Nottingham is a city and unitary authority area in Nottinghamshire, England. Part of the East Midlands region, it is 128 miles north of London and 45 miles northeast of Birmingham. To the west lies Derby, separated by the M1 motorway. Nottingham has links to the legend of Robin Hood and to the lace-making and tobacco industries, it was granted its city charter in 1897 as part of Queen Victoria's Diamond Jubilee celebrations. Nottingham is a tourist destination. In 2017, Nottingham had an estimated population of 329,200; the population of the city proper, compared to its regional counterparts, has been attributed to its historical and tightly-drawn city boundaries. The wider conurbation, which includes many of the city's suburbs, has a population of 768,638, it is the second-largest in the Midlands. Its Functional Urban Area the largest in the East Midlands, has a population of 919,484; the population of the Nottingham/Derby metropolitan area is estimated to be 1,610,000. Its metropolitan economy is the seventh largest in the United Kingdom with a GDP of $50.9bn.
The city was the first in the East Midlands to be ranked as a sufficiency-level world city by the Globalization and World Cities Research Network. Nottingham's public transport system won awards prior to 2015. Including the largest publicly owned bus network in England and is served by Nottingham railway station and the modern Nottingham Express Transit tram system, it is a major sporting centre, in October 2015, was named'Home of English Sport'. The National Ice Centre, Holme Pierrepont National Watersports Centre, Trent Bridge international cricket ground are all based in or around the city, the home of two professional football teams; the city has professional rugby, ice hockey and cricket teams, the Aegon Nottingham Open, an international tennis tournament on the ATP and WTA tours. This accolade came just over a year. On 11 December 2015, Nottingham was named a "City of Literature" by UNESCO, joining Dublin, Edinburgh and Prague as one of only a handful in the world; the title reflects Nottingham's literary heritage, with Lord Byron, D. H. Lawrence and Alan Sillitoe having links to the city, as well as a contemporary literary community, a publishing industry and a poetry scene.
The city is served by three universities, Nottingham Trent University, the University of Nottingham and the University of Law. The settlement may predate Anglo-Saxon times, as hinted at in a Welsh tradition of an earlier Brythonic name being Tig Guocobauc, meaning Place of Caves. In modern Welsh it is known poetically as Y Ty Ogofog and Irish as Na Tithe Uaimh "The Cavey Dwelling"; when it fell under the rule of a Saxon chieftain named Snot it became known as "Snotingaham". Some authors derive "Nottingham" from Snottenga and ham, but "this has nothing to do with the English form". Nottingham Castle was constructed in 1068 on a sandstone outcrop by the River Leen; the Anglo-Saxon settlement was confined to the area today known as the Lace Market and was surrounded by a substantial defensive ditch and rampart, which fell out of use following the Norman Conquest and was filled by the time of the Domesday Survey. Following the Norman Conquest the Saxon settlement developed into the English Borough of Nottingham and housed a Town Hall and Law Courts.
A settlement developed around the castle on the hill opposite and was the French borough supporting the Normans in the castle. The space between was built on as the town grew and the Old Market Square became the focus of Nottingham several centuries later. Defences, consisted of a ditch and bank in the early 12th century; the ditch was widened, in the mid-13th century, a stone wall built around much of the perimeter of the town. A short length of the wall survives, is visible at the northern end of Maid Marian Way, is protected as a Scheduled Monument. On the return of Richard the Lionheart from the Crusades, the castle was occupied by supporters of Prince John, including the Sheriff of Nottingham, it was besieged by Richard and, after a sharp conflict, was captured. In the legends of Robin Hood, Nottingham Castle is the scene of the final showdown between the Sheriff and the hero outlaw. By the 15th century Nottingham had established itself as a centre of a thriving export trade in religious sculpture made from Nottingham alabaster.
The town became a county corporate in 1449 giving it effective self-government, in the words of the charter, "for eternity". The Castle and Shire Hall were expressly excluded and remained as detached Parishes of Nottinghamshire. One of those impressed by Nottingham in the late 18th century was the German traveller C. P. Moritz, who wrote in 1782, "Of all the towns I have seen outside London, Nottingham is the loveliest and neatest. Everything had a modern look, a large space in the centre was hardly less handsome than a London square. A charming footpath leads over the fields to the highway. … Nottingham … with its high houses, red roofs and church steeples, looks excellent from a distance."During the Industrial Revolut
John Carl Godina is an American shot putter, whose record includes three World Championship wins and two Olympic medals. He competes in discus. Godina was born in Oklahoma. While attending Cheyenne Central High School in Cheyenne, Godina was a letterman in football and outdoor track and field, he was an All-State honoree, an All-American in both sports. At college level, competing for UCLA, he won three outdoor NCAA championship victories, two in discus and one in shot put, his 1995 NCAA Outdoor shot put title was a national record, at the time with a throw of 22.00 meters. In 1995, he won his first World Championship title in shot put, adding additional titles in 1997, 2001. In the same discipline, he finished second in third in the 2000 Olympics, he qualified to those same Olympics in the Discus, the first American to qualify in both since Bud Houser in 1924 and he finished 8th in the 2004 Olympics in the Shot Put. He retired in 2009 after suffering through injuries at the 2008 Olympic Trials.
Godina is one of the most decorated shot putters in U. S. athletics history. His legacy compares well with Parry O'Brien, who won two Olympic gold medals and one silver medal, placed fourth in the Tokyo Olympics in 1964, broke the world record 17 times. Godina was named to the Mt. SAC Relays Hall of Fame in 2010, his coach Art Venegas was named to the Hall in 2011. He was inducted into the UCLA Athletics Hall of Fame in 2005. John has a throwing academy in two in California; the other three are located in Arizona. Godina trains top international athletes like Suzy Powell and Dan Taylor. "John Godina". USA Track & Field. John Godina's U. S. Olympic Team bio "Welcome to The John Godina World Throws Center". World Throws Center. 2009. Archived from the original on March 29, 2009
Andreas Samaris is a Greek professional footballer who plays as a midfielder for Portuguese club Benfica and the Greece national team. After winning Superleague Greece with Olympiakos in 2014, he signed for Benfica in Portugal for €10 million. With them, he has won four Primeira Liga, one Taça de Portugal, two Taça da Liga and one Supertaça Cândido de Oliveira. A full international since 2013, Samaris represented Greece at the 2014 FIFA World Cup. Samaris started his career in Gamma Ethniki side Panachaiki in 2006, making a total of 37 league appearances and scored three goals for the club. On 10 April 2007, he signed his first professional contract with Panachaiki, where he was coached by future Australia national team manager Ange Postecoglou. On 11 January 2010, Samaris moved to Panionios. Samaris spent the season on loan at Panionios. In 2013, he returned to Olympiacos and scored his first goal with the club on 23 November 2013, in an away 4–1 victory against Panthrakikos. Samaris ended the league with 38 appearances and scored four goals en route to the Greeks' 41st title.
On 22 August 2014, Samaris moved abroad and joined Portuguese champions Benfica on a five-year contract for a transfer fee of €10 million and with a €45 million release clause. He made his debut for Benfica on 12 September against Vitória Sétubal. At the end of the 2014–15 season, Samaris mentioned that the Portuguese language was a barrier in his first year with the club; the Greek international stressed the importance of learning it by stating, "I liked to learn Portuguese because I became closer to my colleagues. The most important is to understand what my coach says because there was an idea of game and I had to adapt faster than the others."On 29 August 2015, in the second day of 2015–16 Primeira Liga, after an assist from Greek teammate Kostas Mitroglou, scored with a right-footed shot from outside the box to the bottom left corner, the second goal giving the lead to his club in a 3–2 win against Moreirense. It was his first goal in the Primeira Liga. On 1 April 2016, he scored his second goal in the Portuguese league, with a direct free kick, in a 5–1 home game against Braga.
On 4 March 2017, in a 1–0 away game against C. D. Feirense, Samaris reached 100 appearances with the jersey of Benfica. In that season, he played in the Taça de Portugal final, which Benfica won over Vitória de Guimarães. On 11 March 2019, Samaris scored a volley in a league match, giving his team a two-goal lead in an eventual 2–2 home draw to Belenenses, it was his first goal in the 2018–19 season in all competitions. On 14 May, he extended his contract with Benfica until 2023. Samaris is a former Greece under-19 international, he made his debut in a 2008 European Under-19 Championship qualifier against France. In October 2013, he was called up to the Greek senior side by manager Fernando Santos and made a substitute appearance in the final group qualifier against Liechtenstein coming off the bench in the two play-off matches against Romania. After a strong season with Olympiakos, Santos opted to select Samaris to his final 23-man squad for the 2014 FIFA World Cup. On 24 June 2014, in his first appearance in a final tournament of the World Cup and against the Ivory Coast, Samaris opened the scoring after capitalizing on Cheick Tioté's defensive mistake in the 42nd minute in an eventual 2–1 victory.
As of match played 24 February 2020*Includes Taça da Liga and Supertaça Cândido de Oliveira As of match played 11 June 2019 Olympiacos Superleague Greece: 2013–14Benfica Primeira Liga: 2014–15, 2015–16, 2016–17, 2018–19 Taça de Portugal: 2016–17 Taça da Liga: 2014–15, 2015–16 Supertaça Cândido de Oliveira: 2016, 2017 Benfica official profile Andreas Samaris at ESPN FC Andreas Samaris – UEFA competition record Andreas Samaris – FIFA competition record