North Sea

The North Sea is a marginal sea of the Atlantic Ocean located between Great Britain, Norway, the Netherlands and France. An epeiric sea on the European continental shelf, it connects to the ocean through the English Channel in the south and the Norwegian Sea in the north, it is more than 970 kilometres long and 580 kilometres wide, with an area of 570,000 square kilometres. The North Sea has long been the site of important European shipping lanes as well as a major fishery; the coast is a popular destination for recreation and tourism in bordering countries, more the sea has developed into a rich source of energy resources, including fossil fuels and early efforts in wave power. The North Sea has featured prominently in geopolitical and military affairs in Northern Europe, it was important globally through the power northern Europeans projected worldwide during much of the Middle Ages and into the modern era. The North Sea was the centre of the Vikings' rise. Subsequently, the Hanseatic League, the Netherlands, the British each sought to dominate the North Sea and thus access to the world's markets and resources.

As Germany's only outlet to the ocean, the North Sea continued to be strategically important through both World Wars. The coast of the North Sea presents a diversity of geographical features. In the north, deep fjords and sheer cliffs mark the Norwegian and Scottish coastlines, whereas in the south, the coast consists of sandy beaches and wide mudflats. Due to the dense population, heavy industrialization, intense use of the sea and area surrounding it, there have been various environmental issues affecting the sea's ecosystems. Adverse environmental issues – including overfishing and agricultural runoff and dumping, among others – have led to a number of efforts to prevent degradation of the sea while still making use of its economic potential; the North Sea is bounded by the Orkney Islands and east coast of Great Britain to the west and the northern and central European mainland to the east and south, including Norway, Germany, the Netherlands and France. In the southwest, beyond the Straits of Dover, the North Sea becomes the English Channel connecting to the Atlantic Ocean.

In the east, it connects to the Baltic Sea via the Skagerrak and Kattegat, narrow straits that separate Denmark from Norway and Sweden respectively. In the north it is bordered by the Shetland Islands, connects with the Norwegian Sea, which lies in the north-eastern part of the Atlantic; the North Sea is more than 970 kilometres long and 580 kilometres wide, with an area of 570,000 square kilometres and a volume of 54,000 cubic kilometres. Around the edges of the North Sea are sizeable islands and archipelagos, including Shetland and the Frisian Islands; the North Sea receives freshwater from a number of European continental watersheds, as well as the British Isles. A large part of the European drainage basin empties into the North Sea, including water from the Baltic Sea; the largest and most important rivers flowing into the North Sea are the Rhine -- Meuse. Around 185 million people live in the catchment area of the rivers discharging into the North Sea encompassing some industrialized areas.

For the most part, the sea lies on the European continental shelf with a mean depth of 90 metres. The only exception is the Norwegian trench, which extends parallel to the Norwegian shoreline from Oslo to an area north of Bergen, it has a maximum depth of 725 metres. The Dogger Bank, a vast moraine, or accumulation of unconsolidated glacial debris, rises to a mere 15 to 30 m below the surface; this feature has produced the finest fishing location of the North Sea. The Long Forties and the Broad Fourteens are large areas with uniform depth in fathoms; these great banks and others make the North Sea hazardous to navigate, alleviated by the implementation of satellite navigation systems. The Devil's Hole lies 200 miles east of Scotland; the feature is a series of asymmetrical trenches between 20 and 30 kilometres long and two kilometres wide and up to 230 metres deep. Other areas which are less deep are Fisher Bank and Noordhinder Bank; the International Hydrographic Organization defines the limits of the North Sea as follows: On the Southwest.

A line joining the Walde Lighthouse and Leathercoat Point. On the Northwest. From Dunnet Head in Scotland to Tor Ness in the Island of Hoy, thence through this island to the Kame of Hoy on to Breck Ness on Mainland through this island to Costa Head and to Inga Ness in Westray through Westray, to Bow Head, across to Mull Head and on to Seal Skerry and thence to Horse Island. On the North. From the North point of the Mainland of the Shetland Islands, across to Graveland Ness in the Island of Yell, through Yell to Gloup Ness and across to Spoo Ness in Unst island, through Unst to Herma Ness, on to the SW point of the Rumblings and to Muckle Flugga all these being included in the North Sea area.

Soyuz 33

Soyuz 33 was a 1979 Soviet crewed space flight to the Salyut 6 space station. It was the ninth mission to the orbiting facility, but an engine failure forced the mission to be aborted, the crew had to return to Earth before docking with the station, it was the first failure of a Soyuz engine during orbital operations. The two-man crew, commander Nikolai Rukavishnikov and Bulgarian cosmonaut Georgi Ivanov, suffered a steep ballistic re-entry, but were safely recovered; the original intention of the mission had been to visit the orbiting crew for about a week and leave a fresh vehicle for the station crew to return to Earth in. The mission failure meant that the orbiting Salyut 6 crew lacked a reliable return vehicle as their Soyuz had the same suspect engine as Soyuz 33. A subsequent crewed flight was canceled and a vacant craft with a redesigned engine was sent for the crew to use. Mass: 6,860 kg Perigee: 198.6 km Apogee: 279.2 km Inclination: 51.63° Period: 88.99 minutes After a two-day delay caused by a windstorm at the launch site, Soyuz 33 was launched 10 April 1979 with the fourth international crew in the Soviet Intercosmos program.

Bulgarian cosmonaut Georgi Ivanov joined commander Nikolai Rukavishnikov as the craft proceeded towards the Salyut 6 space station. Rukavishnikov was the first civilian to command a Soviet spacecraft, Ivanov the first Bulgarian in space. At 9 km distance from the station, the Igla automatic docking system was activated. But, as the craft approached to 1,000 metres, the engine failed and automatically shut down after three seconds of a planned six-second burn. Rukavishnikov had to hold the instrument panel. After consulting with ground control, the docking system was activated again, but the engine shut down again, Valery Ryumin, observing from the station, reported an abnormal lateral glow from behind the Soyuz during the burn. Mission control accordingly told the crew to prepare to return to Earth, it was the first in-orbit failure of the Soyuz propulsion system. The failure was determined to be a malfunction of the main engine. A pressure sensor in the combustion chamber was shutting down the engine when it seemed normal combustion pressure was not being reached.

This shut-down mechanism was designed to prevent propellants from being pumped into a damaged engine thus risking damage or an explosion. The crew requested another attempt at an engine were denied and told to sleep. A recovery attempt could not be made for another day. Rukavishnikov could not sleep and thought about the novel Marooned, which featured an American space crew stranded in orbit, it was only in 1983. The craft had a backup engine but it was feared that it may have been damaged by the main engine leaving the crew stranded with five days of supplies while it would take ten days for the orbit to decay. One option to return the crew if the backup engine was inoperable would have been to use attitude control thrusters to slow the Soyuz below orbit velocity, but it was not known if there was enough propellant to do this, the landing point would have been unpredictable if it had worked. Another option was to move the station to the Soyuz; the station could have been moved to within 1,000 m of the craft, at which point Soyuz 33 could be docked using its thrusters, but the two craft were drifting apart at 28 meters per second, time was needed to calculate the maneuvers.

In any event, four crew on the station with one malfunctioning Soyuz and a second Soyuz with a now-questionable engine was not considered the best option. The main option was to fire the backup engine, but this option was not guaranteed to work if the engine fired; the nominal burn time was 188 seconds, as long as the burn lasted more than 90 seconds, the crew could manually restart the engine to compensate. But this would mean an inaccurate landing. If the burn was less than 90 seconds, the crew could be stranded in orbit. A burn longer than 188 seconds could result in excessive G-loads on the crew during reentry. In the end, the backup engine did fire, though for 213 seconds, 25 seconds too long, resulting in the craft taking an unusually steep trajectory and the crew having to endure an acceleration of 10 gs. Rukavishnikov and Ivanov were safely recovered, it was the second ballistic entry reported by Soyuz 1 being the first. The high G-loads during reentry were a design flaw in the autopilot.

This unwise decision resulted in a ballistic reentry. This would have caused the Soyuz to land uprange of the planned landing point, but the low delta-V resulted in the opposite effect and instead, the capsule touched down close to the target area. An investigation lasted a month and found that the part that failed had been tested 8,000 times without failing, the Soyuz engine had fired some 2,000 times since 1967 without a single failure, but the engine was modified for the next flight, a vacant Soyuz with the newly modified engine, Soyuz 34, was sent to the orbiting Salyut for the crew there to return with. Soyuz 33 chronology at

Francis Cellini

Francesco Cellini was a member of the Vincentian Order of priests connected to mission work serving the mid-western section of the United States. Cellini sailed from Livorno, Italy on July 2, 1818 to Gibraltar where on the 24th, he took another ship to Philadelphia, his journey from Europe to the U. S. took a reported “sixty-five days” with sixty of those days on open water without sight of land. Upon arrival at Philadelphia, passengers were placed into quarantine, he wrote to Italy on October 8 informing Rome of his arrival. Proof of the letter exists in the archives at the Montecitorio in Rome. At that time, the Montecitorio was the seat of, papal court. Cellini was born in the province of Ascoli Piceno, Marche Region, Italy around 1781. By 1818 he was the chaplain of the Hospital Santo Sprito in Rome in the Rione neighborhood near Vatican City; that same year he was accorded the habit of the Vincentian Order and through the command of Bishop Louis Dubourg of St. Louis, seeking priests to fulfill missionary work in the United States and two other priests, Filippo Borgna and Antonio Potini, traveled to the Midwestern section of the U.

S. The clergymen settled at St. Mary of the Barrens in Perryville, Missouri in 1819. In the early 1800s the parish church and its surrounding community was in a primitive state; the young community lacked basic shelter and so Cellini and others, including Du Bourg, “labored like hired work ” in the sun. After a period of time in Missouri, Cellini was appointed “Procurator and General Factotum” of the parish church, he was charged with handling financial matters along with general clerical duties. In this period, Cellini was serving a community of “seventy French people”, a fact found in a letter written by Joseph Rosati who would serve as first bishop of the Diocese of Saint Louis. Cellini received his education in Italian was his native language; however once assigned to the Midwestern region of the U. S. he had to communicate with parishioners in their native tongues -- English. “The zealous father preached every Sunday in French or English, but never could, in these alien tongues, acquire that perfect mastery…he possessed in the Italian.

Besides he was subject to a slight stammer in his speech, scarcely noticeable except when the right word failed him.”In published accounts of the era the reverend listed as Francis, under the English variant of his given name or he is seen listed as Francois, the French variant. From Missouri, Cellini went on to serve as Pastor of Sacred Heart in Grand Coteau, Louisiana where he worked from 1822-1824, he is documented as having been a part of St. Charles Borromeo Catholic Church in Grand Coteau. There is historical debate on why he left Grand Coteau when his work was needed there and he not only ministered spiritual needs but his medical abilities were extensive, owing to the fact he’d been “a surgeon in the Italian army” so his skills were commanded. Cellini’s combination of clergyman-doctor was unique and was a bonus to the Catholic Church in the Midwest. “…herever the good Father found himself he found body miseries and ills that called forth his sympathy and healing power.”Fueling debate as to why he left Louisiana, information in the St. Louis Catholic Historical Review of January–April 1922 noted Cellini took it upon himself to accept a donation in the name of the parish inter-vivos from Mary Smith of Opelousas, Louisiana while she was ill.

The large donation was to be used for a preparatory seminary and Smith had a history of providing donations to the church at Opelousas. It was Cellini’s personal acceptance of the donation consisting of slaves, personal effects and real estate holdings that troubled church hierarchy. Smith asked Cellini to “annul the donation” so to avoid trouble over the “appearance of the transaction”. Tensions involving Cellini reached a climax to the point there were “threats on his life”. Cellini’s superiors made a decision at that point to suspend him as well as to remove him from his post. Over this, Cellini became angry and met with Rosati to appeal for a “demission of vows” and a return to Rome. In the summer of 1825, Cellini did return to Rome and from there filed a complaint stating, “…Bishop Du Bourg had deprived him of the office of a Parish Priest…in the diocese of Bardstown.” Due to a lack of historical documentation, there is a gap on the whereabouts of Cellini during the mid-1820s. The gap is due to the fact he remained in Italy under the supervision of Antonio Baccari, Vicar General of the Congregation of the Mission in Rome, without much contact with United States prelates.

However, his time overseas was short. Cellini was back in the United States by 1827 as member of the diocesan clergy of St. Louis, Missouri. Rosati in St. Louis, assigned him to the Parishes of Prairie du Rocher and Kaskaskia where he remained until 1830. Following his departure from Illinois, Cellini was appointed pastor of St. Michael the Archangel Parish in Fredericktown, Missouri. Cellini either purchased the land for the sanctuary through his own funds or made the purchase on behalf of the curia. Per Rosati's report to the Leopoldine Society of Europe on March 10, 1830 he notes, “As the Catholic population was increasing, Cellini in 1829 started the work of building a church on his land in Fredericktown”, it is estimated the new church was completed by 1831. At this time, Smith of Opelousas