John Harrison was a self-educated English carpenter and clockmaker who invented the marine chronometer, a long-sought-after device for solving the problem of calculating longitude while at sea. Harrison's solution revolutionized navigation and increased the safety of long-distance sea travel; the problem he solved was considered so important following the Scilly naval disaster of 1707 that the British Parliament offered financial rewards of up to £20,000 under the 1714 Longitude Act. In 1730, Harrison presented his first design, worked over many years on improved designs, making several advances in time-keeping technology turning to what were called sea watches. Harrison gained support from the Longitude Board in testing his designs. Toward the end of his life, he received a reward from Parliament. Harrison came 39th in the BBC's 2002 public poll of the 100 Greatest Britons. John Harrison was born in Foulby in the West Riding of Yorkshire, the first of five children in his family, his step father worked as a carpenter at the nearby Nostell Priory estate.
A house on the site of what may have been the family home bears a blue plaque. Around 1700, the Harrison family moved to the Lincolnshire village of Barrow upon Humber. Following his father's trade as a carpenter, Harrison built and repaired clocks in his spare time. Legend has it that at the age of six, while in bed with smallpox, he was given a watch to amuse himself and he spent hours listening to it and studying its moving parts, he had a fascination for music becoming choirmaster for Barrow parish church. Harrison built his first longcase clock in 1713, at the age of 20; the mechanism was made of wood. Three of Harrison's early wooden clocks have survived: the first is in the Worshipful Company of Clockmakers' collection in the Guildhall in London, since 2015 on display in the Science Museum; the second is in the Science Museum in London. The Nostell example, in the billiards room of this stately home, has a Victorian outer case, which has small glass windows on each side of the movement so that the wooden workings may be inspected.
In the early 1720s, Harrison was commissioned to make a new turret clock at Brocklesby Park, North Lincolnshire. The clock still works, like his previous clocks has a wooden movement of oak and lignum vitae. Unlike his early clocks, it incorporates some original features to improve timekeeping, for example the grasshopper escapement. Between 1725 and 1728, John and his brother James a skilled joiner, made at least three precision longcase clocks, again with the movements and longcase made of oak and lignum vitae; the grid-iron pendulum was developed during this period. These precision clocks are thought by some to have been the most accurate clocks in the world at the time. Number 1, now in a private collection, belonged to the Time Museum, USA, until the museum closed in 2000 and its collection was dispersed at auction in 2004. Number 2 is in the Leeds City Museum, it forms the core of a permanent display dedicated to John Harrison's achievements, "John Harrison: The Clockmaker Who Changed the World" and had its official opening on 23 January 2014, the first longitude-related event marking the tercentenary of the Longitude Act.
Number 3 is in the Worshipful Company of Clockmakers' collection. Harrison was a man of many skills and he used these to systematically improve the performance of the pendulum clock, he invented the gridiron pendulum, consisting of alternating brass and iron rods assembled so that the thermal expansions and contractions cancel each other out. Another example of his inventive genius was the grasshopper escapement – a control device for the step-by-step release of a clock's driving power. Developed from the anchor escapement, it was frictionless, requiring no lubrication because the pallets were made from wood; this was an important advantage at a time when lubricants and their degradation were little understood. In his earlier work on sea clocks, Harrison was continually assisted, both financially and in many other ways, by George Graham, the watchmaker and instrument maker. Harrison was introduced to Graham by the Astronomer Royal Edmond Halley, who championed Harrison and his work; this support was important to Harrison, as he was supposed to have found it difficult to communicate his ideas in a coherent manner.
Longitude fixes the location of a place on Earth east or west of a north-south line called the prime meridian. It is given as an angular measurement that ranges from 0° at the prime meridian to +180° eastward and −180° westward. Knowledge of a ship's east-west position was essential. After a long voyage, cumulative errors in dead reckoning led to shipwrecks and a great loss of life. Avoiding such disasters became vital in Harrison's lifetime, in an era when trade and navigation were increasing around the world. Many ideas were proposed for. Earlier methods attempted to compare local time with the known time at a reference place, such as Greenwich or Paris, based on a simple theory, first proposed by Gemma Frisius; the methods relied on astronomical observations that were themselves reliant on the predictable nature of the motions of different heavenly bodies. Such methods were problematic because of the difficulty in estimating the time at the reference place. Harrison set out to solve the problem directly, by producing a reliable clock that could keep the time of the reference place.
His difficulty was in producing a clock tha
Thomas Chippendale was born in Otley in the West Riding of Yorkshire, England in June 1718. He became a cabinet-maker in London, designing furniture in the mid-Georgian, English Rococo, Neoclassical styles. In 1754 he published a book of his designs, titled The Gentleman and Cabinet Maker's Director, upon which success he became renowned; the designs are regarded as reflecting the current British fashion for furniture of that period and are today reproduced globally. He was buried 16 November 1779, according to the records of St Martin-in-the-Fields, in the cemetery since built upon by the National Gallery. Chippendale furniture is valued. Chippendale was born the only child of John Chippendale and his first wife Mary, he received an elementary education at Prince Henry's Grammar School. The Chippendale family had long been in the wood working trades and so he received his basic training from his father, though it is believed that he was trained by Richard Wood in York, before he moved to London.
Wood ordered eight copies of the Director. On 19 May 1748 he married Catherine Redshaw at St George's Chapel and they had five boys and four girls. In 1749 Chippendale rented a modest house near Covent Garden. In 1752 he moved to Somerset Court, off the Strand. In 1754 Chippendale moved to 60–62 St Martin's Lane in London, where for the next 60 years the family business operated until 1813 when his son, Thomas Chippendale, was evicted for bankruptcy. In 1754 he went into partnership with James Rannie, a wealthy Scottish merchant, who put money into the business at the same time as Chippendale brought out the first edition of the Director. Rannie and his bookkeeper, Thomas Haig looked after the finances of the business, his wife, died in 1772. After James Rannie died in 1766, Thomas Haig seems to have borrowed £2,000 from Rannie's widow, which he used to become Chippendale's partner. One of Rannie's executors, Henry Ferguson, became a third partner and so the business became Chippendale, Haig and Co. Thomas Chippendale took over the business in 1776 allowing his father to retire.
He moved to what was called Lob's Fields in Kensington. Chippendale married Elizabeth Davis at Fulham Parish Church on 5 August 1777, he fathered three more children. In 1779 Chippendale moved to Hoxton where he died of tuberculosis and was buried at St Martin-in-the-Fields on 16 November 1779. There is a statue and memorial plaque dedicated to Chippendale outside The Old Grammar School Gallery in Manor Square, in his home town of Otley, near Leeds, Yorkshire. There is a full-size sculpted figure of Thomas Chippendale on the façade of the Victoria and Albert Museum, London. After working as a journeyman cabinet maker in London, in 1754, he became the first cabinet-maker to publish a book of his designs, titled The Gentleman and Cabinet Maker's Director. Three editions were published, the first in 1754, followed by a virtual reprint in 1755, a revised and enlarged edition in 1762, by which time Chippendale's illustrated designs began to show signs of Neoclassicism. Chippendale had considerable competition during his active years, most notably Mayhew.
Chippendale was much more than just a cabinet maker, he was an interior designer who advised on other aspects of decor such as soft furnishings and the colour a room should be painted. At the peak of its success the firm could act like a modern interior designer working with other specialists and undertake the supply of decorated and furnished rooms or whole houses, once the principal construction was done. Chippendale took on large-scale commissions from aristocratic clients. Twenty-six of these commissions have been identified. Here furniture by Chippendale can still be seen; the locations include: Nostell Priory, for Sir Roland Winn, Bt. Dumfries House, Scotland, for the 5th Earl of Dumfries. Chippendale collaborated in furnishing interiors designed by Robert Adam and at Brocket Hall and Melbourne House, for Lord Melbourne, with Sir William Chambers. Chippendale's Director was used by many other cabinet makers. Recognisably "Chippendale" furniture was produced in Dublin, Lisbon and Hamburg. Catherine the Great and Louis XVI both possessed copies of the Director in its French edition.
The Director shows four main styles: English with deep carving, elaborate French rococo in the style of Louis XV furniture, Chinese style with latticework and lacquer, Gothic with pointed arches and fret-worked legs. His favourite wood was mahogany; the workshop was continued by his son, Thomas Chippendale, the younger, who worked in the Neoclassical and Regency styles, "the rather slick delicacy of Adam's final
Royal Observatory, Greenwich
The Royal Observatory, Greenwich is an observatory situated on a hill in Greenwich Park, overlooking the River Thames. It played a major role in the history of astronomy and navigation, is best known for the fact that the prime meridian passes through it, thereby gave its name to Greenwich Mean Time; the ROG has the IAU observatory code of the first in the list. ROG, the National Maritime Museum, the Queen's House and Cutty Sark are collectively designated Royal Museums Greenwich; the observatory was commissioned in 1675 by King Charles II, with the foundation stone being laid on 10 August. The site was chosen by Sir Christopher Wren. At that time the king created the position of Astronomer Royal, to serve as the director of the observatory and to "apply himself with the most exact care and diligence to the rectifying of the tables of the motions of the heavens, the places of the fixed stars, so as to find out the so much desired longitude of places for the perfecting of the art of navigation."
He appointed John Flamsteed as the first Astronomer Royal. The building was completed in the summer of 1676; the building was called "Flamsteed House", in reference to its first occupant. The scientific work of the observatory was relocated elsewhere in stages in the first half of the 20th century, the Greenwich site is now maintained exclusively as a museum, although the AMAT telescope became operational for astronomical research in 2018. 1675 – 22 June, Royal Observatory founded. 1675 – 10 August, construction began. 1714 Longitude Act established the Board of Longitude rewards. The Astronomer Royal was, until the Board was dissolved in 1828, always an ex officio Commissioner of Longitude. 1767 Astronomer Royal Nevil Maskelyne began publication of the Nautical Almanac, based on observations made at the Observatory. 1818 Oversight of the Royal Observatory was transferred from the Board of Ordnance to the Board of Admiralty. 1833 Daily time signals began. 1899 The New Physical Observatory was completed.
1924 Hourly time signals from the Royal Observatory were first broadcast on 5 February. 1948 Office of the Astronomer Royal was moved to Herstmonceux. 1957 Royal Observatory completed its move to Herstmonceux. The Greenwich site is renamed the Old Royal Observatory. 1990 RGO moved to Cambridge. 1998 RGO closed. Greenwich site is returned to its original name, the Royal Observatory, is made part of the National Maritime Museum. 2011 The Greenwich museums, including the ROG, become collectively the Royal Museums Greenwich. There had been significant buildings on this land since the reign of William I. Greenwich Palace, on the site of the present-day Maritime Museum, was the birthplace of both Henry VIII and his daughters Mary I and Elizabeth I. Greenwich Castle was a favourite place for Henry VIII to house his mistresses, so that he could travel from the Palace to see them; the establishment of a Royal Observatory was proposed in 1674 by Sir Jonas Moore who, in his role as Surveyor General at the Ordnance Office, persuaded King Charles II to create the observatory, with John Flamsteed installed as its director.
The Ordnance Office was given responsibility for building the Observatory, with Moore providing the key instruments and equipment for the observatory at his own personal cost. Flamsteed House, the original part of the Observatory, was designed by Sir Christopher Wren assisted by Robert Hooke, was the first purpose-built scientific research facility in Britain, it was built for a cost of £520 out of recycled materials on the foundations of Duke Humphrey's Tower, the forerunner of Greenwich Castle, which resulted in the alignment being 13 degrees away from true North, somewhat to Flamsteed's chagrin. The original observatory at first housed the scientific instruments to be used by Flamsteed in his work on stellar tables, over time incorporated additional responsibilities such as marking the official time of day, housing Her Majesty's Nautical Almanac Office. Moore donated two clocks, built by Thomas Tompion, which were installed in the 20 foot high Octagon Room, the principal room of the building.
They were of unusual design, each with a pendulum 13 feet in length mounted above the clock face, giving a period of four seconds and an accuracy unparalleled, of seven seconds per day. British astronomers have long used the Royal Observatory as a basis for measurement. Four separate meridians have passed through the buildings, defined by successive instruments; the basis of longitude, the meridian that passes through the Airy transit circle, first used in 1851, was adopted as the world's Prime Meridian at the International Meridian Conference on 22 October 1884. Subsequently, nations across the world used it as their standard for timekeeping; the Prime Meridian was marked by a brass strip in the Observatory's courtyard once the buildings became a museum in 1960, since 16 December 1999, has been marked by a powerful green laser shining north across the London night sky. Since the first triangulation of Great Britain in the period 1783–1853, Ordnance Survey maps have been based on an earlier version of the Greenwich meridian, defined by the transit instrument of James
Sir Thomas Gargrave was a Yorkshire Knight who served as High Sheriff of Yorkshire in 1565 and 1569. His principal residence was at Nostell Priory, one of many grants of land that Gargrave secured during his lifetime, he was Speaker of the vice president of the Council of the North. Gargrave was the son of Thomas Gargrave of Wakefield, West Yorkshire, Elizabeth, daughter of William Levett of Hooton Levitt and Normanton, West Yorkshire. Through his mother's Levett family, Gargrave was related to such Yorkshire clans as the Wickersleys and their descendants, the Swyfts, the Reresbys, the Barnbys, the Wentworths, the Bosviles, the Mirfins and others, he received a legal education at either Gray's Inn or the Middle Temple, by 1521 began his career as Steward of the Household of Thomas Darcy, 1st Baron Darcy de Darcy, where Gargrave's ambition and drive were apparent. With the help of Darcy's influence, Gargrave rose being knighted in 1549 and becoming Knight of the Shire for Yorkshire in 1553, 1554 and 1555 and again in 1563, 1571 and 1572, Deputy Constable for Pontefract Castle, Steward of York Minster, Receiver of the Exchequer for Yorkshire, Master in Chancery, Recorder for Kingston upon Hull.
Gargrave's rise was meteoric, from humble steward to Knight of the Realm and one of the most powerful men in England, serving on Yorkshire business and at Court. Gargrave was elected speaker in Queen Elizabeth's first parliament in 1559 and known for his address to Parliament of 25 January 1559 in which he urged Queen Elizabeth I to take a husband and marry, he was appointed High Sheriff of Yorkshire for 1565 and 1569. In 1567 he acquired Nostell Priory from James Blunt, Lord Mountjoy, for £3560. In August 1568, Gargrave was named supervisor of the estate of William Swyfte of Rotherham, brother of Robert Swyfte, Esq. of Broom Hall, Sheffield. Sir Thomas Gargrave married Anne, daughter of William Cotton and Margaret of Oxon Hoath, Kent, by whom he had his only child, Sir Cotton Gargrave High Sheriff of Yorkshire, he married secondly widow of Sir John Wentworth of North Elmsall, West Yorkshire. In Old Halls and Families of Derbyshire, author Joseph Tilley sums up the Gargrave legacy as follows: "The Gargraves were a knightly house, who came in for extensive grants of Abbey lands in Yorkshire, but who, within a century afterwards, sank into obscurity.
The grandfather of the purchaser of One Ash was Speaker of Queen Elizabeth's first Parliament and President of the Council of the North. He was a favourite of her minister Burghley; this was the gentleman who conducted poor Mary of Scots from Bolton to Tutbury."The story of the Gargraves became an oft-cited tale of the rise – and fall – of ambition. Of the Gargraves, it is said, the poet Byron was moved to write: "'Twere long to tell, sad to trace, Each step from splendour to disgrace." The bulk of the Gargrave properties passed to Thomas Gargrave, eldest son of Sir Cotton Gargrave, who left them to his only daughter, who broke with the family's Royalist sympathies by marrying Dr. Richard Berry, physician to Oliver Cromwell. "Berry," according to one early history, "contrived to make himself master of their fortune, the whole family sunk into obscurity."No less an authority than Sir Bernard Burke, in his Vicissitudes of Families, was moved by the Gargraves' precipitous fall. "The story of the Gargraves is a melancholy chapter in real life," wrote Burke in the nineteenth century.
"For full two centuries or more, scarcely a family in Yorkshire enjoyed a higher position." Subsequently, Sir Thomas Gargrave's oldest son was hanged at York for murder. Sir Richard was found dead in a London flophouse. "Not many years since," Burke wrote, "a Mr. Gargrave, believed to be one of them, filled the mean employment of parish clerk at Kippax."Sir Thomas Gargrave is interred in the south choir of St Michael and Our Lady Church, within the grounds of Nostell Priory. A monument on his tomb states: "Here lyeth Sir Thomas Gargrave, who dyed the 28 of March, 1579, who served sundry times in the wars and as counsellor at Yorke xxxv yeare, he maryed Anne Cotton of widow of Sir John Wentworth of Elmesall. He had yssue only by Anne Cotton, tow sonnes and John, which John dyed att his byrth." On Gargrave's tomb are incised the family's coat-of-arms: "On the plate, lozengy ar. and sa. on a bend sa. 3 crescents of the first." Sir Thomas Gargrave, Illustrations of British History and Manners, Edmund Lodge, 1838 Sir Thomas Gargrave, Old Halls and Families of Derbyshire, Joseph Tilley Sir Thomas Gargrave, History of Wakefield, 1886 Vicissitudes of Families, Bernard Burke The Pedigree of the Family of Gargrave as Given by Sir Cotton Gargrave, Levett Hanson, Miscellanea Genealogica Et Heraldica, Joseph Jackson Howard, 1868 Biography of Thomas Gargrave, Chapters in the History of Yorkshire, James Joel Cartwright, 1872 Sir Thomas Gargrave, wakefield.com
An obelisk is a tall, four-sided, narrow tapering monument which ends in a pyramid-like shape or pyramidion at the top. These were called tekhenu by their builders, the Ancient Egyptians; the Greeks who saw them used the Greek term'obeliskos' to describe them, this word passed into Latin and English. Ancient obelisks are monolithic. Most modern obelisks are made of several stones; the term stele is used for other monumental, upright and sculpted stones. Obelisks played a vital role in their religion and were prominent in the architecture of the ancient Egyptians, who placed them in pairs at the entrance of the temples; the word "obelisk" as used in English today is of Greek rather than Egyptian origin because Herodotus, the Greek traveller, was one of the first classical writers to describe the objects. A number of ancient Egyptian obelisks are known to have survived, plus the "Unfinished Obelisk" found hewn from its quarry at Aswan; these obelisks are now dispersed around the world, fewer than half of them remain in Egypt.
The earliest temple obelisk still in its original position is the 68-foot 120-metric-ton red granite Obelisk of Senusret I of the XIIth Dynasty at Al-Matariyyah in modern Heliopolis. The obelisk symbolized the sun god Ra, during the religious reformation of Akhenaten it was said to have been a petrified ray of the Aten, the sundisk, it was thought that the god existed within the structure. Benben was the mound that arose from the primordial waters Nu upon which the creator god Atum settled in the creation story of the Heliopolitan creation myth form of Ancient Egyptian religion; the Benben stone is the top stone of the Egyptian pyramid. It is related to the Obelisk, it is hypothesized by New York University Egyptologist Patricia Blackwell Gary and Astronomy senior editor Richard Talcott that the shapes of the ancient Egyptian pyramid and obelisk were derived from natural phenomena associated with the sun. The pyramid and obelisk's significance have been overlooked the astronomical phenomena connected with sunrise and sunset: the zodiacal light and sun pillars respectively.
Around 30 B. C. after Cleopatra "the last Pharaoh" committed suicide, Rome took control of Egypt. The Ancient Romans were awestruck by the obelisks, looted the complex to the extent that they destroyed walls at the Temple of Karnak to haul out obelisks. There are now more than twice as many obelisks that were seized and shipped out by Rome as remain in Egypt. A majority were dismantled during the Roman period over 1, 700 years ago and the obelisk were sent in different locations; the largest standing and tallest Egyptian obelisk is the Lateran Obelisk in the square at the west side of the Lateran Basilica in Rome at 105.6 feet tall and a weight of 455 metric tons. Not all the Egyptian obelisks in the Roman Empire were set up at Rome. Herod the Great imitated his Roman patrons and set up a red granite Egyptian obelisk in the hippodrome of his new city Caesarea in northern Judea; this one weighs about 100 metric tons. It has been re-erected at its former site. In 335 A. D. Constantine I ordered the removal of two of Karnak's obelisks.
One was sent to Constantinople, the Eastern Emperor Theodosius took the obelisk and had it set up in a hippodrome, where it has weathered Crusaders and Seljuks and stands in the Hippodrome square, now called Istanbul. This one stood 95 feet tall and weighing 380 metric tons, its lower half reputedly once stood in Istanbul but is now lost. The Istanbul obelisk is 65 feet tall; the other was transported to Rome and is the most well-known 25 metres, 331-metric-ton obelisk at Saint Peter's Square in the world. The obelisk had stood since AD 37 on its site and on the wall of the Circus of Nero, flanking St Peter's Basilica: "The elder Pliny in his Natural History refers to the obelisk's transportation from Egypt to Rome by order of the Emperor Gaius as an outstanding event; the barge that carried it had a huge mast of fir wood. One hundred and twenty bushels of lentils were needed for ballast. Having fulfilled its purpose, the gigantic vessel was no longer wanted. Therefore, filled with stones and cement, it was sunk to form the foundations of the foremost quay of the new harbour at Ostia."Re-erecting the obelisk had daunted Michelangelo, but Sixtus V was determined to erect it in front of St Peter's, of which the nave was yet to be built.
He had a full-sized wooden mock-up erected within months of his election. Domenico Fontana, the assistant of Giacomo Della Porta in the Basilica's construction, presented the Pope with a little model crane of wood and a heavy little obelisk of lead, which Sixtus himself was able to raise by turning a little winch with his finger. Fontana was given the project; the obelisk, half-buried in the debris of the ages, was first excavated. The re-erection, scheduled for 14 September, the Feast of the Exaltation of the Cross, was watched by a large crowd, it was a famous feat of engineering, which made the reputation of Fontana, who detailed it in a book illustrated with copperplate etchings, Della Trasportatione dell'Obelisco Vaticano et delle Fabriche di Nostro Sig
Lincolnshire is a county in eastern England, with a long coastline on the North Sea to the east. It borders Norfolk to the south east, Cambridgeshire to the south, Rutland to the south west and Nottinghamshire to the west, South Yorkshire to the north west, the East Riding of Yorkshire to the north, it borders Northamptonshire in the south for just 20 yards, England's shortest county boundary. The county town is the city of Lincoln; the ceremonial county of Lincolnshire is composed of the non-metropolitan county of Lincolnshire and the area covered by the unitary authorities of North Lincolnshire and North East Lincolnshire. Part of the ceremonial county is in the Yorkshire and the Humber region of England, most is in the East Midlands region; the county is the second-largest of the English ceremonial counties and one, predominantly agricultural in land use. The county is fourth-largest of the two-tier counties, as the unitary authorities of North Lincolnshire and North East Lincolnshire are not included.
The county has several geographical sub-regions, including the rolling chalk hills of the Lincolnshire Wolds. In the southeast are the Lincolnshire Fens, the Carrs, the industrial Humber Estuary and North Sea coast around Grimsby and Scunthorpe, in the southwest of the county, the Kesteven Uplands, comprising rolling limestone hills in the district of South Kesteven. During the Pre-Roman times most of Lincolnshire was inhabited by the Brythonic Corieltauvi people; the Iceni covered the area around modern day Grimsby. The language of the area at that time would have been the precursor to modern Welsh; the name Lincoln derives from the old Welsh ‘Lindo’ meaning Lake. Modern-day Lincolnshire is derived from the merging of the territory of the Brythonic Kingdom of Lindsey with that controlled by the Danelaw borough of Stamford. For some time the entire county was called "Lindsey", it is recorded as such in the 11th-century Domesday Book; the name Lindsey was applied to the northern core, around Lincoln.
This emerged as one of the three Parts of Lincolnshire, along with the Parts of Holland in the south east, the Parts of Kesteven in the south west, which each had separate Quarter Sessions as their county administrations. In 1888 when county councils were set up, Lindsey and Kesteven each received separate ones; these survived until 1974, when Holland and most of Lindsey were unified into Lincolnshire. The northern part of Lindsey, including Scunthorpe Municipal Borough and Grimsby County Borough, was incorporated into the newly formed non-metropolitan county of Humberside, along with most of the East Riding of Yorkshire. A local government reform in 1996 abolished Humberside; the land south of the Humber Estuary was allocated to the unitary authorities of North Lincolnshire and North East Lincolnshire. These two areas became part of Lincolnshire for ceremonial purposes, such as the Lord-Lieutenancy, but are not covered by the Lincolnshire police; the remaining districts of Lincolnshire are Boston, East Lindsey, North Kesteven, South Holland, South Kesteven, West Lindsey.
They are part of the East Midlands region. The area was shaken by the 27 February 2008 Lincolnshire earthquake, reaching between 4.7 and 5.3 on the Richter magnitude scale. Lincolnshire is home to Woolsthorpe Manor and home of Sir Isaac Newton, he attended Grantham. Its library has preserved his signature, carved into a window sill. Bedrock in Lincolnshire features Cretaceous chalk. For much of prehistory, Lincolnshire was under tropical seas, most fossils found in the county are marine invertebrates. Marine vertebrates have been found including ichthyosaurus and plesiosaur; the highest point in Lincolnshire is Wolds Top, at Normanby le Wold. Some parts of the Fens may be below sea level; the nearest mountains are in Derbyshire. The biggest rivers in Lincolnshire are the Trent, running northwards from Staffordshire up the western edge of the county to the Humber estuary, the Witham, which begins in Lincolnshire at South Witham and runs for 132 kilometres through the middle of the county emptying into the North Sea at The Wash.
The Humber estuary, on Lincolnshire's northern border, is fed by the River Ouse. The Wash is the mouth of the Welland, the Nene and the Great Ouse. Lincolnshire's geography is varied, but consists of several distinct areas: Lincolnshire Wolds - area of rolling hills in the north east of the county designated an Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty The Fens - dominating the south east quarter of the county The Marshes - running along the coast of the county The Lincoln Edge/Cliff - limestone escarpment running north-south along the western half of the countyLincolnshire's most well-known nature reserves include Gibraltar Point National Nature Reserve, Whisby Nature Park Local Nature Reserve, Donna Nook National Nature Reserve, RSPB Frampton Marsh and the Humberhead Peatlands National Nature Reserve. Although the Lincolnshire countryside is intensively farmed, there are many biodiverse wetland areas, as well as rare limewood forests. Much of the county was once wet. From bones, we can tell that animal species found in Lincolnshire include wooly mammoth, wooly rhinoceros, wild horse, wild boar and beaver.
Species which have returned to Lincolnshire after extirpation include little egret, Eurasian spoonbill, European otter and red kite. This is a chart
William Hogarth FRSA was an English painter, pictorial satirist, social critic, editorial cartoonist. His work ranged from realistic portraiture to comic strip-like series of pictures called "modern moral subjects" best known being his moral series A Harlot's Progress, A Rake's Progress and Marriage A-la-Mode. Knowledge of his work is so pervasive that satirical political illustrations in this style are referred to as "Hogarthian". Hogarth was born in London to a lower middle-class family. In his youth he took up an apprenticeship, his father underwent periods of mixed fortune, was at one time imprisoned in lieu of outstanding debts. Influenced by French and Italian painting and engraving, Hogarth's works are satirical caricatures, sometimes bawdily sexual of the first rank of realistic portraiture, they became popular and mass-produced via prints in his lifetime, he was by far the most significant English artist of his generation. William Hogarth was born at Bartholomew Close in London to Richard Hogarth, a poor Latin school teacher and textbook writer, Anne Gibbons.
In his youth he was apprenticed to the engraver Ellis Gamble in Leicester Fields, where he learned to engrave trade cards and similar products. Young Hogarth took a lively interest in the street life of the metropolis and the London fairs, amused himself by sketching the characters he saw. Around the same time, his father, who had opened an unsuccessful Latin-speaking coffee house at St John's Gate, was imprisoned for debt in Fleet Prison for five years. Hogarth never spoke of his father's imprisonment. Hogarth became a member of the Rose and Crown Club, with Peter Tillemans, George Vertue, Michael Dahl, other artists and connoisseurs. By April 1720, Hogarth was an engraver in his own right, at first engraving coats of arms, shop bills, designing plates for booksellers. In 1727, he was hired by Joshua Morris, a tapestry worker, to prepare a design for the Element of Earth. Morris heard that he was "an engraver, no painter", declined the work when completed. Hogarth accordingly sued him for the money in the Westminster Court, where the case was decided in his favour on 28 May 1728.
In 1757 he was appointed Serjeant Painter to the King. Early satirical works included an Emblematical Print on the South Sea Scheme, about the disastrous stock market crash of 1720 known as the South Sea Bubble, in which many English people lost a great deal of money. In the bottom left corner, he shows Protestant and Jewish figures gambling, while in the middle there is a huge machine, like a merry-go-round, which people are boarding. At the top is a goat, written below, "Who'l Ride"; the people are scattered around the picture with a sense of disorder, while the progress of the well dressed people towards the ride in the middle shows the foolishness of the crowd in buying stock in the South Sea Company, which spent more time issuing stock than anything else. Other early works include The Lottery; the latter is a satire on contemporary follies, such as the masquerades of the Swiss impresario John James Heidegger, the popular Italian opera singers, John Rich's pantomimes at Lincoln's Inn Fields, the exaggerated popularity of Lord Burlington's protégé, the architect and painter William Kent.
He continued that theme with the Large Masquerade Ticket. In 1726 Hogarth prepared twelve large engravings for Samuel Butler's Hudibras; these he himself valued and they are among his best book illustrations. In the following years he turned his attention to the production of small "conversation pieces". Among his efforts in oil between 1728 and 1732 were The Fountaine Family, The Assembly at Wanstead House, The House of Commons examining Bambridge, several pictures of the chief actors in John Gay's popular The Beggar's Opera. One of his real low-life and real-life subjects was Sarah Malcolm whom he sketched two days before her execution. One of Hogarth's masterpieces of this period is the depiction of an amateur performance by children of John Dryden's The Indian Emperor, or The Conquest of Mexico at the home of John Conduitt, master of the mint, in St George's Street, Hanover Square. Hogarth's other works in the 1730s include A Midnight Modern Conversation, Southwark Fair, The Sleeping Congregation and After, Scholars at a Lecture, The Company of Undertakers, The Distrest Poet, The Four Times of the Day, Strolling Actresses Dressing in a Barn.
He might have printed Burlington Gate, evoked by Alexander Pope's Epistle to Lord Burlington, defending Lord Chandos, therein satirized. This print gave great offence, was suppressed. However, modern authorities such as Ronald Paulson no longer attribute it to Hogarth. In 1731 Hogarth completed the earliest of his series of moral works, a body of work that led to significant recognition; the collection of six scenes was entitled A Harlot's Progress and appeared first as paintings before being published as engravings. A Harlot's Progress depicts the fate of a country girl who begins prostituting – the six scenes are chronological, starting with a meeting with a bawd and ending with a funeral ceremony that follows the character's death from venereal disease; the inau