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Northumberland Hussars

The Northumberland Hussars is a British Territorial Army Squadron equipped with FV107 Scimitar and FV103 Spartan armoured reconnaissance vehicles. The squadron is part of a Formation Reconnaissance Regiment. The'Hussars' are based in Newcastle upon Tyne. On mobilisation, the'Hussars' would reinforce one of the regular formation reconnaissance regiments; some personnel from the squadron were attached to regular Royal Armoured Corps units for Operations Telic and Herrick. In 1794, King George III was on the throne, William Pitt the Younger was Prime Minister of Great Britain and, across the Channel, Britain was faced by a French nation that had guillotined its King and possessed a revolutionary army numbering half a million men; the Prime Minister proposed that the Counties form a force of Volunteer Yeoman Cavalry that could be called upon by the King to defend the country against invasion or by the Lord Lieutenant to subdue any civil disorder within the country. However, it was not until 1819.

Shortly afterward, in 1831, the regiment was used against its own countrymen, putting down the miners' strikes of that year. In 1849 an Army Riding School was established in Northumberland Road for the use of the regiment. In 1876, the regiment was renamed the Northumberland Yeomanry Cavalry; the Yeomanry was not intended to serve overseas, but due to the string of defeats during Black Week in December 1899, the British government realized they were going to need more troops than just the regular army. A Royal Warrant was issued on 24 December 1899 to allow volunteer forces to serve in the Second Boer War; the Royal Warrant asked standing Yeomanry regiments to provide service companies of 115 men each for the Imperial Yeomanry. The regiment provided: 14th Company, 5th Battalion in 1900 15th Company, 5th Battalion in 1900 55th Company, 14th Battalion in 1900, transferred to 5th Battalion in 1902 100th Company, 5th Battalion in 1901 101st Company, 5th Battalion in 1901 110th Company, 2nd Battalion in 1901 In accordance with the Territorial and Reserve Forces Act 1907 which brought the Territorial Force into being, the TF was intended to be a home defence force for service during wartime and members could not be compelled to serve outside the country.

However, on the outbreak of war on 4 August 1914, many members volunteered for Imperial Service. Therefore, TF units were split in September 1914 into 1st Line and 2nd Line units. A 3rd Line was formed to act as a reserve, providing trained replacements for the 1st and 2nd Line regiments; the 1st Line regiment was mobilised in August 1914, at the Army Riding School in Newcastle upon Tyne, attached to the Yorkshire Mounted Brigade. In September, it joined the 7th Infantry Division at Lyndhurst. On 6 October it landed at Zeebrugge with the division. In April 1915, the regiment was split up Regimental Headquarters and A Squadron remained with the 7th Division B Squadron joined the 1st Infantry Division C Squadron joined the 8th Infantry DivisionThis lasted until May 1916, when the squadrons were reunited in France to act as the Cavalry unit for XIII Corps; the regiment would move between Corps, being attached to the VIII Corps in August 1917, III Corps in November 1917 and XII Corps in October 1918 where it remained until the end of the war.

The 2nd Line regiment was formed in October 1914. In April 1916, the regiment was split up: Regimental Headquarters and B Squadron joined the 62nd Division A Squadron operated as an independent unit based in Scarborough C Squadron joined the 59th DivisionIn February 1917, the regiment reassembled and, on 19 March 1917, it moved to France, where it joined the XIX Corps a few days later, it was the only 2nd Line Yeomanry regiment to be posted overseas on active service in the First World War. On 28 August 1917, the regiment moved to Étaples for infantry training; the 3rd Line regiment was formed at Gosforth Park in February 1915 and move to Stocksfield-on-Tyne. In the summer, it was affiliated to the 5th Reserve Cavalry Regiment at York. In January 1917, it was absorbed into the 5th Reserve Cavalry Regiment at Tidworth. Four Northumberland Hussars, who died in the First World War and have no known grave, are commemorated on panel 5 of the Menin Gate. A Fifth, Shoeing Smith G. Stephenson, was added to Panel 60.

Post war, a commission was set up to consider the shape of the Territorial Force. The experience of the First World War made; the commission decided. Eight regiments were converted to Armoured Car Companies of the Royal Tank Corps, one was reduced to a battery in another regiment, one was absorbed into a local infantry battalion, one became a signals regiment and two were disbanded; the remaining 25 regiments were converted to brigades of the Royal Field Artillery between 1920 and 1922. As the 14th most senior regiment in the order of precedence, the regiment was retained as horsed cavalry. In February 1940, the regiment transferred to the Royal Artillery as the 102nd Light Anti-Aircraft and Anti-Tank Regiment, RA.

Cyclic model

A cyclic model is any of several cosmological models in which the universe follows infinite, or indefinite, self-sustaining cycles. For example, the oscillating universe theory considered by Albert Einstein in 1930 theorized a universe following an eternal series of oscillations, each beginning with a Big Bang and ending with a Big Crunch. In the 1920s, theoretical physicists, most notably Albert Einstein, considered the possibility of a cyclic model for the universe as an alternative to the model of an expanding universe. However, work by Richard C. Tolman in 1934 showed that these early attempts failed because of the cyclic problem: according to the Second Law of Thermodynamics, entropy can only increase; this implies that successive cycles grow larger. Extrapolating back in time, cycles before the present one become shorter and smaller culminating again in a Big Bang and thus not replacing it; this puzzling situation remained for many decades until the early 21st century when the discovered dark energy component provided new hope for a consistent cyclic cosmology.

In 2011, a five-year survey of 200,000 galaxies and spanning 7 billion years of cosmic time confirmed that "dark energy is driving our universe apart at accelerating speeds."One new cyclic model is brane cosmology model of the creation of the universe, derived from the earlier ekpyrotic model. It was proposed in 2001 by Paul Steinhardt of Princeton University and Neil Turok of Cambridge University; the theory describes a universe exploding into existence not just once, but over time. The theory could explain why a repulsive form of energy known as the cosmological constant, accelerating the expansion of the universe, is several orders of magnitude smaller than predicted by the standard Big Bang model. A different cyclic model relying on the notion of phantom energy was proposed in 2007 by Lauris Baum and Paul Frampton of the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. Other cyclic models include Conformal cyclic cosmology and Loop quantum cosmology. In this cyclic model, two parallel orbifold planes or M-branes collide periodically in a higher-dimensional space.

The visible four-dimensional universe lies on one of these branes. The collisions correspond to a reversal from contraction to expansion, or a Big Crunch followed by a Big Bang; the matter and radiation we see today were generated during the most recent collision in a pattern dictated by quantum fluctuations created before the branes. After billions of years the universe reached the state. Dark energy corresponds to a force between the branes, serves the crucial role of solving the monopole and flatness problems. Moreover, the cycles can continue indefinitely into the past and the future, the solution is an attractor, so it can provide a complete history of the universe; as Richard C. Tolman showed, the earlier cyclic model failed because the universe would undergo inevitable thermodynamic heat death. However, the newer cyclic model evades this by having a net expansion each cycle, preventing entropy from building up. However, there remain major open issues in the model. Foremost among them is that colliding branes are not understood by string theorists, nobody knows if the scale invariant spectrum will be destroyed by the big crunch.

Moreover, as with cosmic inflation, while the general character of the forces required to create the vacuum fluctuations is known, there is no candidate from particle physics. This more recent cyclic model of 2007 assumes an exotic form of dark energy called phantom energy, which possesses negative kinetic energy and would cause the universe to end in a Big Rip; this condition is achieved if the universe is dominated by dark energy with a cosmological equation of state parameter w satisfying the condition w ≡ p ρ < − 1, for energy density ρ and pressure p. By contrast, Steinhardt–Turok assume w ≥ − 1. In the Baum–Frampton model, a septillionth of a second before the would-be Big Rip, a turnaround occurs and only one causal patch is retained as our universe; the generic patch contains no lepton or force carrier. The adiabatic process of contraction of this much smaller universe takes place with constant vanishing entropy and with no matter including no black holes which disintegrated before turnaround.

The idea that the universe "comes back empty" is a central new idea of this cyclic model, avoids many difficulties confronting matter in a contracting phase such as excessive structure formation and expansion of black holes, as well as going through phase transitions such as those of QCD and electroweak symmetry restoration. Any of these would tend to produce an unwanted premature bounce to avoid violation of the second law of thermodynamics; the condition of w < −1 may be logically inevitable in a infinitely cyclic cosmology because of the entropy problem. Many technical back up calculations are necessary to confirm consistency of the approach. Although the model borrows ideas from string theory, it is not committed to strings, or to higher

Love Hurts Tour

The Love Hurts Tour was the third solo concert tour by American singer-actress Cher. The tour supported Love Hurts and the soundtrack, Mermaids; the tour reached North America. It followed the previous sold-out Heart of Stone Tour. Encouraged by the reception of the album Love Hurts, the European smash single "The Shoop Shoop Song", after the performance of "Could've Been You" at Top of the Pops – considered as a tour preview, Cher performed six shows as a tour preview at the Sands Atlantic City in Atlantic City, New Jersey. After the promotion of the album on various American TV shows. Although Cher toured Europe extensively, she performed a limited tour in the United States; the tour was set to commence in March 1992, this was postponed until April 1992 due to illness. During an interview, Cher apologized to spectators stating, "I am disappointed that we had to postpone these shows and I apologize to all my fans who bought tickets."In comparison with her previous tour, the show was less elaborate, but more controversial for the clothes and the religious symbols used.

At the center of the stage there was a big dry tree with branches that extended to the two sides of the stage. There were brick-like columns and on top of each there was a religious symbol: a serpent pierced, a stylized fish that the first Christians drew in the catacombs, a cross, the symbol of peace, the heart of the Ex-voto. Above, hanging on the right, there was a black angel, with big golden wings. Since the tour was rock centric, many of her popular songs were not performed. Several covers performed including: "Many Rivers To Cross", "Fire", "Love is a Battlefield" and her recent number one hit in the UK "The Shoop Shoop Song", from the film Mermaids. Fashion designer Bob Mackie created nine unique ensembles for the Love Hurts Tour, repeating the same Leather/Dominatrix style of the Geffen-era. On this, Cher used some clothes used in previous tours or for public appearances; the first, is for the performance of "We All Sleep Alone" and "I Found Someone" where Cher wore clothes with holes and paillettes and the black curly wig.

For the first song she added a black leather jacket. This dress was used in "The Black Rose Show" and in the "I Found Someone" music video. During the performance of "After All" Cher wore an Ice Queen fur coat with sequined designs and pointed hat; this was used in the Heart of Stone Tour. The last one was similar to the dress she wore when she attended the Academy Awards and won her award for Best Actress in 1988; this was used for the performance of "Many Rivers to Cross" and was a dark and transparent dress. All the other dresses were used only for this tour. For the first part of the show, Cher wore a suit; the jacket was always open to show a top in lace with transparent sleeves. Cher had a red curly wig and wore many pearl necklaces. After the second change, Cher wore a lace baby-doll dress, with the black smooth wig or the black curly wig and performed "Love and Understanding" and "Save Up All Your Tears". During the country portion of the show, she wore a bondage corset, black boots, black trousers.

She used the black curly wig, sometimes a straw hat. For "Love Is a Battlefield" she wore a dress with a Roman Soldiers look and she used a long black wig. After that Cher performed her hit song "If I Could Turn Back Time" and wore a leather bondage outfit with a curly black wig. For the encore, Cher wore the same white baby-doll dress with wavy wig. During the European and North American shows the costumes remained the same, except for the night of Halloween in New York, where Cher for the first songs wore a witch dress with a twisted bodice and a black transparent skirt. For the performance she wore a white and black wig; the same wig was used for the "If I Could Turn Back Time" performance. Source: In the beginning of the show, a screen projected her life: from her family, to her television and film career. After that, the screen went up, she descended from a platform and began to sing "I Still Haven't Found What I'm Looking For". From here she moves into "Bye Bye Baby", "We All Sleep Alone", "I Found Someone", "Love and Understanding" and "Save up All Your Tears".

When the song ended, the screen showed some scenes of her most famous films. She once again descended from the platform and did "After All". After a fast change she performed "Many Rivers To Cross". After an instrumental song, began the country part of the show, she sang "Fire" and "Just like Jesse James". She did "Love Is a Battlefield" and "If I Could Turn Back Time". After those songs she had the first encore and performed "Love Hurts" and "The Shoop Shoop Song" and ended with the second encore performing "The Fire Down Below"; the second encore was only done on a few dates. The setlist didn't change during the tour, but sometimes Cher replaced some of the songs with covers, or her old songs. In Sands Hotel & Casino in Atlantic CityNew Jersey, shows the customs had changes were less skimpy clothes than was being used on tour; the opening songs Cher used a basic model, “Love and Understanding” had changed wig, “The Shoop Shoop Song” was dates in which she used the smooth wig and the wig Video Clip “Save Up All Your Tears”.

She used clothes 80's show in Las Vegas to new song. Thomas Brill Monique Spartalis Split & Sonja Kimmons The Fingertips Cancellations and rescheduled shows Producti

John Bonnycastle

John Bonnycastle was an English teacher of mathematics and author. John Bonnycastle was born in Buckinghamshire, in about 1750. Nothing is known of his family or early life, he became a tutor to the two sons of the Earl of Pontefract at Easton in Northumberland. Between 1782 and 1785, he was appointed Professor of Mathematics at the Royal Military Academy, where he remained until his death on 15 May 1821, he was a prolific writer, wrote for the early volumes of Rees's Cyclopædia, about algebra and astronomy. At the age of 19, he married a Miss Rolt. On Oct.7th, 1786 he married Brigette Newell with whom he had six children Charlotte, Mary, Sir Richard and Charles. His son Richard Henry Bonnycastle settled in Canada, where the family became quite well known in Winnipeg and Calgary, his son, Charles Bonnycastle became Professor of Mathematics at the University of Virginia. The Scholar's guide to Arithmetic, 1780 Introduction to Algebra, 1782 Introduction to Astronomy, 1786 Euclid's'Elements' with notes, 1789 A Treatise on Plane and Spherical Geometry, 1806 A Treatise of Algebra, 1813 Whittaker, Thomas.

"Bonnycastle, John". In Stephen, Leslie. Dictionary of National Biography. 5. London: Smith, Elder & Co. Gentleman's Magazine, 1821, i, 472, 482 O'Connor, John J..

Columbia (sidewheeler 1850)

The Columbia was a steamboat built at Astoria, Oregon in 1850. Columbia was the first steamboat built in the Oregon Territory, the first to establish regular service on the lower Columbia and Willamette rivers; this vessel should not be confused with the many other craft with the same or a similar name, including in particular at least four other vessels named Columbia which ran on the Columbia river or its tributaries. Columbia was built at Oregon. One source states that the vessel was built by Gen. James James Frost. John Adair was the first collector of customs for the Oregon Territory. Adair was a lawyer with political connections, was friend and advisor to Joseph Lane, one of Oregon's first senators. Frost from Missouri, had come out to Oregon with a pioneer rifle regiment. Frost had been a sutler in this regiment, his brother was quartermaster; when the American Civil War began, returned to Missouri where he served with the rebel militia. Frost lived in Missouri after the war. Another source states that Columbia was built by Thomas Goodwin and George Hewitt for Adair and two others, whose names are given as Leonards and Green.

Columbia has been described as odd-shaped and clumsy-looking, double-ended like a ferry. The vessel was built of wood and powered by sidewheels, which were driven by engines which came from France. James Frost had journeyed to San Francisco to purchase the engines, which were shipped up to Astoria. Another source states that the chief engineer, Thomas V. Smith, went to San Francisco to purchase engines. Columbia began its first trip up the Columbia on the morning of July 3, 1850, with James Frost acting as captain. No one on board knew where the channel was, the steamer's progress was slow. To act as pilots, Frost hired two young people of the Coast Salish, fishing on the river. By the end of the first day, they had travelled fifty miles, Frost, not wanting to risk the vessel in the dark, tied up to the riverbank; the next morning, July 4, 1850, the steamer cast off again and proceeded upstream, arriving at Portland, Oregon at 3:00 p.m. After staying at Portland for about 2 hours, Columbia proceeded on to Oregon City, arriving there at 8:00 p.m. where there was a celebration of the vessel's arrival.

It had taken 26 hours to make the trip. After a second trip to Oregon City, Columbia began to run regular trips between Oregon City and Astoria, connecting with the ocean steamer coming up from San Francisco, owned by the Pacific Mail Steamship Company. Columbia was "no floating palace". Fares were $25 per person either way, with passengers to furnish their own food, which would be eaten from baskets or on blankets spread out on the deck or a table in the small cabin. Space would be allocated for sleeping at night on the deck, for which there was no additional charge. There was standing room only on the boat. Once gold strikes began in the west, fares could be paid in gold. One early passenger, John McCracken, reported that he once paid 2 ounces of gold dust for travel on the Columbia from Astoria to Portland, he had to sleep on the upper deck, the vessel was crowded, the trip took 2 days. The boat did not run at night Columbia completed with the keelboats and sailing vessels that had provided the transport on the river, by towing barges, transporting immigrants who had reached the Cascade Rapids and general steamboat work.

For six months Columbia was the only steamboat on the river, until the Lot Whitcomb was launched, on December 25, 1850. Lot Whitcomb was a vessel far superior to Columbia; the owners of Columbia dropped their fare to $15. According to one source, the backers of Lot Whitcomb refused to met this, believing that people would pay more to ride their superior steamer. Another source, states Lot Whitcomb forced the Columbia's fare down to $12; the sources disagree as to the disposition of the vessel. Corning states that by June 1856, Columbia had made over 100 runs to Portland, earned over $500,000 for her owners. Mills gives 1852 as the year in which the vessel was dismantled, as does the Lewis and Dryden Marine History. Sources agree however that the engines of Columbia were installed in the sidewheeler Fashion, built in 1853. After the engines had been removed, Columbia's hull was swept downstream and lost during a spring freshlet. Affleck, Edward L. A Century of Paddlewheelers in the Pacific Northwest, the Yukon, Alaska, Alexander Nicolls Press, Vancouver, BC 2000 ISBN 0-920034-08-X Corning, Howard McKinley, Willamette Landings—Ghost Towns of the River, Oregon Historical Society, Oregon ISBN 0-87595-042-6 Bancroft, Hubert Howe, History of Oregon, Vol. II 1848-1888, The History Company, San Francisco 1888 Hines, H. K.

An Illustrated History of the State of Oregon, Chicago: Lewis Pub. Co. 1893. Horner, John B. Oregon: Her History, Her Great Men, Her Literature, Gazette-Times Press, Corvallis 1919 Mills, Randall V. Sternwheelers up the Columbia—A Century of Steamboating in the Oregon Country, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE ISBN 0-8032-5874-7 O'Neill, recollections, January 1895, published in Wright, E. W. ed. Lewis and Dryden Marine History, at 28-29. Wright, E. W. ed. Lewis and Dryden Marine History of the Northwest and Dryden Printing Co. Portland, OR 1895 available on-line at the Washington Secretary of State Historical Section Faber, Steamer's Wake—Voyaging down the old marine highways of Puget Sound, British Columbia, the Columbia River, Enetai Press, Seattle, WA 1985 ISBN 0-9615811-0-7 Timmen, Blow for the Landing, at 228-229, Caxton Press, Caldwell, ID 1973 ISBN 0-87004-221-1

1994 Shell Rimula X season

The 1994 Shell Rimula-X Turbo Chargers season was the 10th season of the franchise in the Philippine Basketball Association. After Shell failed to advance in the semifinal round of the All-Filipino Cup, Coach Rino Salazar was replaced by former Shell mentor Joe Lipa starting the Commissioner's Cup; the Turbo Chargers won their first three games and were five wins and one loss when they lost four of their last five matches in the eliminations. In their last assignment on July 31, Seven-time best import Bobby Parks was accused of deliberately throwing games after Shell lost to San Miguel in overtime by one point, thereby eliminating Toñdena 65, who were hoping to gain a tie with the Beermen and a playoff for the last semifinals berth. Parks was replaced by Jerome Lane starting the semifinal round and Shell ended up placing fifth and last among the five-team semifinalist. In the Governor's Cup, Shell brought in Guy Taylor as their import but Taylor was unimpressive in their exhibition outing against Pepsi Mega in Subic and was sent home in favor of Carl Ray Harris, who lasted eight games with the Turbo Chargers.

Shell was the last entry into the semifinals by winning against Tondeña 65 Rhum Masters in their playoff game on October 30. Delano Demps, a former 7-Up import who led his team to a runner-up finish two years ago, came in to replaced Harris but he went back home after two games. Michael Morrison was on his third tour of duty with Shell and played five games and their fourth and last reinforcement in the Governor's Cup, Terrence Lewis, played six games as the Turbo Chargers settled for sixth place. Assistant coach: Cris Calilan, replaced by Nemie Villegas Team Manager: Vergel de Dios