SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Normandy landings

The Normandy landings were the landing operations on Tuesday, 6 June 1944 of the Allied invasion of Normandy in Operation Overlord during World War II. Codenamed Operation Neptune and referred to as D-Day, it was the largest seaborne invasion in history; the operation began the liberation of German-occupied France and laid the foundations of the Allied victory on the Western Front. Planning for the operation began in 1943. In the months leading up to the invasion, the Allies conducted a substantial military deception, codenamed Operation Bodyguard, to mislead the Germans as to the date and location of the main Allied landings; the weather on D-Day was far from ideal, the operation had to be delayed 24 hours. Adolf Hitler placed German Field Marshal Erwin Rommel in command of German forces and of developing fortifications along the Atlantic Wall in anticipation of an Allied invasion; the amphibious landings were preceded by extensive aerial and naval bombardment and an airborne assault—the landing of 24,000 American and Canadian airborne troops shortly after midnight.

Allied infantry and armoured divisions began landing on the coast of France at 06:30. The target 50-mile stretch of the Normandy coast was divided into five sectors: Utah, Gold and Sword. Strong winds blew the landing craft east of their intended positions at Utah and Omaha; the men landed under heavy fire from gun emplacements overlooking the beaches, the shore was mined and covered with obstacles such as wooden stakes, metal tripods, barbed wire, making the work of the beach-clearing teams difficult and dangerous. Casualties were heaviest at Omaha, with its high cliffs. At Gold and Sword, several fortified towns were cleared in house-to-house fighting, two major gun emplacements at Gold were disabled using specialised tanks; the Allies failed to achieve any of their goals on the first day. Carentan, St. Lô, Bayeux remained in German hands, Caen, a major objective, was not captured until 21 July. Only two of the beaches were linked on the first day, all five beachheads were not connected until 12 June.

German casualties on D-Day have been estimated at 4,000 to 9,000 men. Allied casualties were documented with 4,414 confirmed dead. Museums and war cemeteries in the area now host many visitors each year. After the German Army invaded the Soviet Union in June 1941, the Soviet leader Joseph Stalin began pressing his new allies for the creation of a second front in western Europe. In late May 1942 the Soviet Union and the United States made a joint announcement that a "... full understanding was reached with regard to the urgent tasks of creating a second front in Europe in 1942." However, British Prime Minister Winston Churchill persuaded US President Franklin D. Roosevelt to postpone the promised invasion as with US help, the Allies did not have adequate forces for such an activity. Instead of an immediate return to France, the western Allies staged offensives in the Mediterranean Theatre of Operations, where British troops were stationed. By mid-1943 the campaign in North Africa had been won.

The Allies launched the invasion of Sicily in July 1943, subsequently invaded the Italian mainland in September the same year. By Soviet forces were on the offensive and had won a major victory at the Battle of Stalingrad; the decision to undertake a cross-channel invasion within the next year was taken at the Trident Conference in Washington in May 1943. Initial planning was constrained by the number of available landing craft, most of which were committed in the Mediterranean and Pacific. At the Tehran Conference in November 1943, Roosevelt and Churchill promised Stalin that they would open the long-delayed second front in May 1944; the Allies considered four sites for the landings: Brittany, the Cotentin Peninsula and the Pas-de-Calais. As Brittany and Cotentin are peninsulas, it would have been possible for the Germans to cut off the Allied advance at a narrow isthmus, so these sites were rejected. With the Pas-de-Calais being the closest point in continental Europe to Britain, the Germans considered it to be the most initial landing zone, so it was the most fortified region.

But it offered few opportunities for expansion, as the area is bounded by numerous rivers and canals, whereas landings on a broad front in Normandy would permit simultaneous threats against the port of Cherbourg, coastal ports further west in Brittany, an overland attack towards Paris and into Germany. Normandy was hence chosen as the landing site; the most serious drawback of the Normandy coast—the lack of port facilities—would be overcome through the development of artificial Mulberry harbours. A series of modified tanks, nicknamed Hobart's Funnies, dealt with specific requirements expected for the Normandy Campaign such as mine clearing, demolishing bunkers, mobile bridging; the Allies planned to launch the invasion on 1 May 1944. The initial draft of the plan was accepted at the Quebec Conference in August 1943. General Dwight D. Eisenhower was appointed commander of Supreme Headquarters Allied Expeditionary Force. General Bernard Montgomery was named as commander of the 21st Army Group, which comprised all land forces involved in the invasion.

On 31 December 1943 Eisenhower and Montgomery first saw the plan, which proposed amphibious landings by three divisions with two more

Steep, Hampshire

Steep is a village and civil parish in the East Hampshire district of Hampshire, England. Its nearest town is Petersfield; the nearest railway station is Petersfield, at 1.6 miles south of the village. It has two public houses, The Harrow and the Cricketers Inn, with the former being an 18th-century Grade II listed building. According to the 2011 census, it had a population of 1,391. Iron Age and Roman remains have been found in the area. Steep included a detached parish enclave called Ambersham, which lies in West Sussex, it was the only detached part of Hampshire and was returned to West Sussex when a new law came into effect in 1844. The church of All Saints was built around 1125. From medieval times, Steep was included in the parish of East Meon until it became an independent parish in 1867. Since 1899 the village has been the location of a progressive public school; the village name has been spelled in various ways, including La Stuppe, La Stiepe, Stupe and Steepe. There is evidence of Roman occupation in the village, with pottery, baths and a Roman villa being discovered on Bell Hill, directly opposite the village centre.

A Roman earthworks ridge was found on Stoner Hill, which suggests evidence of Roman roads passing through the causeway. Iron Age remains found in the area include pottery, a site of a "sub-rectangular enclosure" found in Steep village centre. A Bronze Age barrow house was excavated in the parish; the village was not mentioned in the Domesday Survey of 1086, however it was included under the entry of'Menes'.. Beginning at an unknown point in the medieval period, the village of Steep included a detached parish enclave called Ambersham, which lies 10.3 miles east in the county of West Sussex, situated near Midhurst and Petworth. Under the Counties Act of 1844, Ambersham became part of West Sussex. For ecclesiastical reasons, it was split into two individual settlements. There is no written evidence that Steep was settled until late in the Anglo-Saxon period, however in the early Anglo Saxon period the Meon Valley formed the Jutish Kingdom of Meonwara. In the medieval period Steep was a sub-parish of East Meon.

So it too was a settlement of the Jutes and the Ambershams may well have been too. Steep was first documented under the name of'Stepe Place' in the 12th century; the church of All Saints was built around 1125. The oldest surviving dwelling in the village is the house known as "Restalls", on the eastern side of the church, it dates from the late 15th century, was remodelled in 1600. By 1600, Steep had a prospering local cloth-making industry and two fulling mills in operation, which were driven by the nearby Ashford Stream; the early 17th century was described by historian William Page as a "great rebuilding" of the village, in which redevelopment of many wooden buildings were replaced by stone structures. However, a decline in the cloth-making industry caused a depression in the latter half of the 17th century, which resulted in the closure of both mills. By the 1830s the British Agricultural Revolution had disturbed traditional society and created a class of labourers who struggled to support their families in rural areas.

This led to an unrest known as the Swing riots which swept across southern England reaching Selborne and Liphook in September 1830. The Parliamentary Enclosure Acts of 1856 established a new land pattern for nearby Steep Marsh and Stroud, which still exists today. There was extensive land drainage between 1860 and 1880. In Steep, hops were grown for use in local breweries, watercress produced for commercial use, a condensed milk factory was in operation in Steep Marsh. Voluntary schools were built in Steep in 1875, the first almshouses were constructed by William Eames in 1882; the first coeducational boarding school in England, Bedales School was constructed in 1899 at a cost of £60,000, which at the time of 1912, had an enrolment of 160 children. However, another source described the school as being constructed in 1900, was located in Lindfield, West Sussex; the First World War poet Edward Thomas lived in the village. The prominent English poet and artist Thomas Sturge Moore lived at "Hillcroft" in Steep from 1919 to 1927, while his children Daniel and Riette attended Bedales.

Sturge Moore took an active interest in Bedales, giving readings, speaking at Sunday assemblies, teaching a class in esthetics in 1924-1925. Steep is located in the eastern part of southern Hampshire in South East England, 1.4 miles north of Petersfield, its nearest town. The parish covers an area of 2,658 acres, of which 1,222 acres are permanent grass, 443.7 acres of fertile land and 233 acres of woodland. The village is situated at the foot of the steep forested slopes of Stoner Hill and Wheatham Hill, which both lie on the western edge of the South Downs National Park; the parish has two streams. Two main roads run through the parish, from Petersfield to Farnham on the east and the Petersfield and Ropley ro

2002–03 Tottenham Hotspur F.C. season

The 2002–03 season was Tottenham Hotspur's 11th season in the Premier League and 25th successive season in the top division of the English football league system. The 2002-03 campaign, manager Glenn Hoddle's second full season in charge of the team, was considered a major disappointment as the club finished in 10th place in the league table and exited both domestic cup competitions in the early rounds. Striker Robbie Keane, signed from Leeds United for £7,000,000 before the start of the season, was the team's top scorer in the Premier League with 13 goals, while club legend Teddy Sheringham, his final season with the club, scored a creditable 13 goals in all competitions. Squad at end of seasonNote: Flags indicate national team as defined under FIFA eligibility rules. Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality. Jamie Redknapp - Liverpool, 16 April, free Milenko Ačimovič - Red Star Belgrade, 11 May, free Rohan Ricketts - Arsenal, 13 July, free Robbie Keane - Leeds United, 31 August, £7,000,000 Kazuyuki Toda - Shimizu S-Pulse, 27 January, loan Jonathan Blondel - Mouscron, 11 July, £2,500,000 Chris Armstrong - Bolton Wanderers, 28 August, free Oyvind Leonhardsen - Aston Villa, 30 August, free John Piercy - Brighton & Hove Albion, 20 September, free Stephen Clemence - Birmingham City, 10 January, £900,000 Les Ferdinand - West Ham United, 21 January, undisclosed Tim Sherwood - Portsmouth, 11 February, free Yannick Kamanan - StrasbourgTransfers in: £9,500,000 Transfers out: £900,000 Total spending: £8,600,000 Qu Bo - unsuccessful