Northern Rhodesia was a protectorate in south central Africa, formed in 1911 by amalgamating the two earlier protectorates of Barotziland-North-Western Rhodesia and North-Eastern Rhodesia. It was administered, as were the two earlier protectorates, by the British South Africa Company, a chartered company, on behalf of the British Government. From 1924, it was administered by the British Government as a protectorate, under similar conditions to other British-administered protectorates, the special provisions required when it was administered by BSAC were terminated. Although under the BSAC charter, it had features of a charter colony, the BSAC's treaties with local rulers, British legislation, gave it the status of a protectorate; the territory attracted a small number of European settlers, but from the time they first secured political representation, they agitated for white minority rule, either as a separate entity or associated with Southern Rhodesia and Nyasaland. The mineral wealth of Northern Rhodesia made full amalgamation attractive to Southern Rhodesian politicians, but the British Government preferred a looser association to include Nyasaland.
This was intended to protect Africans in Northern Rhodesia and Nyasaland from discriminatory Southern Rhodesian laws. The Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland formed in 1953 was intensely unpopular among the vast African majority and its formation hastened calls for majority rule; as a result of this pressure, the country became independent in 1964 as Zambia. The geographical, as opposed to political, term "Rhodesia" referred to a region comprising the areas that are today Zambia and Zimbabwe. From 1964, it only referred to the former Southern Rhodesia; the name "Rhodesia" was derived from Cecil John Rhodes, the British capitalist and empire-builder, a guiding figure in British expansion north of the Limpopo River into south-central Africa. Rhodes pushed British influence into the region by obtaining mineral rights from local chiefs under questionable treaties. After making a vast fortune in mining in South Africa, it was his ambition to extend the British Empire north, all the way to Cairo if possible, although this was far beyond the resources of any commercial company to achieve.
Rhodes' main focus was south of the Zambezi, in Mashonaland and the coastal areas to its east, when the expected wealth of Mashonaland did not materialise, there was little money left for significant development in the area north of the Zambezi, which he wanted to be held as cheaply as possible. Although Rhodes sent European settlers into the territory that became Southern Rhodesia, he limited his involvement north of the Zambezi to encouraging and financing British expeditions to bring it into the British sphere of influence. British missionaries had established themselves in Nyasaland, in 1890 the British government's Colonial Office sent Harry Johnston to this area, where he proclaimed a protectorate named the British Central Africa Protectorate; the charter of BSAC contained only vague limits on the northern extent of the company's sphere of activities, Rhodes sent emissaries Joseph Thomson and Alfred Sharpe to make treaties with chiefs in the area west of Nyasaland. Rhodes considered Barotseland as a suitable area for British South Africa Company operations and as a gateway to the copper deposits of Katanga.
Lewanika, king of the Lozi people of Barotseland sought European protection because of internal unrest and the threat of Ndebele raids. With the help of François Coillard of the Paris Evangelical Missionary Society, he drafted a petition seeking a British protectorate in 1889, but the Colonial Office took no immediate action on it. However, Rhodes sent Frank Elliott Lochner to Barotseland to obtain a concession and offered to pay the expenses of a protectorate there. Lochner told Lewanika that BSAC represented the British government, on 27 June 1890, Lewanika consented to an exclusive mineral concession; this gave the company mining rights over the whole area in which Lewanika was paramount ruler in exchange for an annual subsidy and the promise of British protection, a promise that Lochner had no authority to give. However, the BSAC advised the Foreign Office; as a result, Barotseland was claimed to be within the British sphere of influence under the Anglo-Portuguese Treaty of 1891, although its boundary with Angola was not fixed until 1905.
In 1889, although Britain recognised the rights of the International Association of the Congo to large sections of the Congo basin, which formed the Congo Free State under the personal rule of King Leopold II of Belgium, it did not accept its effective occupation of Katanga, known to have copper and was thought might have gold. Rhodes prompted by Harry Johnston, wanted a mineral concession for the BSAC in Katanga, he sent Alfred Sharpe to obtain a treaty from its ruler, Msiri which would grant the concession and create a British protectorate over his kingdom. King Leopold II of Belgium was interested in Katanga and Rhodes suffered one of his few setbacks when in April 1891 a Belgian expedition led by Paul Le Marinel obtained Msiri's agreement to Congo Free State personnel entering his territory, which they did in force in 1892; this treaty produced the anomaly of the Congo Pedicle. The two stages in acquiring territory in Africa after the Congress of Berlin were, firstly, to enter into treaties with local rulers and, secondly, to make bi-lateral treaties with other European powers.
By one series of agreements made between 1890 and 1910, Lewanika granted concessions covering a poorly defined area of Barotziland-North-Western Rhodesia, a second series covering a disputed part of North-Eastern Rhodesia was negotiated by
Mike Hernandez is a political activist in the Los Angeles Latino community who organized students to participate in the Chicano Moratorium, helped register over 25,000 new Latino voters in one year and was the Founding Chair of Plaza de La Raza Head Start Inc. where he helped develop 17 Head Start Enters. Elected in 1991 in a special election to complete the unfinished term of previous Councilmember Gloria Molina who had moved on to the Los Angeles County Board of Supervisors, Hernandez became only the fourth Latino elected to the Los Angeles City Council since the election of Edward Roybal in 1948. While in office Hernandez, much to the chagrin of his council colleagues reminded his constituents and the Latino community at-large that his district was the result of a landmark court case mandating that a Latino district be created because of the gerrymandering that had occurred in previous decades. While drawing much of his early electoral support from voters of the Northeast Los Angeles communities that made up much of his district, Hernandez represented some of the poorest areas of the city including MacArthur Park and Pico Union.
Regardless, Hernandez understood that each of the neighborhoods he represented were young immigrant communities, all but forgotten by civic leaders. With limited social infrastructure and no access to city resources Hernandez, a trained organizer, began to unite community leaders and together during his decade-long tenure between 1991 and 2001, either spearheaded or laid the groundwork for much of the transformations that have since occurred in what was once his district. Shortly after his election, Hernandez began to build the argument, as if one needed to be made, that his district was people rich and resource poor. In order to do this, Hernandez turned to the most recent census data and created a series of maps he deemed “the Zones of Need” that he released in the Fall of 1992; this data acted as a launching point for much of the legislation Hernandez was to champion during his early years as a council member and gave weight to the argument that his district was being short-changed causing one writer to note about Hernandez: Indeed, early in his tenure Hernandez was challenged by the impending arrival of what was referred to as the Pasadena Blue Line.
Officials at the Los Angeles County Transportation Commission had intended the line to traverse the Northeast Los Angeles communities of Highland Park, Cypress Park and Lincoln Heights at speeds upwards of 60 miles per hour. Moreover, plans for the line included the construction of an 18-foot ‘sound wall’, an above grade separation at North Figueroa Street and Marmion Way and limited stations along the line. An angry Hernandez who noted that the five freeway off-ramps in his district were designed for commuters trying to pass through his communities rather than for the people who lived in them, publicly denounced the Blue Line Plans as more of the same. More however, as the council representative for the area, Hernandez understood his land-use discretion and that if the light rail was to traverse his district the residents of the impacted neighborhoods were going to have a voice in its development. After years of back-and-forth negotiation between the now Gold-Line authority, Northeast Los Angeles residents, construction plans were adopted that eliminated the 18-foot sound wall that Hernandez and residents argued only served to separate neighborhoods and act as a potential graffiti wall for area taggers.
Shortly after taking office, Hernandez threatened to file suit against the Los Angeles County Transportation Commission who, during the 5-month hiatus of any representation between the time Gloria Molina moved to the County Board of Supervisors and Hernandez was elected to replace her, constructed a maintenance facility at a nearby rail yard without producing an Environmental Impact Report. As part of the settlement, LACTC agreed to fund a series of community workshops for local residents. In one of the most ambitious undertakings in his young administration which would lead to a wholesale change of the Northeast Los Angeles community of Cypress Park where he grew up, Hernandez put a call out to his community to attend critical planning meetings, an announcement, picked up and published thus in the Los Angeles Times on November 12, 1992:The workshops were funded by the Los Angeles County Transportation Commission who were forced to do so under threat of a lawsuit by the City of Los Angeles which Hernandez initiated.
Beyond the changes that the report would bring to the community key was the manner in which each of the meetings was conducted. Long considered a disinterested community by other political leaders who had little connection to the Latino and mono-lingual Spanish speaking community and his staff ensured meetings were well attended and that they be conducted in both English and Spanish. Large cafeteria length tables were laid out and maps of the entire 250 acres of land were depicted. Residents were advised about zoning restrictions but were encouraged to envision what the dilapidated railroad yard could one day look like
Johann Christian Bach was a German composer of the Classical era, the eighteenth child of Johann Sebastian Bach, the youngest of his eleven sons. After a spell in Italy, Bach moved to London in 1762, where he became known as "the London Bach", he is sometimes known as "the English Bach", during his time spent living in the British capital, he came to be known as John Bach. He is noted for playing a role in influencing the concerto styles of Mozart. Johann Christian Bach was born to Anna Magdalena Bach in Leipzig, Germany, his distinguished father was 50 at the time of his birth—an age gap exemplified by the sharp differences in the musical styles of father and son. So, father Bach instructed Johann Christian in music until his death in 1750. After his father's death, he worked with his second-oldest half brother Carl Philipp Emanuel Bach, twenty-one years his senior and considered at the time to be the most musically gifted of Bach's sons, he enjoyed a promising career, first as a composer as a performer playing alongside Carl Friedrich Abel, the notable player of the viola da gamba.
He composed cantatas, chamber music and orchestral works and symphonies. Bach lived in Italy for many years starting in 1750, he became organist at the Milan cathedral in 1760. During his time in Italy, he converted from Lutheranism to Catholicism and devoted much time to the composition of church music, including music for a Requiem Mass and a Te Deum, his first major work was a Mass, which received an excellent performance and acclaim in 1757. In 1762, Bach travelled to London to première three operas at the King's Theatre, including Orione on 19 February 1763; that established his reputation in England, he became music master to Queen Charlotte. In 1766, Bach met soprano Cecilia Grassi, eleven years his junior, married her shortly thereafter, they had no children. J. C. Bach performed symphonies and concertos at the Hanover Square Rooms on the corner of Hanover Square and Hanover Street; this was London’s premier concert venue in the heart of fashionable Mayfair. The surrounding Georgian homes offered well-to-do clientele for his performances.
One of London’s primary literary circles consisting of Jane Timbury, Robert Gunnell Esq. Lord Beauchamp and Her Grace the Duchess of Buccleuch, to note a few, were acquainted with Bach and were regular attendees at his events. By the late 1770s, both his popularity and finances were in decline. By the time of Bach's death on New Year's Day 1782, he had become so indebted, that Queen Charlotte stepped in to cover the expenses of the estate and provided a life pension for Bach's widow, he was buried in the graveyard of London. A full account of J. C. Bach's career is given in the fourth volume of Charles Burney's History of Music. There are two others named Johann Christian Bach in the Bach family tree, but neither was a composer. In 1764 Bach met with Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, aged eight at the time and had been brought to London by his father. Bach spent five months teaching Mozart in composition. Bach is regarded as having a strong influence on the young Mozart, with scholars such as Teodor Wyzewa and Georges Saint-Foix describing him as "The only, true teacher of Mozart".
Mozart arranged three sonatas from Bach's Op. 5 into keyboard concertos, in life Mozart "Often acknowledged the artistic debt he owed" to Johann Christian. The works of JC Bach are given'W' numbers, from Ernest Warburton's Thematic catalog of his works. Bach's compositions include eleven operas, as well as chamber music, orchestral music and compositions for keyboard music. Notes Sources Hans T. David, A. Mendel, C. Wolff; the New Bach Reader: A Life of Johann Sebastian Bach in Letters and Documents. Heinz Gärtner. John Christian Bach: Mozart's Friend and Mentor.. Philipp Spitta. Johann Sebastian Bach, his work and influence on the music of Germany, 1685–1750, 3 vols.: Vol I, Vol II, Vol III Charles Sanford Terry. John Christian Bach. Christoph Wolff et al; the New Grove Bach Family. Pp. 315ff. ISBN 0-393-30088-9. Percy M. Young; the Bachs: 1500–1850. Information Johann Christian Bach at the Encyclopædia Britannica J C Bach J C Bach J C Bach Article: "Gainsborough and Music" by Brian RobinsMusic Free scores by Johann Christian Bach at the International Music Score Library Project Piano sonatas Op. 17, 1–6 on YouTube Concerto in D major, Op. 13, No.
2, 1st movement on YouTube Quartet in B-flat major on YouTube Flute sonatas, W. B 10–15, 1780 edition