the hosts of Roman banquets adding precious metals and minerals to food in order to enhance its aesthetic appeal. Additionally, Medieval aristocrats hosted feasts involving sculptural dishes and shows of live animals.
These banquets existed to show the culture and affluence of its host, were therefore tied to social class. Contemporary food aesthetics reflect the autonomy of the chef, such as in nouvelle cuisine and Japanese bento boxes. Dishes involve both simplistic and complex designs; some schools of thought, like French nouvelle cuisine, emphasize minimalism while others create complicated compositions based on modern aesthetic principles. Overall, the presentation of food reflects societal beliefs; the arrangement and overall styling of food upon bringing it to the plate is termed plating. Some common styles of plating include a'classic' arrangement of the main item in the front of the plate with vegetables or starches in the back, a'stacked' arrangement of the various items, or the main item leaning or'shingled' upon a vegetable bed or side item. Item location on the plate is referenced as for the face of a clock, with six o'clock the position closest to the diner. A basic rule of thumb upon plating, in some cases prepping, is to make sure you have the 5 components to a dish.
Banquets were important social events hosted in private residences for friends and clients. The Romans placed great focus on the appearance of their dining room, decorating it with murals and mosaics, as well as lavish sculptures and furniture; the overall purpose of a private banquet was entertainment, not only through live performances, but through the presentation of the food itself. The meal consisted of three courses- appetizers, main course, dessert- brought out in elaborate rituals. For instance, the main course was sometimes served to the tune of trumpets at luxurious events. Foods that were valued were wild game, such as pheasant and boar, certain kinds of fish, wild berries because of their exoticism and high price; some ancient writers recount Emperor Claudius adding crushed pearls to wine and flecks of gold to peas to increase their cost. Others recall live animals being served as shows of richness. For instance, at one event mackerels were pickled live in order to showcase their silvery bodies thrashing in vinegar.
Medieval aristocrats desired to entertain and impress through food. Banquets were huge feasts with diverse choices of dishes. Social etiquette dictated that the wealthy and powerful be given beautiful and elaborate dishes while the poor be given simple food scraps; such banquets not only entertained guests, but showed the wealth of the host. In particular, the patron sometimes commissioned artists to create complicated sculptures made from food items to awe and inspire. Particular favorites were pies or cakes designed to expel live birds when cut open and multicolored jellies stacked together, dyed with spices and vegetable matter. In the same way, contemporary food reflects both societal aesthetic beliefs. While cuisine in the past was intrinsically related to wealth and social status, contemporary cuisine is much less distinguished by class; the disintegration of highbrow and lowbrow foods has led to increased accessibility of various foods. Now, it is possible to find a hamburger at a five star restaurants and exotic cuisines on street corners.
Therefore, contemporary food presentation is determined much more by modern aesthetics and creativity than displays of wealth and power. Nouvelle cuisine is a school of French cooking that rejects ostentatious displays of food in favor of simple presentation and high-quality ingredients. In contrast to historical chefs that obeyed the orders of patrons, this manner of cooking elevates the chef from a skilled worker to an inventor and artist; the aesthetic of nouvelle cuisine emphasizes minimalism, serving fewer courses and utilizing simple plating. Chefs were creative in constructing innovative recipes and plating. A bento box is a Japanese meal traditionally consisting of rice, meat/fish, vegetables served in a portable box. In Japan, as well as in the United States, a large focus is placed on the aesthetic arrangement of the food. There have been contests to see who can come up with the most inventive way of creating bento boxes, allowing for creativity in amateur chefs and everyday people.
Sometimes bento boxes are used to make sculptural designs, such as rice shaped to look like animals. These specific types of bento boxes are known as Kyaraben or charaben, a shortened form of character bento. Kyaraben are most made by mothers to encourage their children to eat more nutritious diets and as a way of showing their love and dedication. Kaiseki
Fat is one of the three main macronutrients, along with carbohydrate and protein. Fats molecules consist of carbon and hydrogen atoms, thus they are all hydrocarbon molecules. Examples include cholesterol and triglycerides; the terms "lipid", "oil" and "fat" are confused. "Lipid" is the general term, though a lipid is not a triglyceride. "Oil" refers to a lipid with short or unsaturated fatty acid chains, liquid at room temperature, while "fat" refers to lipids that are solids at room temperature – however, "fat" may be used in food science as a synonym for lipid. Fats, like other lipids, are hydrophobic, are soluble in organic solvents and insoluble in water. Fat is an important foodstuff for many forms of life, fats serve both structural and metabolic functions, they are a necessary part of the diet of most heterotrophs and are the most energy dense, thus the most efficient form of energy storage. Some fatty acids that are set free by the digestion of fats are called essential because they cannot be synthesized in the body from simpler constituents.
There are two essential fatty acids in human nutrition: linoleic acid. Other lipids needed by the body can be synthesized from other fats. Fats and other lipids are broken down in the body by enzymes called lipases produced in the pancreas. Fats and oils are categorized according to the number and bonding of the carbon atoms in the aliphatic chain. Fats that are saturated fats have no double bonds between the carbons in the chain. Unsaturated fats have one or more double bonded carbons in the chain; the nomenclature is based on the non-acid end of the chain. This end is called the n-end, thus alpha-linolenic acid is called an omega-3 fatty acid because the 3rd carbon from that end is the first double bonded carbon in the chain counting from that end. Some oils and fats are therefore called polyunsaturated fats. Unsaturated fats can be further divided into cis fats, which are the most common in nature, trans fats, which are rare in nature. Unsaturated fats can be altered by reaction with hydrogen effected by a catalyst.
This action, called hydrogenation, tends to break all the double bonds and makes a saturated fat. To make vegetable shortening liquid cis-unsaturated fats such as vegetable oils are hydrogenated to produce saturated fats, which have more desirable physical properties e.g. they melt at a desirable temperature, store well, whereas polyunsaturated oils go rancid when they react with oxygen in the air. However, trans fats are generated during hydrogenation as contaminants created by an unwanted side reaction on the catalyst during partial hydrogenation. Saturated fats can stack themselves in a packed arrangement, so they can solidify and are solid at room temperature. For example, animal fats tallow and lard are solids. Olive and linseed oils on the other hand are liquid. Fats serve both as energy sources for the body, as stores for energy in excess of what the body needs immediately; each gram of fat when burned or metabolized releases about 9 food calories. Fats are broken down in the healthy body to release their constituents and fatty acids.
Glycerol itself can be converted to glucose by the liver and so become a source of energy. There are many different kinds of fats. All fats are derivatives of fatty acids and glycerol. Most fats are glycerides triglycerides. One chain of fatty acid is bonded to each of the three -OH groups of the glycerol by the reaction of the carboxyl end of the fatty acid with the alcohol. Water is eliminated and the carbons are linked by an -O- bond through dehydration synthesis; this process is called esterification and fats are therefore esters. As a simple visual illustration, if the kinks and angles of these chains were straightened out, the molecule would have the shape of a capital letter E; the fatty acids would each be a horizontal line. Fats therefore have "ester" bonds; the properties of any specific fat molecule depend on the particular fatty acids. Fatty acids form a family of compounds that are composed of increasing numbers of carbon atoms linked into a zig-zag chain; the more carbon atoms there are in any fatty acid, the longer its chain will be.
Long chains are more susceptible to intermolecular forces of attraction, so the longer ones melt at a higher temperature. Fatty acid chains may differ by length categorized as short to long. Short-chain fatty acids are fatty acids with aliphatic tails of fewer than six carbons. Medium-chain fatty acids are fatty acids with aliphatic tails of 6–12 carbons, which can form medium-chain triglycerides. Long-chain fatty acids are fatty acids with aliphatic tails of 13 to 21 carbons. Long chain fatty acids are fatty acids with aliphatic tails of 22 or more carbons. Any of these aliphatic fatty acid chains may be glycerated and the resultant fats may have tails of different lengths from short triformin to long, e.g. cerotic acid, or hexacosanoic acid, a 26-carbon long-chain saturated fatty acid. Long chain fats are exemplified by tallow. Most fats found in foo
Kathleen Mary Drew-Baker
Kathleen Mary Drew-Baker was a British phycologist, known for her research on the edible seaweed Porphyra laciniata, which led to a breakthrough for commercial cultivation. Kathleen Drew-Baker's scientific legacy is revered in Japan, where she has been named Mother of the Sea, her work is celebrated each year on April 14. A monument to her was erected in 1963 at the Sumiyoshi shrine in Uto, Japan. Born Kathleen Mary Drew in Leigh, she attended Bishop Wordsworth's School and won a County Major Scholarship to study botany at the University of Manchester, she graduated in 1922 with first class honours and subsequently studied for an MSc, graduating in 1923. Drew-Baker spent most of her academic life at the cryptogamic botany department of the University of Manchester, serving as a lecturer in Botany and Researcher from 1922 to 1957. In 1925 she spent two years working at the University of California, Berkeley after winning a Commonwealth Fellowship, travelling as far as Hawaii to collect botanical samples.
Kathleen married Manchester academic Henry Wright-Baker in 1928, which resulted in her dismissal by the university which had a policy of not employing married women. Drew-Baker was awarded an Ashburne Hall Research Scholarship in 1922, in years joining the staff of the Manchester Botany Department and being awarded a research fellowship in the university's Laboratory of Cryptogamic Botany. Although Drew-Baker never travelled to Japan, her academic research made a lasting contribution to the development of commercial nori production in the country. Drew-Baker studied the life cycle of the red algae Porphyra umbilicalis and in an academic paper published in Nature in 1949, Drew-Baker detailed her research showing that the microscopic Conchocelis — hitherto thought of as an independent alga — was the diploid stage of the organism of which Porphyra is the macroscopic, haploid stage, her critical discovery was that at the microscopic conchocelis stage and bivalve shells provided an essential host environment for the development of the red algae.
Drew-Baker's investigations were soon read and replicated by the Japanese phycologist Sokichi Segawa, who applied Drew-Baker's findings to the Japanese nori seaweed known for its use in sushi and other staples of Japanese cuisine. Although nori had been commercially harvested in Japan since the 17th century, it had always suffered from unpredictable harvests and had been prone to damage from typhoons and pollution in coastal waters. By 1953, Fusao Ota and other Japanese marine biologists had developed artificial seeding techniques, building on her work; this in turn increased production and led to a significant increase in production in the Japanese seaweed industry. In honor of her contributions to the Japanese aquaculture and role in rescuing the commercial production of nori, she was named Mother of the Sea in Japan, since 1953, an annual "Drew festival" is celebrated in the city of Uto, Kumamoto in Japan, where a shrine to her was erected. Between 1924 and 1947 Drew-Baker published 47 academic papers concerned with red algae.
Her book A Revision of the Genera Chantransia and Acrohaetium. With descriptions of the marine species of Rhodochorton, Naeg. Gen. Emend. on the Pacific Coast of North America was published by the University of California Press, Berkeley, in 1928. She was a co-founder of its first elected president, she married Professor Henry Wright-Baker of the Manchester College of Science and Technology in 1928, they had two children. She was a member of the Society of Friends. Portrait photograph Uto City official webpage BBC Radio 4 Program The Mother of The Sea Finding Nori — How an unpaid UK researcher saved the Japanese seaweed industry
Japanese cuisine encompasses the regional and traditional foods of Japan, which have developed through centuries of political and social changes. The traditional cuisine of Japan is based on rice with other dishes. Side dishes consist of fish, pickled vegetables, vegetables cooked in broth. Seafood is common grilled, but served raw as sashimi or in sushi. Seafood and vegetables are deep-fried in a light batter, as tempura. Apart from rice, staples include noodles, such as udon. Japan has many simmered dishes such as fish products in broth called oden, or beef in sukiyaki and nikujaga. Influenced by Chinese cuisine, Japanese cuisine has opened up to influence from Western cuisines in the modern era. Dishes inspired by foreign food—in particular Chinese food— like ramen and gyōza, as well as foods like spaghetti and hamburgers have become adopted with variants for Japanese tastes and ingredients. Traditionally, the Japanese shunned meat due to Buddhism, but with the modernization of Japan in the 1880s, meat-based dishes such as tonkatsu and yakiniku have become common.
Japanese cuisine sushi, has become popular throughout the world. In 2011, Japan overtook France to become the country with the most 3-starred Michelin restaurants. Japanese cuisine is based on combining the staple food, steamed white rice or gohan, with one or several okazu or main dishes and side dishes; this may be accompanied by tsukemono. The phrase ichijū-sansai refers to the makeup of a typical meal served, but has roots in classic kaiseki, yūsoku cuisine; the term is used to describe the first course served in standard kaiseki cuisine nowadays. Rice is served in its own small bowl, each main course item is placed on its own small plate or bowl for each individual portion; this is done in Japanese homes. It contrasts with the Western-style dinners at home, where each individual takes helpings from the large serving dishes of food presented at the middle of the dining table. Japanese style traditionally abhors different flavored dishes touching each other on a single plate, so different dishes are given their own individual plates as mentioned, or are partitioned using leaves, etc.
Placing main dishes on top of rice and "soiling" it is frowned upon by old-fashioned etiquette. Though this tradition originated from Classical Chinese dining formalities after the adoption of Buddhism with its tea ceremony, it became most popular and common during and after the Kamakura period, such as the Kaiseki. Japanese cuisine keeps such tradition still, whereas in modern times such practice is in sharp contrast to present day Chinese cuisine, where placing food on rice is standard. However, an exception is the popular donburi; the small rice bowl or chawan doubles. Thus in common speech, the drinking cup is referred to as yunomi-jawan or yunomi for the purpose of distinction. In the olden days, among the nobility, each course of a full-course Japanese meal would be brought on serving napkins called zen, which were platformed trays or small dining tables. In the modern age, faldstool trays or stackup-type legged trays may still be seen used in zashiki, i.e. tatami-mat rooms, for large banquets or at a ryokan type inn.
Some restaurants might use the suffix -zen as a more sophisticated though dated synonym to the more familiar teishoku, since the latter is a term for a combo meal served at a taishū-shokudō, akin to a diner. Teishoku means a meal of fixed menu, a dinner à prix fixe served at shokudō or ryōriten, somewhat vague. Taishū bunka jiten. Kōbundō. P. 516. Defines it as fare served at teishoku dining hall, etc. A diner-like establishment. Emphasis is placed on seasonality of food or shun, dishes are designed to herald the arrival of the four seasons or calendar months. Seasonality means taking advantage of the "fruit of the mountains" as well as the "fruit of the sea" as they come into season, thus the first catch of skipjack tunas that arrives with the Kuroshio Current has traditionally been prized. If something becomes available rather earlier than what is usual for the item in question, the first crop or early catch is called hashiri. Use of tree leaves and branches as decor is characteristic of Japanese cuisine.
Maple leaves are floated on water to exude coolness or ryō. The haran and sasa bamboo leaves were cut into shapes and placed underneath or used as separators. A characteristic of traditional Japanese food is the sparing use of red meat and fats, dairy products. Use of ingredients such as soy sauce and umeboshi tends to result in dishes with high salt content, though there are low-sodium versions of these available; as Japan is an island nation surrounded by an ocean, its people have always taken advantage of the abundant seafood supply. It is the opinion of some food scholars that the Japanese diet always relied on "grains with vegetables or seaweeds as main, with poultry secondary, red meat in slight am
Fudoki are ancient reports on provincial culture and oral tradition presented to the reigning monarchs of Japan known as local gazetteers. They contain agricultural and historical records as well as mythology and folklore. Fudoki manuscripts document local myths and poems that are not mentioned in the Kojiki and the Nihon Shoki chronicles, which are the most important literature of the ancient national mythology and history. In the course of national unification, the imperial court enacted a series of criminal and administrative codes called ritsuryō and surveyed the provinces established by such codes to exert greater control over them. In the narrower sense, Fudoki refer to the oldest records written in the Nara period called Kofudoki. Compilation of Kofudoki was completed over a 20-year period. Following the Taika Reform in 646 and the Code of Taihō enacted in 701, there was need to centralize and solidify the power of the imperial court; this included accounting for lands under its control.
According to the Shoku Nihongi, Empress Genmei issued a decree in 713 ordering each provincial government to collect and report the following information: Names of districts and townships Natural resources and living things Land fertility Etymology of names for geographic features, such as mountains and rivers Myths and folktales told orally by old people Empress Genmei ordered in 713 that place names in the provinces and townships should be written in two kanji characters with positive connotations. This required name changes. For example, Hayatsuhime became Ishinashi no Oki became Ishii. At least 48 of the Gokishichidō provinces contributed to their records but only that of Izumo remains nearly complete. Partial records of Hizen, Bungo and Hitachi remain and a few passages from various volumes remain scattered throughout various books; those of Harima and Hizen are designated National Treasures. Below is a list of scattered passages. In 1966 the Agency for Cultural Affairs called on the prefectural governments to build open-air museums and parks called Fudoki no Oka near historic sites such as tombs and provincial temples.
These archaeological museums preserve and exhibit cultural properties to enhance public understanding of provincial history and culture. Japanese Historical Text Initiative Akimoto, Kichirō. Nihon Koten Bungaku Taikei 2: Fudoki. Tōkyō: Iwanami Shoten. ISBN 4-00-060002-8. Sakamoto, Masaru. Zusetsu Chizu to Arasuji de Wakaru! Fudoki. Seishun Publishing. ISBN 978-4-413-04301-4. Kojima, Noriyuki. Nihon no Koten wo Yomu 3 Nihon Shoki Ge • Fudoki. Shogakukan. ISBN 978-4-09-362173-1. 風土記 texts of the remaining Fudoki & scattered passages in other books. Manuscript scans at Waseda University Library: Hizen, 1800,Bungo, 1800, unknown Tsukamoto, Tetsuzō. Kojiki, Fudoki. Yūhōdō Shoten. Pp. 383–586. Scan at the Internet Archive. 風土記 国土としての始原史～風土記逸文
Pyropia is a genus of red alga in the Bangiaceae family. It is found around the world in shallow water; the genus has folding frond like blades which are either brown or green. Some Pyropia species are thus a popular aquaculture. Pyropia was discovered by Jacob Georg Agardh, a botanist and professor at Lund University. Before it was discovered and sometime after many species of Pyropia were placed into Porphyra, a different genus of red alga. Still, new species of Pyropia is being discovered. Just in 2013 research done in New Zealand was able to name Pyropia plicata mistaken for another species of Porphyra. Pyropia is a red alga with short stipe, it has folded blades, which are membranous and monostromatic, coming in red and dark green colorations. These folded blades may look like fronds until unfolded; these blades reach up to one meter in length in some species but are found around 20 centimeters in diameter. Pyropia grows in intertidal zones and down to 10 meters in some bodies of water based on clarity and substrate.
It grows in large swaths, covering most of the bottom. Pyropia can be found globally in extratropical waters. Pyropia, which reside in the upper intertidal zone, endure many stresses including – intense direct-light, temperature fluctuation, osmotic stress, salinity fluctuation, desiccation, it is great at handling the stress of heat. Other species will use increased lipid production to fight desiccation. Pyropia’s to adapt to deal with these stresses making it a studied organism. One of the threats to Pyropia is fungal infections by Alternaria sp. ZL-1, observed in farming environments on Pyropia yezoensis; the fungus leaves brown rust looking spots on the outside of the blades. Within the genus Pyropia multiple species are used for nori, Pyropia yezoensis and P. haitanensis are of the most popular. It is a two-billion-dollar industry with most major growers located in China and Japan. Media related to Pyropia at Wikimedia Commons Data related to Pyropia at Wikispecies