Charles Hammond House
The Charles Hammond House, located at 908 Martintown Road, North Augusta, South Carolina, was built on a bluff overlooking the Savannah River between other Hammond plantations, New Richmond and Snow Hill. The Charles Hammond House was added to the National Register of Historic Places on October 2, 1973. Dating from the Revolutionary War era, the columned Greek Revival home is thought to be the oldest residence in North Augusta, South Carolina; the home was built for Charles and Elizabeth Steele Hammond, prosperous planters who came to South Carolina from Farnham Parish, Richmond County, Virginia in the 1770s. Martin Hammond, the progenitor of the Hammond family in South Carolina, arrived in Virginia from London prior to 1636; the Hammonds were Patriots, Charles and his sons served in the Revolutionary War. On the property is a granite monument in the shape of a pyramid which commemorates several of the Hammond family members who were Revolutionary War heroes; the Charles Hammond House exemplifies a typical architectural trend of nineteenth century South Carolina that turned plain eighteenth century houses into fashionable, columned Greek Revival influenced houses.
The house was a two-story pine clapboard structure existing from ca. 1775-1780. On the property was a cellar as well as out-buildings including a kitchen and smokehouse. Additions to the home in 1830 included front and side porches, an extension of the back porch, a rear wing, producing an L-shape appearance; the house has a pipe stem chimney, unusual for the area. Of the three porches, those on the east and south are both two-story with four square paneled columns; the wench and pulley, used to haul the heavy wooden beams and planks up for the second floor is still in the roof of the porch today. In 1830, an English gardener landscaped a formal garden for the front and side yards. A brick path was created, magnolia trees were planted, the cedar lined entrance drive was created. On the property is a guest house and barn. A family cemetery is located adjacent to the home
South Carolina Highway 121
South Carolina Highway 121 is a major state highway that runs north and south in the western part of the U. S. state of South Carolina. The road is part of a long multi-state route that goes through Florida and Georgia; some see it as a de facto auxiliary route from U. S. Route 21 in Rock Hill. Efforts to have the road upgraded to such status have failed however. SC 121 continues its concurrency with U. S. Route 25 from Georgia into North Augusta, South Carolina. In the Schultz Hill section of North Augusta, US 25/SC 121 leaves the concurrency with US 1 and US 78, heads north. Still within North Augusta, it has an interchange with Interstate 520 at exit 22 and I-20. In Trenton at the northern terminus of SC 19, US 25 turns to the north and SC 121 becomes an independent route for the first time. From there it runs through rural western South Carolina. Johnston is where the route serves as the northern terminus of SC 191 and crosses SC 23. In Saluda, SC 121 is overlapped by US 178/SC 39 intersects US 378.
The overlap with US 178/SC 39 ends at Travis Road. It crosses a bridge over the Saluda River and is overlapped with SC 34 until it reaches Newberry. Inside Newberry, the route becomes the terminus of SC 395 and has a major intersection with US 76. Further north it encounters a quarter-cloverleaf interchanges with I-26. North of Newberry, it encounters yet another concurrency with US 176, which it follows straight north before curving to the west as it enters Whitmire, where the routes make a sharp turn to the east and encounters the beginning of a long concurrency with SC 72. After a bridge over the Enoree River, the concurrency with US 176 ends just east of Whitmire. SC 121/72 runs through Carlisle where it has another concurrency with SC 215, which ends east of the bridge over the Broad River, which contains a monument to an American Revolutionary battle known as the Battle of Fishdam Ford. In Chester SC 121/72 has another concurrency, this time with US 321/SC 9; this concurrency runs southeast until US 321 branches off to the south at the southern terminus of US 321 Business.
The routes continue to the east along SC 97, running beneath a railroad bridge, turning toward the north. SC 9 makes a right turn at Lancaster Avenue, the eastern terminus of SC 9 Bus. SC 121/72/97 has an at-grade crossing with another railroad line leading to the city, SC 121/72 branches off to the right at Saluda Road, while SC 97 continues north; the concurrency with SC 72 ends at SC 901 in Rock Hill. Within the city, it joins with SC 5, before merging with its final concurrency, US 21. Traversing east of the downtown area, its journey ends at Cherry Road, where US 21 continues north towards Fort Mill, while connecting with SC 322. SC 121 had two previous stents in the state; the first SC 121 was established in 1926 as a new primary routing. In 1928, it was renumbered as SC 215; the second SC 121 was established in 1930 as new primary routing. In 1937 or 1938, SC 121 was extended along US 78 before branching off to end at SC 65. In 1940, SC 121 was extended southwest to SC 362, east to SC 6 in Vance.
In 1948, SC 121 was truncated on both ends, from US 21 to US 15. By 1952, it was extended east to SC 310 in Vance. In 1953, it was extended back to SC 6. In 1962-1964, the entire route was renumbered as SC 210; the third, current, SC 121 was established in 1962-1964, which formed a three-state route. From North Augusta to Rock Hill, it was placed on concurrencies with various highways throughout the state, its routing has remained unchanged since inception. SC 121 Business was established in 1964 to run concurrently with SC 72 Bus.. It was never part of mainline SC 121, as it bypassed Chester to the south and east with SC 72, it is unknown. South Carolina portal U. S. Roads portal Media related to South Carolina Highway 121 at Wikimedia Commons Mapmikey's South Carolina Highways Page: SC 120-129
Edgefield County, South Carolina
Edgefield County is a county located on the western border of the U. S. state of South Carolina. As of the 2010 census, its population was 26,985, its county seat is Edgefield. Edgefield County has as part of its western border the Savannah River. Edgefield is part of the Augusta-Richmond County, GA-SC Metropolitan Statistical Area; the origin of the name Edgefield is unclear. There is a village named Edgefield in England. Edgefield District was created in 1785, it is bordered on the west by the Savannah River, it was formed from the southern section of the former Ninety-Six District when it was divided into smaller districts or counties by an act of the state legislature. Parts of the district were used in the formation of other neighboring counties, specifically: Aiken in 1871. In his study of Edgefield County, South Carolina, Orville Vernon Burton classified white society as comprising the poor, the yeoman middle class, the elite planters. A clear line demarcated the elite, but according to Burton, the line between poor and yeoman was never distinct.
Stephanie McCurry argues that yeomen were distinguished from poor whites by their ownership of land. Edgefield's yeomen farmers were "self-working farmers," distinct from the elite because they worked their land themselves alongside any slaves they owned. By owning large numbers of slaves, planters took on a managerial function and did not work in the fields. During Reconstruction, Edgefield County had a slight black majority, it became a center of political tensions following the postwar amendments that gave freedmen civil rights under the US constitution. Whites conducted an insurgency to maintain white supremacy through paramilitary groups known as the Red Shirts, they used violence and intimidation during election seasons from 1872 on to disrupt and suppress black Republican voting. In the early summer, six black suspects were lynched by a white mob for the alleged murders of a white couple. In the Hamburg Massacre of July 8, 1876, several black militia were killed by whites, part of a large group of more than 100 armed men who attended a court hearing of a complaint of whites against the militia.
Some of the white men came from Augusta. Due to fraud, more Democratic votes were recorded in Edgefield County than there were total residents; the election was decided in Hampton's favor, the Democrats took control of the state legislature. As a result of a national compromise, Federal troops were withdrawn in 1877 from South Carolina and other southern states, ending Reconstruction. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 507 square miles, of which 500 square miles is land and 6.3 square miles is water. Saluda County - northeast Aiken County - east Richmond County, Georgia - southwest Columbia County, Georgia - southwest McCormick County - west Greenwood County - northwest Sumter National Forest The long decline in population from 1910 to 1980 reflects the decline in agriculture, mechanization reducing labor needs, the effect of many African Americans leaving for Northern and Midwestern cities in the Great Migration out of the rural South; as of the census of 2000, there were 24,595 people, 8,270 households, 6,210 families residing in the county.
The population density was 49 people per square mile. There were 9,223 housing units at an average density of 18 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 56.77% White, 41.51% Black or African American, 0.33% Native American, 0.24% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 0.44% from other races, 0.69% from two or more races. 2.05% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 8,270 households out of which 34.80% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 55.60% were married couples living together, 15.50% had a female householder with no husband present, 24.90% were non-families. 22.40% of all households were made up of individuals and 9.10% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.66 and the average family size was 3.12. In the county, the population was spread out with 24.10% under the age of 18, 9.80% from 18 to 24, 32.10% from 25 to 44, 23.20% from 45 to 64, 10.90% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years.
For every 100 females, there were 112.80 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 114.80 males. The median income for a household in the county was $35,146, the median income for a family was $41,810. Males had a median income of $32,748 versus $23,331 for females; the per capita income for the county was $15,415. About 13.00% of families and 15.50% of the population were below the poverty line, including 19.60% of those under age 18 and 18.40% of those age 65 or over. As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 26,985 people, 9,348 households, 6,706 families residing in the county; the population density was 53.9 inhabitants per square mile. There were 10,559 housing units at an average density of 21.1 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 58.6% white, 37.2% black or African American, 0.4% Asian, 0.2% American Indian or Alaska Native, 2.2% from other races, 1.3% from two or more races. Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 5.2% of the population. In terms of ancestry, 15.8% were American, 9.0% were English, 6.7% were Irish, 5.1% were German.
Of the 9,348 households, 33.3% had children under the
National Register of Historic Places
The National Register of Historic Places is the United States federal government's official list of districts, buildings and objects deemed worthy of preservation for their historical significance. A property listed in the National Register, or located within a National Register Historic District, may qualify for tax incentives derived from the total value of expenses incurred preserving the property; the passage of the National Historic Preservation Act in 1966 established the National Register and the process for adding properties to it. Of the more than one million properties on the National Register, 80,000 are listed individually; the remainder are contributing resources within historic districts. For most of its history the National Register has been administered by the National Park Service, an agency within the United States Department of the Interior, its goals are to help property owners and interest groups, such as the National Trust for Historic Preservation, coordinate and protect historic sites in the United States.
While National Register listings are symbolic, their recognition of significance provides some financial incentive to owners of listed properties. Protection of the property is not guaranteed. During the nomination process, the property is evaluated in terms of the four criteria for inclusion on the National Register of Historic Places; the application of those criteria has been the subject of criticism by academics of history and preservation, as well as the public and politicians. Historic sites outside the country proper, but associated with the United States are listed. Properties can be nominated in a variety of forms, including individual properties, historic districts, multiple property submissions; the Register categorizes general listings into one of five types of properties: district, structure, building, or object. National Register Historic Districts are defined geographical areas consisting of contributing and non-contributing properties; some properties are added automatically to the National Register when they become administered by the National Park Service.
These include National Historic Landmarks, National Historic Sites, National Historical Parks, National Military Parks, National Memorials, some National Monuments. On October 15, 1966, the Historic Preservation Act created the National Register of Historic Places and the corresponding State Historic Preservation Offices; the National Register consisted of the National Historic Landmarks designated before the Register's creation, as well as any other historic sites in the National Park system. Approval of the act, amended in 1980 and 1992, represented the first time the United States had a broad-based historic preservation policy; the 1966 act required those agencies to work in conjunction with the SHPO and an independent federal agency, the Advisory Council on Historic Preservation, to confront adverse effects of federal activities on historic preservation. To administer the newly created National Register of Historic Places, the National Park Service of the U. S. Department of the Interior, with director George B.
Hartzog Jr. established an administrative division named the Office of Archeology and Historic Preservation. Hartzog charged OAHP with creating the National Register program mandated by the 1966 law. Ernest Connally was the Office's first director. Within OAHP new divisions were created to deal with the National Register; the division administered several existing programs, including the Historic Sites Survey and the Historic American Buildings Survey, as well as the new National Register and Historic Preservation Fund. The first official Keeper of the Register was an architectural historian. During the Register's earliest years in the late 1960s and early 1970s, organization was lax and SHPOs were small and underfunded. However, funds were still being supplied for the Historic Preservation Fund to provide matching grants-in-aid to listed property owners, first for house museums and institutional buildings, but for commercial structures as well. A few years in 1979, the NPS history programs affiliated with both the U.
S. National Parks system and the National Register were categorized formally into two "Assistant Directorates." Established were the Assistant Directorate for Archeology and Historic Preservation and the Assistant Directorate for Park Historic Preservation. From 1978 until 1981, the main agency for the National Register was the Heritage Conservation and Recreation Service of the United States Department of the Interior. In February 1983, the two assistant directorates were merged to promote efficiency and recognize the interdependency of their programs. Jerry L. Rogers was selected to direct this newly merged associate directorate, he was described as a skilled administrator, sensitive to the need for the NPS to work with SHPOs, local governments. Although not described in detail in the 1966 act, SHPOs became integral to the process of listing properties on the National Register; the 1980 amendments of the 1966 law further defined the responsibilities of SHPOs concerning the National Register.
Several 1992 amendments of the NHPA added a category to the National Register, known as Traditional Cultural Properties: those properties associated with Native American or Hawaiian groups
A ZIP Code is a postal code used by the United States Postal Service in a system it introduced in 1963. The term ZIP is an acronym for Zone Improvement Plan; the basic format consists of five digits. An extended ZIP+4 code was introduced in 1983 which includes the five digits of the ZIP Code, followed by a hyphen and four additional digits that reference a more specific location; the term ZIP Code was registered as a servicemark by the U. S. Postal Service, but its registration has since expired; the early history and context of postal codes began with postal district/zone numbers. The United States Post Office Department implemented postal zones for numerous large cities in 1943. For example: The "16" was the number of the postal zone in the specific city. By the early 1960s, a more organized system was needed, non-mandatory five-digit ZIP Codes were introduced nationwide on July 1, 1963; the USPOD issued its Publication 59: Abbreviations for Use with ZIP Code on October 1, 1963, with the list of two-letter state abbreviations which are written with both letters capitalized.
An earlier list in June had proposed capitalized abbreviations ranging from two to five letters. According to Publication 59, the two-letter standard was "based on a maximum 23-position line, because this has been found to be the most universally acceptable line capacity basis for major addressing systems", which would be exceeded by a long city name combined with a multi-letter state abbreviation, such as "Sacramento, Calif." along with the ZIP Code. The abbreviations have remained unchanged, with the exception of Nebraska, changed from NB to NE in 1969 at the request of the Canadian postal administration, to avoid confusion with the Canadian province of New Brunswick. Robert Moon is considered the father of the ZIP Code; the post office only credits Moon with the first three digits of the ZIP Code, which describe the sectional center facility or "sec center." An SCF is a central mail processing facility with those three digits. The fourth and fifth digits, which give a more precise locale within the SCF, were proposed by Henry Bentley Hahn Sr.
The SCF sorts mail to all post offices with those first three digits in their ZIP Codes. The mail is sorted according to the final two digits of the ZIP Code and sent to the corresponding post offices in the early morning. Sectional centers do not deliver mail and are not open to the public, most of their employees work the night shift. Mail picked up at post offices is sent to their own SCF in the afternoon, where the mail is sorted overnight. In the case of large cities, the last two digits coincide with the older postal zone number thus: In 1967, these became mandatory for second- and third-class bulk mailers, the system was soon adopted generally; the United States Post Office used a cartoon character, which it called Mr. ZIP, to promote the use of the ZIP Code, he was depicted with a legend such as "USE ZIP CODE" in the selvage of panes of postage stamps or on the covers of booklet panes of stamps. In 1971 Elmira Star-Gazette reporter Dick Baumbach found out the White House was not using a ZIP Code on its envelopes.
Herb Klein, special assistant to President Nixon, responded by saying the next printing of envelopes would include the ZIP Code. In 1983, the U. S. Postal Service introduced an expanded ZIP Code system that it called ZIP+4 called "plus-four codes", "add-on codes", or "add-ons". A ZIP+4 Code uses the basic five-digit code plus four additional digits to identify a geographic segment within the five-digit delivery area, such as a city block, a group of apartments, an individual high-volume receiver of mail, a post office box, or any other unit that could use an extra identifier to aid in efficient mail sorting and delivery. However, initial attempts to promote universal use of the new format met with public resistance and today the plus-four code is not required. In general, mail is read by a multiline optical character reader that instantly determines the correct ZIP+4 Code from the address—along with the more specific delivery point—and sprays an Intelligent Mail barcode on the face of the mail piece that corresponds to 11 digits—nine for the ZIP+4 Code and two for the delivery point.
For Post Office Boxes, the general rule is. The add-on code is one of the following: the last four digits of the box number, zero plus the last three digits of the box number, or, if the box number consists of fewer than four digits, enough zeros are attached to the front of the box number to produce a four-digit number. However, there is no uniform rule, so the ZIP+4 Code must be looked up individually for each box; the ZIP Code is translated into an Intelligent Mail barcode, printed on the mailpiece to make it easier for automated machines to sort. A barcode can be printed by the sender, it is better to let the post office put one on. In general, the post office uses OCR technology, though in some cases a human might have to read and enter the address. Customers who send bulk mail can get a discount on postage if they have printed the barcode themselves and have presorted the mai
U.S. Route 1 in South Carolina
U. S. Route 1 is a north–south United States highway that traverses along through the South Carolina sandhills region. US 1 enters South Carolina in North Augusta. From North Augusta to Aiken, US 1 is a divided four-lane highway, it goes through the historic district of Aiken, heading north through Batesburg-Leesville, into Columbia up to Camden. US 1 parallels I-20, it has junctions with I-26 and I-77 in Columbia. In Richland County, it goes through downtown Columbia along Gervais Street, passing directly in front of the State Capitol building. From Camden, it continues northeast as a two-lane road to the town of Cheraw and Cheraw State Park before entering the state of North Carolina; the entire route is part of the Jefferson Davis Highway, named after Civil War Confederate leader Jefferson Davis. Markers of the highway dot all along the route. Though US 1 connects to several urban areas in the state, it has fallen out of favor with most causal and business travelers not seeking to drive along a historic highway, as Interstate travel has become a much faster and more efficient means of ground transportation.
US-1 has thus been replaced as primary route by I-20 and I-95. Most urban areas of US-1 are multi-lane with some sections divided, while the rural areas continue to be two-lane. US 1 was established in 1927 as an original US route, it traveled as it does now, overlapping with SC 12, from North Augusta to West Columbia, SC 2, from West Columbia to Columbia, SC 50, from Columbia to the North Carolina border. The following year, both SC 12 and SC 50 were dropped along the route; the entire route was paved by 1932. Around 1938, US 1 was rerouted between Cheraw and Wallace, going further north along its now current alignment, leaving behind Hickson Road and Brickyard Road; the first section widen to four-lane was a 2-mile section north of Columbia, in 1940. Between 1940-1946, US 1 was rerouted in Columbia. By 1952, US 1 was rerouted again in Columbia, switching to Gervais Street, Millwood Avenue, Two Notch. By 1952, US 1/US 78 were given new alignment bypassing Clearwater, Bath and Gloverville. By 1957, US 1/US 78 was rerouted from Fifth Street Bridge to its current alignment over the Savannah River.
South Carolina portal U. S. Roads portal Special routes of U. S. Route 1 Media related to U. S. Route 1 in South Carolina at Wikimedia Commons Mapmikey's South Carolina Highways Page: US 1
Irish Travellers are a traditionally itinerant ethnic group who maintain a set of traditions. Although predominantly English-speaking, many use Shelta, they live in Ireland as well as comprising large communities in the United Kingdom and the United States. Traveller rights groups have long pushed for ethnic status from the Irish government succeeding in 2017; as of 2016, there are 30,987 Travellers within Ireland, this has led to them becoming recognized as a minority group in Ireland. Travellers refer in Irish as an Lucht Siúil. "Pikey" or "pikie" is a slang term, pejorative and considered by many to be a slur. It is used in the UK and Ireland to refer to Travellers. In a pejorative sense it means "a lower-class person", perhaps'coarse' or'disreputable', it is not well received among Irish Romani, as it is considered an ethnic slur. The historical origins of Irish Travellers as a distinct group is still unknown, it continues to be the subject of popular debate. Research has been complicated by the fact that the group appears to have no written records of its own.
Deeper documentation of Shelta and the Travellers dates to the 1830s, but knowledge of Irish Travellers has been seen from the 1100s, as well as the 1500s-1800s. Many decrees against begging in England were directed at Travellers, passed by King Edward VI around 1551. One such decree was the “Acte for tynckers and pedlers”; the identity of Irish Travellers resembles other itinerant communities, some aspects being self-employment, family networks, birth and burial rituals and folklore. Because they worked with metal, Travellers had to travel throughout Ireland and work on making various items such as ornaments and horse harnesses to make a living; as a result, by 1175 they were referred to as “tinkler,” “tynkere,” or Tinkers as well as Gypsies all of which are derogative names to refer to their itinerant way of life. Many different theories have been put forward to explain the origins of Ireland's itinerant population. A suggestion that they might be of Romani extraction is not supported by genetic evidence, which finds no connection to Romani groups.
One idea is of them being distantly related to a Celtic group. Another theory is of a pre-Gaelic origin, where Travellers are descended from a community that lived in Ireland before the arrival of the Celts. Once Ireland was claimed as Celtic, this group was seen as lower class. There is a theory that an indigenous, community of craftsmen are the ancestors of Travellers, they never settled down like the Celts. Other speculations on their origin are that they were descended from those Irish who were made homeless during the Cromwellian conquest of Ireland in the 1650s, or made homeless in either the 1741 or the 1840s famine due to eviction. Genetic research has ruled these events out as the founding events for Travellers, however it cannot rule out the displacement of the population along with most of the Irish population during these events, it has since been recognised that no single explanation is to be adequate in answering this complex question. Current scholarship is investigating the background of Gaelic Ireland before the English Tudor conquest.
The mobile nature and traditions of a Gaelic society based on pastoralism rather than land tenure before this event implies that Travellers represent descendants of the Gaelic social order marginalised during the change-over to an English landholding society. An early example of this mobile element in the population, how displacement of clans can lead to increased nomadism within aristocratic warrior societies, is that of the Clan Murtough O' Connors, displaced after the Norman invasion. Present genetic evidence indicates. In 2011, researchers at the Royal College of Surgeons in Dublin and the University of Edinburgh analyzed DNA samples from 40 Travellers; the study provided evidence that Irish Travellers are a distinct Irish ethnic minority, who have been distinct from the settled Irish community for at least 1000 years. This apparent distance though may be the effect of genetic drift within a small homogeneous population and may therefore exaggerate the distance between the two populations.
A genetic analysis of Irish Travellers found evidence to support: Irish ancestry. In 2017 a further genetic study using profiles of 50 Irish Travellers, 143 European Roma, 2232 settled Irish, 2039 British and 6255 European or worldwide individuals confirmed ancestral origin within the general Irish population. An estimated time of divergence between the settled population and Travellers was set at a minimum of 8 generations ago, with generations at 30 years, hence 240 years and a maximum of 14 generations or 420 years ago; the best fit was estimated at 360 years ago. This date coincides well with the final destruction of Gaelic society following the 1641 Rebellion and during the Wars of the Three Kingdoms in which Cromwell's forces devastated the country. Irish Travellers are not an homogeneous group instead reflecting some of the variation seen in the settled population. Four distinct genetic clusters were identified in the 2017 study, these match social groupings within the community. Genetic studies by Miriam Murphy, David Croke, other researchers identified certain genetic diseases such as galactosemia that are more common in the Irish Traveller population, invo