The Ferrari 158 was a racecar made by Ferrari in 1964 as a successor to the V6-powered Ferrari 156 F1 that had dominated in 1961 but become outdated by 1962. As with the British competition, it had a V8 engine, john Surtees won his only Formula One Drivers World Championship in it. This was done as a protest concerning arguments between Ferrari and the Italian Racing Authorities regarding the homologation of a new mid-engined Ferrari race car, similar to Honda with their RA271, Ferrari raced a flat-twelve-powered car, designated Ferrari 1512 or Ferrari 512 F1. In 1964 and 1965, both the V8 and V12 were used. The 196556.0 mm ×50.4 mm 1,489.63 cc V12 engine developed 220 bhp @12,000 rpm compared to the 210 bhp @11,000 rpm of the 196567.0 mm ×52.8 mm 1,489.24 cc V8 engine
Austria, officially the Republic of Austria, is a federal republic and a landlocked country of over 8.7 million people in Central Europe. It is bordered by the Czech Republic and Germany to the north and Slovakia to the east and Italy to the south, the territory of Austria covers 83,879 km2. The terrain is mountainous, lying within the Alps, only 32% of the country is below 500 m. The majority of the population speaks local Bavarian dialects of German as their native language, other local official languages are Hungarian, Burgenland Croatian, and Slovene. The origins of modern-day Austria date back to the time of the Habsburg dynasty, from the time of the Reformation, many northern German princes, resenting the authority of the Emperor, used Protestantism as a flag of rebellion. Following Napoleons defeat, Prussia emerged as Austrias chief competitor for rule of a greater Germany, Austrias defeat by Prussia at the Battle of Königgrätz, during the Austro-Prussian War of 1866, cleared the way for Prussia to assert control over the rest of Germany.
In 1867, the empire was reformed into Austria-Hungary, Austria was thus the first to go to war in the July Crisis, which would ultimately escalate into World War I. The First Austrian Republic was established in 1919, in 1938 Nazi Germany annexed Austria in the Anschluss. This lasted until the end of World War II in 1945, after which Germany was occupied by the Allies, in 1955, the Austrian State Treaty re-established Austria as a sovereign state, ending the occupation. In the same year, the Austrian Parliament created the Declaration of Neutrality which declared that the Second Austrian Republic would become permanently neutral, Austria is a parliamentary representative democracy comprising nine federal states. The capital and largest city, with a population exceeding 1.7 million, is Vienna, other major urban areas of Austria include Graz, Linz and Innsbruck. Austria is one of the richest countries in the world, with a nominal per capita GDP of $43,724, the country has developed a high standard of living and in 2014 was ranked 21st in the world for its Human Development Index.
Austria has been a member of the United Nations since 1955, joined the European Union in 1995, Austria signed the Schengen Agreement in 1995, and adopted the euro currency in 1999. The German name for Austria, Österreich, meant eastern realm in Old High German, and is cognate with the word Ostarrîchi and this word is probably a translation of Medieval Latin Marchia orientalis into a local dialect. Austria was a prefecture of Bavaria created in 976, the word Austria is a Latinisation of the German name and was first recorded in the 12th century. Accordingly, Norig would essentially mean the same as Ostarrîchi and Österreich, the Celtic name was eventually Latinised to Noricum after the Romans conquered the area that encloses most of modern-day Austria, around 15 BC. Noricum became a Roman province in the mid-first century AD, heers hypothesis is not accepted by linguists. Settled in ancient times, the Central European land that is now Austria was occupied in pre-Roman times by various Celtic tribes, the Celtic kingdom of Noricum was claimed by the Roman Empire and made a province
France, officially the French Republic, is a country with territory in western Europe and several overseas regions and territories. The European, or metropolitan, area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, Overseas France include French Guiana on the South American continent and several island territories in the Atlantic and Indian oceans. France spans 643,801 square kilometres and had a population of almost 67 million people as of January 2017. It is a unitary republic with the capital in Paris. Other major urban centres include Marseille, Lille, Toulouse, during the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by the Gauls, a Celtic people. The area was annexed in 51 BC by Rome, which held Gaul until 486, France emerged as a major European power in the Late Middle Ages, with its victory in the Hundred Years War strengthening state-building and political centralisation. During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a colonial empire was established.
The 16th century was dominated by civil wars between Catholics and Protestants. France became Europes dominant cultural and military power under Louis XIV, in the 19th century Napoleon took power and established the First French Empire, whose subsequent Napoleonic Wars shaped the course of continental Europe. Following the collapse of the Empire, France endured a succession of governments culminating with the establishment of the French Third Republic in 1870. Following liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was established and dissolved in the course of the Algerian War, the Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, was formed in 1958 and remains to this day. Algeria and nearly all the colonies became independent in the 1960s with minimal controversy and typically retained close economic. France has long been a centre of art, science. It hosts Europes fourth-largest number of cultural UNESCO World Heritage Sites and receives around 83 million foreign tourists annually, France is a developed country with the worlds sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP and ninth-largest by purchasing power parity.
In terms of household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs well in international rankings of education, health care, life expectancy, France remains a great power in the world, being one of the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council with the power to veto and an official nuclear-weapon state. It is a member state of the European Union and the Eurozone. It is a member of the Group of 7, North Atlantic Treaty Organization, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, the World Trade Organization, originally applied to the whole Frankish Empire, the name France comes from the Latin Francia, or country of the Franks
The Canadian-American Challenge Cup or Can-Am, was an SCCA/CASC sports car racing series from 1966 to 1987. Can-Am started out as a series for group 7 sports racers with two races in Canada and four races in the United States of America. The series was sponsored by Johnson Wax. The series was governed by rules called out under the FIA group 7 category with unrestricted engine capacity, as long as the car had two seats, bodywork enclosing the wheels, and met basic safety standards, it was allowed. Group 7 cars were designed more for short-distance sprints than for endurance racing, some group 7 cars were built in Japan by Nissan and Toyota, but these did not compete outside their homeland. Similar group 7 cars ran in the European Interserie series, after Porsches withdrawal, Shadow dominated the last season before Can-Am faded away to be replaced by Formula 5000. Racing was rarely close—one marque was usually dominant—but the noise and spectacle of the made the series highly popular. F5000s reign lasted for two years, with a second generation of Can-Am following.
This was a different series based initially on converted F5000 cars with closed-wheel bodies. There was a class based on Formula Two chassis. The second iteration of Can-Am faded away as IMSA and CART racing became popular in the early 1980s. Can-Am remains a form of racing due to its popularity at one time, the spectacular cars. Can-Am cars remain popular in historic racing, notable drivers in the original Can-Am series included virtually every acclaimed driver of the late 1960s and early 1970s. Al Holbert, Jacky Ickx, Alan Jones, Keke Rosberg, Patrick Tambay, Can-Am was the birthplace and proving ground for what, at the time, was cutting-edge technology. Can-Am cars were among the first race cars to sport wings, effective turbocharging, ground-effect aerodynamics, noted constructors in the Can-Am series include McLaren, Lola, BRM, Shadow and Porsche. McLaren cars were specially designed race cars, the Can-Am cars were developments of the sports cars which were introduced in 1964 for the North American sports car races.
The development variants M1A and M1B were raced as factory cars in 1966 with Bruce McLaren, in 1967, specifically for the Can-Am series, the McLaren team introduced a new model, the M6A. The McLaren M6A introduced what was to become the trademark orange color for the team, the M6 series were a full aluminum monocoque design with no uncommon features but, for the times, there was an uncommon attention to detail in preparation by the team members
Karl Jochen Rindt was a German-born racing driver who represented Austria during his career. In 1970, he was killed during practice for the Italian Grand Prix, Rindt started motor racing in 1961. Switching to single-seaters in 1963, he was successful in both Formula Junior and Formula Two, in 1964, Rindt made his debut in Formula One at the Austrian Grand Prix, before securing a full drive with Cooper for 1965. After mixed results with the team, he moved to Brabham for 1968 and it was at Lotus that Rindt found a competitive car, although he was often concerned about the security of the notoriously unreliable Lotus vehicles. He won his first Formula One race at the 1969 United States Grand Prix and he had a very successful 1970 season, mainly racing the revolutionary Lotus 72, and won five of the first nine races. In practice for the Italian Grand Prix at Monza, he spun into the guardrails after a failure on his cars brake shaft, Rindt was killed owing to severe throat injuries caused by his seat belt, he was pronounced dead while on the way to hospital.
As his closest competitor Jacky Ickx was unable to score sufficient points in the races of the season. Overall, he competed in 62 Grands Prix, winning six and he was successful in sports car racing, winning the 196524 Hours of Le Mans paired with Masten Gregory in a Ferrari 250LM. Rindt was a figure in Austria and his success resulted in increased interest in motorsport. He hosted a television show titled Motorama and set up a successful exhibition of racing cars in Vienna. During his time in Formula One, he was involved, alongside Jackie Stewart, Rindt left behind his wife, and a daughter, Natasha. Jochen Rindt was born on 18 April 1942 in Mainz, Germany, to an Austrian mother and his mother had been a successful tennis player in her youth and, like her father, studied law. Rindts parents owned a mill in Mainz, which he inherited. They were killed in a raid in Hamburg during the Second World War when he was one year old, after which he was raised by his grandparents in Graz. Although his grandfather chose to retain Rindts German citizenship, for his career he drove under an Austrian racing licence.
In an interview, he described his heritage as a mixture and. Rindt had one half-brother, through his mother, Rindts childhood friends and his brother described him as a laddish child who often performed tricks to amuse others. While on a holiday, he broke his femoral neck
Mexico, officially the United Mexican States, is a federal republic in the southern half of North America. It is bordered to the north by the United States, to the south and west by the Pacific Ocean, to the southeast by Guatemala and the Caribbean Sea, and to the east by the Gulf of Mexico. Covering almost two million square kilometers, Mexico is the sixth largest country in the Americas by total area, Mexico is a federation comprising 31 states and a federal district that is its capital and most populous city. Other metropolises include Guadalajara, Puebla, Tijuana, pre-Columbian Mexico was home to many advanced Mesoamerican civilizations, such as the Olmec, Teotihuacan, Zapotec and Aztec before first contact with Europeans. In 1521, the Spanish Empire conquered and colonized the territory from its base in Mexico-Tenochtitlan, Three centuries later, this territory became Mexico following recognition in 1821 after the colonys Mexican War of Independence. The tumultuous post-independence period was characterized by instability and many political changes.
The Mexican–American War led to the cession of the extensive northern borderlands, one-third of its territory. The Pastry War, the Franco-Mexican War, a civil war, the dictatorship was overthrown in the Mexican Revolution of 1910, which culminated with the promulgation of the 1917 Constitution and the emergence of the countrys current political system. Mexico has the fifteenth largest nominal GDP and the eleventh largest by purchasing power parity, the Mexican economy is strongly linked to those of its North American Free Trade Agreement partners, especially the United States. Mexico was the first Latin American member of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development and it is classified as an upper-middle income country by the World Bank and a newly industrialized country by several analysts. By 2050, Mexico could become the fifth or seventh largest economy. The country is considered both a power and middle power, and is often identified as an emerging global power. Due to its culture and history, Mexico ranks first in the Americas.
Mexico is a country, ranking fourth in the world by biodiversity. In 2015 it was the 9th most visited country in the world, Mexico is a member of the United Nations, the World Trade Organization, the G8+5, the G20, the Uniting for Consensus and the Pacific Alliance. Mēxihco is the Nahuatl term for the heartland of the Aztec Empire, the Valley of Mexico, and its people, the Mexica and this became the future State of Mexico as a division of New Spain prior to independence. It is generally considered to be a toponym for the valley became the primary ethnonym for the Aztec Triple Alliance as a result. After New Spain won independence from Spain, representatives decided to name the new country after its capital and this was founded in 1524 on top of the ancient Mexica capital of Mexico-Tenochtitlan
Formula One is the highest class of single-seat auto racing that is sanctioned by the Fédération Internationale de lAutomobile. The FIA Formula One World Championship has been the form of racing since the inaugural season in 1950. The formula, designated in the name, refers to a set of rules, the F1 season consists of a series of races, known as Grands Prix, held worldwide on purpose-built F1 circuits and public roads. The results of each race are evaluated using a system to determine two annual World Championships, one for drivers, one for constructors. The racing drivers are required to be holders of valid Super Licences, the races are required to be held on tracks graded 1, the highest grade a track can receive by the FIA. Most events are held in locations on purpose-built tracks, but there are several events in city centres throughout the world. Formula One cars are the fastest road racing cars in the world. Formula One cars race at speeds of up to approximately 375 km/h with engines currently limited in performance to a maximum of 15,000 RPM, the cars are capable of lateral acceleration in excess of five g in corners.
The performance of the cars is very dependent on electronics – although traction control and other driving aids have been banned since 2008 – and on aerodynamics, the formula has radically evolved and changed through the history of the sport. F1 had a global television audience of 425 million people during the course of the 2014 season. Grand Prix racing began in 1906 and became the most popular internationally in the second half of the twentieth century. The Formula One Group is the holder of the commercial rights. Its high profile and popularity have created a major merchandising environment, since 2000 the sports spiraling expenditures and the distribution of prize money favoring established top teams have forced complaints from smaller teams and led several teams to bankruptcy. On 23 January 2017 it was confirmed that Liberty Media had completed its $8 billion acquisition of Delta Topco, the Formula One series originated with the European Grand Prix Motor Racing of the 1920s and 1930s.
The formula is a set of rules that all cars must meet. Formula One was a new formula agreed upon after World War II during 1946, the first world championship race was held at Silverstone, United Kingdom in 1950. A championship for constructors followed in 1958, national championships existed in South Africa and the UK in the 1960s and 1970s. Non-championship Formula One events were held for years, but due to the increasing cost of competition
The Ferrari 250 is a sports car built by Ferrari from 1953 to 1964. The companys most successful line, the 250 series included several variants. It was replaced by the 275 and the 330, most 250 road cars share the same two wheelbases,2,400 mm for short wheelbase and 2,600 mm for long wheelbase. Most convertibles used the SWB type, nearly all 250s share the same Colombo Tipo 125 V12 engine. At 2,953 cc, it was notable for its weight and impressive output of up to 300 PS in the Testa Rossa. The V12 weighed hundreds of less than its chief competitors — for example. Ferrari uses the displacement of a cylinder as the model designation. The light V12 propelled the small Ferrari 250 racing cars to numerous victories, typical of Ferrari, the Colombo V12 made its debut on the race track, with the racing 250s preceding the street cars by three years. The first 250 was the experimental 250 S berlinetta prototype entered in the 1952 Mille Miglia for Giovanni Bracco, the car was entered at Le Mans and in the Carrera Panamericana.
The 250 S used a 2,250 mm wheelbase with a Tuboscocca tubular trellis frame, suspension was by double wishbones at the front, with double longitudinal semi-elliptic springs locating the live axle at the rear. The car had the drum brakes and worm-and-sector steering typical of the period, the dry-sump 3.0 L engine used three Weber 36DCF carburettors and was mated directly to a five-speed manual transmission. Following the success of the 250 S in the Mille Miglia, Pinin Farina created coupé bodywork which had a small grille, compact tail and panoramic rear window, and the new car was launched as the 250 MM at the 1953 Geneva Motor Show. Carrozzeria Vignales open barchetta version was a design whose recessed headlights. The 250 MMs wheelbase was longer than the 250 S at 2,400 mm, the V12 engines dry sump was omitted from the production car, and the transmission was reduced by one gear. Power was increased to 240 PS, the four-cylinder 625 TF and 735 S replaced the V12-powered 250 MM in 1953. The 250 MMs race debut was at the 1953 Giro di Sicilia with privateer Paulo Marzotto, a Carrozzeria Morelli-bodied 250 MM barchetta driven by Clemente Biondetti came fourth in the 1954 Mille Miglia.
The 1954250 Monza was and unusual hybrid of the light four-cylinder 750 Monza, the model used the 250 engine in the short-wheelbase chassis from the 750 Monza. The first two used the Pininfarina barchetta shape of the 750 Monza and a one-off 500 Mondial, two more 250 Monzas were built by Carrozzeria Scaglietti, an early use of the now-familiar coachbuilder
Forty-eight of the fifty states and the federal district are contiguous and located in North America between Canada and Mexico. The state of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east, the state of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean. The U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean, the geography and wildlife of the country are extremely diverse. At 3.8 million square miles and with over 324 million people, the United States is the worlds third- or fourth-largest country by area, third-largest by land area. It is one of the worlds most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, paleo-Indians migrated from Asia to the North American mainland at least 15,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century, the United States emerged from 13 British colonies along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the following the Seven Years War led to the American Revolution. On July 4,1776, during the course of the American Revolutionary War, the war ended in 1783 with recognition of the independence of the United States by Great Britain, representing the first successful war of independence against a European power.
The current constitution was adopted in 1788, after the Articles of Confederation, the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, were ratified in 1791 and designed to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties. During the second half of the 19th century, the American Civil War led to the end of slavery in the country. By the end of century, the United States extended into the Pacific Ocean. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the status as a global military power. The end of the Cold War and the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the sole superpower. The U. S. is a member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States. The United States is a developed country, with the worlds largest economy by nominal GDP. It ranks highly in several measures of performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP. While the U. S. economy is considered post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge economy, the United States is a prominent political and cultural force internationally, and a leader in scientific research and technological innovations.
In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America after the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci
24 Hours of Daytona
It is run on a 3. 56-mile combined road course, utilizing portions of the NASCAR tri-oval and an infield road course. Since its inception, it has held the last weekend of January or first weekend of February, part of Speedweeks. It is the first race of the season for the WeatherTech SportsCar Championship, the race has had several names over the years. Since 1991, the Rolex Watch Co. is the sponsor of the race under a naming rights arrangement. Winning drivers of all classes receive a steel Rolex Daytona watch, in 2006, the race moved one week earlier into January to prevent a clash with the Super Bowl, which had in turn moved one week into February a few years earlier. The race has been known historically as a leg of the informal Triple Crown of endurance racing, shortly after the track opened, on April 5,1959, a six-hour/1000 kilometer USAC-FIA sports car race was held on the road course. Count Antonio Von Dory and Roberto Mieres won the race in a Porsche, the race utilized a 3. 81-mile layout, running counter-clockwise.
In 1962, a few years after the track was built, known as the Daytona Continental, it counted towards the FIAs new International Championship for GT Manufacturers. The first Continental was won by Dan Gurney, driving a 2. 7L Coventry Climax-powered Lotus 19. Gurney was a factory Porsche driver at the time, but the 1600-cc Porsche 718 was considered too small, in 1964, the event was expanded to 2,000 km, doubling the classic 1000 km distance of races at Nürburgring and Monza. Starting in 1966, the Daytona race was extended to the same 24-hour length as Le Mans, unlike the Le Mans event, the Daytona race is conducted entirely over a closed course within the speedway arena without the use of any public streets. Most parts of the steep banking are included, interrupted with a chicane on the back straight, unlike Le Mans, the race is held in wintertime, when nights are at their longest. There are lights installed around the circuit for racing, although the infield section is still not as well-lit as the main oval.
This was the case in the initial 1962 Daytona Continental, in which Dan Gurneys Lotus had established a lead when the engine failed with just minutes remaining. Gurney stopped the car at the top of the banking, just short of the finish line and this led to the international rule requiring a car to cross the line under its own power in order to be classified. The first 24 Hour event in 1966 was won by Ken Miles, after having lost in 1966 at Daytona, Sebring and Le Mans to the Fords, the Ferrari P series prototypes staged a 1–2–3 side-by-side parade finish at the banked finish line in 1967. The Ferrari 365 GTB/4 road car was given the unofficial name Ferrari Daytona in celebration of this victory, Porsche repeated this show in their 1–2–3 win in the 196824 Hours. After the car of Gerhard Mitter had a big crash caused by tire failure in the banking, his teammate Rolf Stommelen supported the car of Vic Elford and Jochen Neerpasch