SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Northern Mannerism

Northern Mannerism is the form of Mannerism found in the visual arts north of the Alps in the 16th and early 17th centuries. Styles derived from Italian Mannerism were found in the Netherlands and elsewhere from around the mid-century Mannerist ornament in architecture; the three main centres of the style were in France in the period 1530–50, in Prague from 1576, in the Netherlands from the 1580s—the first two phases much led by royal patronage. In the last 15 years of the century, the style, by becoming outdated in Italy, was widespread across northern Europe, spread in large part through prints. In painting, it tended to recede in the new century, under the new influence of Caravaggio and the early Baroque, but in architecture and the decorative arts, its influence was more sustained; the sophisticated art of Italian Mannerism begins during the High Renaissance of the 1520s as a development of, a reaction against, an attempt to excel, the serenely balanced triumphs of that style. As art historian Henri Zerner explains: "The concept of Mannerism—so important to modern criticism and notably to the renewed taste for Fontainebleau art—designates a style in opposition to the classicism of the Italian Renaissance embodied above all by Andrea del Sarto in Florence and Raphael in Rome".

The High Renaissance was a purely Italian phenomenon, Italian Mannerism required both artists and an audience trained in the preceding Renaissance styles, whose conventions were flouted in a knowing fashion. In Northern Europe, such artists, such an audience, could hardly be found; the prevailing style remained Gothic, different syntheses of this and Italian styles were made in the first decades of the 16th century by more internationally aware artists such as Albrecht Dürer, Hans Burgkmair and others in Germany, the misleadingly named school of Antwerp Mannerism, in fact unrelated to, preceding, Italian Mannerism. Romanism was more influenced by Italian art of the High Renaissance, aspects of Mannerism, many of its leading exponents had travelled to Italy. Netherlandish painting had been the most advanced in northern Europe since before 1400, the best Netherlandish artists were better able than those of other regions to keep up with Italian developments, though lagging at a distance. For each succeeding generations of artists, the problem became more acute, as much Northern work continued to assimilate aspects of Renaissance style, while the most advanced Italian art had spiralled into an atmosphere of self-conscious sophistication and complexity that must have seemed a world apart to Northern patrons and artists, but enjoyed a reputation and prestige that could not be ignored.

France received a direct injection of Italian style in the form of the first School of Fontainebleau, where from 1530 several Florentine artists of quality were hired to decorate the royal Palace of Fontainebleau, with some French assistants being taken on. The most notable imports were Rosso Fiorentino, Francesco Primaticcio, Niccolò dell'Abbate, all of whom remained in France until their deaths; this conjunction succeeded in generating a native French style with strong Mannerist elements, able to develop on its own. Jean Cousin the Elder, for example, produced paintings, such as Eva Prima Pandora and Charity, with their sinuous, elongated nudes, drew palpably upon the artistic principles of the Fontainebleau school. Cousin's son Jean the Younger, most of whose works have not survived, Antoine Caron both followed in this tradition, producing an agitated version of the Mannerist aesthetic in the context of the French Wars of Religion; the iconography of figurative works was mythological, with a strong emphasis on Diana, goddess of the hunting, the original function of Fontainebleau, namesake of Diane de Poitiers and muse of Henry II, keen huntress herself.

Her slim, long-legged and athletic figure "became fixed in the erotic imaginary". Other parts of Northern Europe did not have the advantage of such intense contact with Italian artists, but the Mannerist style made its presence felt through prints and illustrated books, the purchases of Italian works by rulers and others, artists' travels to Italy, the example of individual Italian artists working in the North. Much of the most important work at Fontainebleau was in the form of stucco reliefs executed by French artists to drawings by the Italians, the Fontainebleau style affected French sculpture more than French painting; the huge stucco frames which dominate their inset paintings with bold high-relief strapwork, swags of fruit, generous staffage of naked nymph-like figures, were influential on the vocabulary of Mannerist ornament all over Europe, spread by ornament books and prints by Androuet du Cerceau and others—Rosso seems to have been the originator of the style. A number of areas in the decorative arts joined in the style where there were customers from the court.

High-style walnut furniture made in metropolitan centers like Paris and Dijon, employed strapwork framing and sculptural supports in dressoirs and buffets. The mysterious and sophisticated Saint-Porchaire ware, of which only about sixty pieces survive, brought a similar aesthetic into pottery, much of it carries royal cyphers; this was followed by the "rustic" pottery of Bernard Palissy, with vessels covered in elaborately modelled relief animals and plants. Painted Limoges enamel adopted the style with enthusiasm

Longitudinal Video Recording

Longitudinal Video Recording or LVR was a consumer VCR system and videotape standard. LVR differed from other VCR technologies in that instead of running a tape past a pair of moving recording heads and laying the tracks obliquely across the tape in a helical scan, the LVR ran a tape past a stationary recording head which would step across the tape width and lay down a series of parallel tracks along the tape's length; the head used fixed scanning but moved down the tape to the next track once the end of the moving tape had been reached. Work had begun on longitudinal video recording as early as 1950 by the electronics division of entertainer Bing Crosby's production company, Bing Crosby Enterprises, who had pioneered the use of magnetic tape recording for his radio show in the 1940s. BCE gave the world's first demonstration of a videotape recording in Los Angeles on November 11, 1951. Developed by John T. Mullin and Wayne R. Johnson since 1950, the device gave what were described as "blurred and indistinct" images, using a modified Ampex 200 tape recorder and standard quarter-inch audio tape moving at 360 inches per second.

A year an improved version, using one-inch magnetic tape, was shown to the press, who expressed amazement at the quality of the images, although they had a "persistent grainy quality that looked like a worn motion picture". Overall, the picture quality was still considered inferior to the best kinescope recordings on film. Bing Crosby Enterprises hoped to have a commercial version available in 1954. BCE demonstrated a color model in February 1955, using a longitudinal recording on half-inch tape similar to what RCA had demonstrated in 1953. CBS, RCA's competitor, was about to order BCE machines when Ampex introduced the superior Quadruplex system. From it became clear that'rotating-head' helical scan recorders were the way forward with superior sound and picture quality; however the expense of rotating-head machines meant that work continued on developing a consumer stationary-head machine for some time with efforts from Akai, GEC and the BBC. The BBC abandoned their VERA system in 1958 in favor of the Ampex quadruplex system, though further research continued with the BBC Research department demonstrating an experimental digital LVR machine in June 1974 which recorded colour television on 42 tracks on a one-inch tape moving at 120 ips.

The first home VCRs to become available were the Sony U-Matic system in 1971 and Philips VCR system, released in 1972. However, the first system to be successful with consumers was Sony's Betamax in 1975; this was followed by the competing VHS format from JVC, by Video 2000 from Philips. BASF had announced a commercial LVR as early as 1974, however it wasn't demonstrated until Autumn 1978 at the Berlin Radio Show. Toshiba first demonstrated their prototype LVR at the Consumer Electronics Show in Chicago in June 1979. Although using the same principle, the tapes developed by BASF and Toshiba were incompatible, with BASF moving a length of tape back and forth over the head, whilst Toshiba used a continuous loop. One of the advantages touted for the system was the low production cost of both the tapes and the hardware but consumers never had the chance to try it. Problems with the poor picture quality caused by a brief interruption to the picture as the head moved down led to delays in production.

In addition, the uncertainty as European rival Blaupunkt began developing their own system and the quality issues let VHS and Betamax become the dominant formats and the LVR never went to market. Vision Electronic Recording Apparatus Eric D. Daniel. Denis Mee. Magnetic recording:the first 100 years. Wiley-Blackwell. ISBN 978-0-7803-4709-0

3 point player

3 point player is a disability sport classification for wheelchair basketball. People in this class have good forward and backward trunk movement but poor to no sideways trunk movement; the class amputations. Amputees are put into this class if they have hip disarticulations or hip abductions. Players in this class can rebound balls that are over their heads, but they can have some issues with balance during lateral rebounds. Classification into this classes has four phases, they are a medical assessment, observation during training, observation during competition and assessment. Observation during training may include a game of one on one. Once put into this class, it is difficult to be classified out of it. Players in this class include Sarah Stewart and Katie Hill; this classification is for wheelchair basketball. Classification for the sport is done by the International Wheelchair Basketball Federation. Classification is important in wheelchair basketball because when players point totals are added together, they cannot exceed fourteen points per team on the court at any time.

Jane Buckley, writing for the Sporting Wheelies, describes the wheelchair basketball players in this classification as players having: "May have some limb movement more control of their trunk. They are quite limited in their sideways movement." The Australian Paralympic Committee defines this classification as: "Players with good trunk movement in the forward direction to the floor and up again without arm support. They have good trunk rotation but no controlled sideways movement." The International Wheelchair Basketball Federation defines a 3 point player as "Good trunk movement in the forward direction to the floor and up again without arm support. Has good trunk rotation but no controlled sideways movement." The Cardiff Celts, a wheelchair basketball team in Wales, explain this classification as, "excellent stability of the trunk in a forwards and backwards direction. Typical Class 3 Disabilities include: L2-L4 paraplegia, with control of hip flexion and adduction movements, but without control of hip extension or abduction.

Post-polio paralysis with minimal control of lower extremity movements. Hip disarticulation or above-knee amputees with short residual limbs." A player can be classified as a 3.5 point player if they display characteristics of a 3 point player and 4 point player, it is not easy to determine which of these two classes the player fits in. For example, Australian Shelley Chaplin is classified as 3.5 point player. 3 point players can grab, with both hands, rebounds over their head by moving their trunk forward. They have issues with balance when trying to laterally rebound the ball unless it is a one handed catch to the side of their chair. While navigating their chair on the court, they can move it forcefully without upsetting their balance. There is a significant difference in special endurance between 2 point players, 3 and 4 point players, with 2 point players having less special endurance. People with amputations may compete in this class. People with amputations may compete in this class; this includes A3 and A9 ISOD classified players.

Because of the potential for balance issues related to having an amputation, during weight training, amputees are encouraged to use a spotter when lifting more than 15 pounds. ISOD classified A1 players may be found in this class; this ISOD class is for people. There is a lot of variation though; those with hip articulations are classified as 3 point players, while those with longer leg stumps in this class are 3.5 point players. Lower limb amputations effect a person's energy cost for being mobile. To keep their oxygen consumption rate similar to people without lower limb amputations, they need to walk slower. A1 basketball players use around 120% more oxygen to walk or run the same distance as some one without a lower limb amputation. ISOD classified A3 tend to be classified a 4 point players or 4.5 point players, though they could be classified as 3.5 point players. The cut off point between the three classes is based on the location of the amputations. People with amputations longer than 2/3rds the length of their thigh are 4.5 point players.

Those with shorter amputations are 4 point players. A3 players use around 41% more oxygen to walk or run the same distance as some one without a lower limb amputation. Players in this class can have issues with controlling their sideways movements; because of the potential for balance issues related to having an amputation, during weight training, amputees are encouraged to use a spotter when lifting more than 15 pounds. ISOD classified A9 players may be found in this class; the class they play in will be specific to the location of their lengths. Players with hip disarticulation in both legs are 3.0 point players while players with two longer above the knee amputations are 3.5 point players. Players with one hip disarticulation may be 4 point players. People with amputations longer than 2/3rds the length of their thigh when wearing a prosthesis are 4.5 point players. Those with shorter amputations are 4 point players. At this point, the classification system for people in this class considers the nature of the hand amputation by subtracting points to assign a person to a class.

A wrist disarticulation moves a player down a point class while a pair of hand amputations moves a player down two point classes, with players with upper limb amputations ending up as low as a 1. Point player; the classification was created by the Int