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Passive fire protection

Passive fire protection is an integral component of the components of structural fire protection and fire safety in a building. PFP attempts to contain fires or slow the spread, such as by fire-resistant walls and doors. PFP systems must comply with the associated listing and approval use and compliance in order to provide the effectiveness expected by building codes. Fire protection in a building, offshore facility or a ship is a system that includes: Active fire protection can include manual or automatic fire detection and fire suppression. Passive fire protection includes compartmentalization of the overall building through the use of fire-resistance rated walls and floors. Organization into smaller fire compartments, consisting of one or more rooms or floors, prevents or slows the spread of fire from the room of fire origin to other building spaces, limiting building damage and providing more time to the building occupants for emergency evacuation or to reach an area of refuge. Fire prevention includes minimizing ignition sources, as well as educating the occupants and operators of the facility, ship or structure concerning operation and maintenance of fire-related systems for correct function, emergency procedures including notification for fire service response and emergency evacuation.

The aim for fire protection systems is demonstrated in fire testing the ability to maintain the item or the side to be protected at or below either 140 °C or ca. 550 °C, considered the critical temperature for structural steel, above which it is in jeopardy of losing its strength, leading to collapse. This is based, in most countries, on the basic test standards for walls and floors, such as BS 476: Part 22: 1987, BS EN 1364-1: 1999 & BS EN 1364-2: 1999 or ASTM E119. Smaller components, such as fire dampers, fire doors, etc. follow suit in the main intentions of the basic standard for walls and floors. Fire testing involves live fire exposures upwards of 1100 °C, depending on the fire-resistance rating and duration one is after. More items than just fire exposures are required to be tested to ensure the survivability of the system under realistic conditions. To accomplish these aims, many different types of materials are employed in the design and construction of systems. For instance, common endothermic building materials include calcium silicate board and gypsum wallboard.

During fire testing of concrete floor slabs, water can be seen to boil out of a slab. Gypsum wall board loses all its strength during a fire; the use of endothermic materials is proven to be sound engineering practice. The chemically bound water inside these materials sublimes. During this process, the unexposed side cannot exceed the boiling point of water. Once the hydrates are spent, the temperature on the unexposed side of an endothermic fire barrier tends to rise rapidly. Too much water can be a problem, however. Concrete slabs that are too wet, will explode in a fire, why test laboratories insist on measuring water content of concrete and mortar in fire test specimens, before running any fire tests. PFP measures can include intumescents and ablative materials; the point is, that whatever the nature of the materials, they on their own bear no rating. They must be organised into systems, which bear a rating when installed in accordance with certification listings or established catalogues, such as DIN 4102 Part 4 or the Canadian National Building Code.

Passive fire protection measures are intended to contain a fire in the fire compartment of origin, thus limiting the spread of fire and smoke for a limited period of time, as determined the local building code and fire code. Passive fire protection measures, such as firestops, fire walls, fire doors, are tested to determine the fire-resistance rating of the final assembly expressed in terms of hours of fire resistance. A certification listing provides the limitations of the rating. Contrary to active fire protection measures, passive fire protection means do not require electric or electronic activation or a degree of motion. Exceptions to that particular rule of thumb are fire dampers and fire door closers, which must move and shut in order to work, as well as all intumescent products, which swell, thus move, in order to function; as the name suggests, passive fire protection remains inactive in the coating system until a fire occurs. There are two types of PFP: intumescent fire protection and vermiculite fire protection.

In vermiculite fire protection, the structural steel members are covered with vermiculite materials a thick layer. This is a cheaper option as compared to an intumescent one, but is crude and aesthetically unpleasant. Moreover, if the environment is corrosive in nature the vermiculite option is not advisable, as there is the possibility of water seeping into it, there it is difficult to monitor for corrosion. Intumescent fireproofing is a layer of paint, applied along with the coating system on the structural steel members; the thickness of this intumescent coating is dependent on the steel section used. For calculation of DFT a factor called Hp/A, referred to as "section factor" and expressed in m−1, is used. Intumescent coatings are applied as an intermediate coat in a coating system; because of the low thickness of this intumescent coating, nice finish, anti-corrosi

Spirit Man (album)

Spirit Man is a 1975 album by jazz keyboardist, Weldon Irvine. The Allmusic review by Jason Ankeny awarded the album 4 stars stating:Spirit Man channels the sonic sprawl of the preceding Cosmic Vortex to forge a tighter, more focused approach. Eschewing vocals altogether, it's Weldon Irvine's most balanced and complete recording, deftly combining massive funk grooves with ingenious electronic elements. Featuring a supporting cast including bassist Cleveland Freeman, trumpeters Charles Sullivan and Everett "Blood" Hollins, saxophonist Sonny Fortune, Spirit Man parallels Herbie Hancock's groundbreaking fusion dates in both the imagination and ferocity of Irvine's keyboards as well as the extraterrestrial reach of its electronic effects; this music is deep and funky. All songs written by Weldon Irvine. "We Gettin' Down" 5:50 "Softly" 0:37 "Pogo Stick" 6:45 "Blast Off" 4:17 "Jungle Juice" 8:10 "Yasmin" 4:37 "The Power and the Glory" 5:44 "Softly" 1:26 Weldon Irvine - Conductor, Electric Piano, Synthesizer Cleveland Freeman - Electric Bass Wesley "Gator" Watson - Drums Henry Grate, Jr. - Guitar Bud Johnson, Jr. - Congas, Bongos Charles Sullivan, Everett "Blood" Hollins - Trumpet Sonny Fortune - Alto Saxophone Floyd Butler, Harry Elston - Background Vocals on "We Gettin' Down" Acy Lehman - art direction David B. Hecht - photography A Tribe Called Quest sampled "We Gettin' Down" on their song, "Award Tour" on their album Midnight Marauders in 1993.

Weldon Irvine-Spirit Man at Discogs

Sergiu Sîrbu

Sergiu Sîrbu, sometimes written Sârbu is a Moldovan football manager, former footballer. On 2 July 1991 he represented Moldova national football team in its first international match, a loss 2–4 to Georgia; this was his only match at national team. 1992–1993 – Zimbru Chișinău 2003 – Zimbru Chișinău 2006–2007 – FC Iskra-Stal 2008–2009 – FC Iskra-Stal 2010 – Rapid Ghidighici 2011 – Rapid Ghidighici 2011–2012 – Zimbru Chișinău 2012 – Zimbru Chișinău Zimbru Chișinău Moldovan National Division: 1992, 1992-1993, 1993-1994 Sergiu Sîrbu coach profile at Soccerway Profile at Sergiu Sîrbu at Sergiu Sîrbu at

Negro Navarro

Negro Navarro is the ring name of Miguel Calderón Navarro, a Mexican luchador, or professional wrestler. Navarro works as a Freelancer on the Mexican independent circuit as well as making regular appearances for International Wrestling Revolution Group. Navarro teams with his sons, who are known as Trauma I and Trauma II. Negro Navarro was part of Los Misioneros de la Muerte with El Texano. Navarro was born on June 12, 1957, in Mexico City and grew up idolizing the Mexican luchador Black Shadow, deciding at a young age that he wanted to pursue the same career as his idol and become a professional wrestler, he trained under a local Mexico City wrestling trainer. In life Navarro would marry a woman, the cousin of his wrestling partner Juan Conrado Aguilar known as El Texano. Together they have two children who have become professional wrestlers, they work as the enmascarado characters Trauma I and Trauma II, keeping their birth name private per lucha libre traditions. Navarro is related through marriage to Juan Aguilar Leos, known in wrestling circles as El Texano, Jr and Super Nova, both sons of Juan Aguilar.

Miguel Navarro's brothers are wrestlers, working under the ring names Apolo Navarro and Drako. He is related through marriage to wrestlers Jonathan de Jesus Navarro Jímenez, Juan Miguel Escalante Grande, Pólvora and Roberto Gutiérrez Frías, better known as El Dandy. Unlike a lot of professional wrestlers in Mexico Navarro did not start out as an enmascarado, or masked wrestler, opting to go with a variation of his birth name as his ring name, Negro Navarro, inspired by his childhood idol Black Shadow, he made his professional wrestling debut on his 18th birthday. At that point in time the heavyweight wrestlers were considered the "main events" and lighter wrestlers like Navarro were relegated to the lower ranks. In the late 1970s, Navarro began working for Universal Wrestling Association as they wanted to feature more wrestlers in the lighter divisions to strengthen their shows, having seen how popular these divisions were starting to become elsewhere. UWA promoter Francisco Flores wanted to build some of the lesser known lightweights into high card workers and decided put Navarro together with two sized wrestlers, El Texano and Antonio Sánchez Rendón, known under the ring name El Signo, to form Los Misioneros de la Muerte.

They were paired up against a trio of young and high flying brothers dubbed Los Mosqueteros de Diablo, Brazo de Oro, Brazo de Plata and El Brazo. Early in the storyline Brazo de Oro defeated El Texano in a Luchas de Apuestas, or bet match, which forced El Texano to unmask; the storyline expanded and saw the unmasked Misionaros clash with the masked Mosqueteros on UWA promoted cards all over Mexico. The fan reception to those matches and the positive coverage in various Lucha Libre magazines was so big that other promoters around Mexico wanted to book them on their shows, not as individuals but as teams, the start of the trios match becoming more and more prominent in Lucha Libre. With the team being so in demand, UWA started to feature Los Misioneros more and by 1981 Los Misioneros began working high on the card working the main event match starting a trend of having trios matches instead of singles matches as the regular main event match format, something that helped make that match format the most common match type in Lucha Libre since then.

In 1981 the Los Misioneros de la Muerte name became a household name after a match in El Toreo de Quatro Caminos, UWA's main venue. During the main event Los Misioneros faced off against 64-year-old El Santo, teaming with Huracán Ramírez and Rayo de Jalisco. In that match El Santo collapsed in the middle of the ring, suffering a heart attack during the match, his life was only saved due to the quick witted actions of Ramírez. After the match the Lucha Libre magazines, prompted by Francisco Flores, played off the real life tragedy by promoting Los Misioneros as the team that nearly killed the biggest name in Lucha Libre ever; the event made the team the most hated trio in Mexico for years to come and helped fill El Torero arena to the brim when Los Misioneros teamed up with Perro Aguayo to face El Santo, Gory Guerrero, Huracán Ramírez and El Solitario in El Santo's retirement match. Following Santo's retirement Los Misioneros feuded with the top faces such as Los Tres Caballero both in trios and in individual competition.

During the storyline El Solitario turned on his two partners, when he attacked El Signo with a bottle and cost Los Tres Caballeros an important match. The attack made the smaller Los Misioneros more sympathetic to the crowd, who began to support them more and more despite Los Misioneros being booked on the shows as heel characters, their popularity as a trio led to them being invited to tour Japan, facing off against New Japan Pro Wrestling lightweight wrestlers such as Gran Hamada, Tiger Mask, George Takano, Akira Maeda, Osamu Kido. In 1984 Los Misioneros won the UWA World Trios Championship for the first time, although the length of their reign is not documented. On January 1, 1985, Negro Navarro won his first singles championship, the UWA World Junior Light Heavyw

Japanese sword

A Japanese sword is one of several types of traditionally made swords from Japan. Swords have been made from as early as the Kofun period, though most referred to the curved blades on the swords made after the Heian period when speaking of "Japanese swords". There are many types of Japanese swords that differ by size, field of application and method of manufacture; some of the more known types of Japanese swords are the katana, wakizashi and tachi. The type classifications for Japanese swords indicate the combination of a blade and its mounts as this determines the style of use of the blade. An unsigned and shortened blade, once made and intended for use as a tachi may be alternately mounted in tachi koshirae and katana koshirae, it is properly distinguished by the style of mount it inhabits. A long tanto may be classified as a wakizashi due to its length being over 30 cm, however it may have been mounted and used as a tanto making the length distinction somewhat arbitrary but necessary when referring to unmounted short blades.

When the mounts are taken out of the equation, a tanto and wakizashi will be determined by length under or over 30 cm unless their intended use can be determined or the speaker is rendering an opinion on the intended use of the blade. In this way, a blade formally attributed as a wakizashi due to length may be informally discussed between individuals as a tanto because the blade was made during an age where tanto were popular and the wakizashi as a companion sword to katana did not yet exist; the following are types of Japanese swords: Chokutō: A straight single edged sword, produced prior to the 10th century, without differential hardening or folding. Tsurugi/Ken: A straight two edged sword, produced prior to the 10th century, may be without differential hardening or folding. Tachi: A sword, longer and more curved than the katana, with curvature centered from the middle or towards the tang, including the tang. Tachi were worn suspended, with the edge downward; the tachi was in vogue before the 15th century.

Kodachi: A shorter version of the tachi, but with similar mounts and intended use found in the 13th century or earlier. Ōdachi /Nodachi: Very large tachi, some in excess of 100 cm, a blade of the late 14th century. Katate-uchi: A short type of uchigatana developed in the 16th century, with short tang, intended for one handed use. One of the forerunners of the wakizashi. Katana: A sword with a curved blade longer than 60 cm, worn with the edge upwards in the sash. Developed from the tachi in the 15th century. Wakizashi: A general term for a sword between one and two shaku long, predominantly made after 1600, it is the short blade that accompanies a katana in the traditional samurai daisho pairing of swords, but may be worn by classes other than the samurai as a single blade worn edge up as the katana. The name derives from the way. Nagamaki: A sword with an exceptionally long handle about as long as the blade; the name refers to the length of the handle wrapping. There are bladed weapons made in the same traditional manner as Japanese swords, which are not swords, but which are still nihontō: Naginata: A polearm with a curved single-edged blade.

Naginata mounts consist of a long wooden pole, different from a nagamaki mount, shorter and wrapped. Yari: A spear, or spear-like polearm. Yari have various blade forms, from a simple double edged and flat blade, to a triangular cross section double edged blade, to those with a symmetric cross-piece or those with an asymmetric cross piece; the main blade is symmetric and straight unlike a naginata, smaller but can be as large or bigger than some naginata blades. Tantō: A knife or dagger with a blade shorter than 30 cm. One-edged, but some were double-edged, though asymmetrical. Ken: Usually a tanto or wakizashi length religious or ceremonial blade, with a gentle leaf shape and point, but some may be larger and can refer to old pre-curve types of swords as above. Symmetrical and double edged. Other edged weapons or tools that are made using the same methods as Japanese swords: Arrowheads for war, yajiri. Kogatana: An accessory or utility knife, sometimes found mounted in a pocket on the side of the scabbard of a sword.

A typical blade is about 10 cm long and 1 cm wide, is made using the same techniques as the larger sword blades. Referred to as a "Kozuka", which means'small handle', but this terminology can refer to the handle and the blade together. In entertainment media, the kogatana is sometimes shown as a throwing weapon, but its real purpose was the same as a'pocket knife' in the West; the production of swords in Japan is divided into time periods: Jōkotō Kotō Shintō Shinshintō Gendaitō Shinsakutō In modern times the most known type of Japanese sword is the Shinogi-Zukuri katana, a single-edged and curved longsword traditionally worn