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Noyon is a commune in the Oise department in northern France. It lies on the Oise Canal about 100 kilometers north of Paris; the Gallo-Romans founded the town as Noviomagus. As several other cities shared the name, it was distinguished by specifying the people living in and around it; the town is mentioned in the Antonine Itinerary as being 27 Roman miles from Soissons and 34 Roman miles from Amiens, but d'Anville noted that the distance must be in error, Amiens being further and Soisson closer than indicated. By the Middle Ages, the town's Latin name had mutated to Noviomum; the town was fortified. This may explain why, around the year 531, bishop Medardus moved his seat from Vermand in the Vermandois to Noyon; the bishop of Noyon was bishop of Tournai from the seventh century until Tournai was raised to a separate diocese 1146. The cathedral at Noyon was where Charlemagne was crowned as co-King of the Franks in 768, as was the first Capetian king, Hugh Capet in 987. In 859 the town was attacked by Vikings and the bishop, Immo and killed.

The town received a communal charter in 1108, confirmed by Philip Augustus in 1223. In the twelfth century, the diocese of Noyon was raised to an ecclesiastical duchy in the peerage of France; the Romanesque cathedral was destroyed by fire in 1131, but soon replaced by the present cathedral, Notre-Dame de Noyon, constructed between 1145 and 1235, one of the earliest examples of Gothic architecture in France. The bishop's library is a historic example of half-timbered construction. By the Treaty of Noyon, signed on the 13 August 1516 between Francis I of France and emperor Charles V, France abandoned its claims to the Kingdom of Naples and received the Duchy of Milan in recompense; the treaty brought the War of the League of Cambrai— one stage of the Italian Wars— to a close. During King Henry II's Italian war in 1557, most of Noyon would be burned, in the midst of Philip II of Spain's invasion of Picardy, before returning to their winter quarters in the Spanish Netherlands. Near the end of the sixteenth century the town fell under Habsburg control, but Henry IV of France recaptured it.

The Concordat of 1801 suppressed its bishopric. The town was occupied by the Germans during World War I and World War II and on both occasions suffered heavy damage. Saint Acarius, bishop of Doornik and Noyon Pope Innocent VI, Bishop of Noyon, born Étienne Aubert, Papacy. Antoine Henri de Bérault-Bercastel, priest and historian. John Calvin, pastor, founder of the Calvinist movement. Alain Danilet, born in Noyon, politician. Pierre Descaves, served during World War II, municipal councillor of Noyon from 1989 to 2001, politician. Guillaume d'Ercuis, almoner, canon of the cathedral of Noyon. Paschal de l'Estocart, born in Noyon, French Renaissance composer. Antoine Galland, archaeologist, first European translator of One Thousand and One Nights, completed schooling at Noyon. Louis-André de Grimaldi, last Peer of France as Count-Bishop of Noyon from 1777. François de Maucroix, born in Noyon, long-time friend of La Fontaine and translator. Pierre Robert Olivétan, born in Noyon, first to translate the Bible into the French language starting from the Hebrew and Greek texts.

Jacques Sarazin, born in Noyon, sculptor in the classical tradition of Baroque art. Medardus, was the Bishop of Vermandois. Godeberta, Frankish saint, resident in a small palace at Noyon, which included a chapel dedicated to Saint George. Jean de Bournonville and organist. Simon-Jérôme Bourlet de Vauxcelles, journalist during the French Revolution, curator of the bibliothèque de l'Arsenal. Noyon is twinned with: - HexhamEngland - MetzingenGermany Communes of the Oise department Monument aux morts Charlemagne INSEE commune file This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Smith, William, ed.. "article name needed". Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography. London: John Murray. Official Web site Quid: NoyonAbout the cathedral: Picardy architecture Gargoyles

Hansel and Gretel: An Opera Fantasy

Hansel and Gretel is a 1954 stop motion animated theatrical feature film released by RKO Pictures. The film is based on Engelbert Humperdinck's opera Hänsel und Gretel, incorporates music and songs from the opera, it was the first American feature-length animated film not made by Disney since 1941's Mr. Bug Goes to Town and the first American feature-length animated film not made with traditional animation, it was released on October 1954 in New York City without a distributor. Producer Michael Myerberg released the film himself. Based on the positive reviews and box office performance, RKO Radio Pictures acquired the film for wide release for the Christmas season; the film was sold to television four years after it was released, where it became a Christmas season tradition on several affiliate stations. In 1959, at the second annual Grammy Awards, conductor Franz Allers was nominated for the soundtrack in the category of "Best Recording for Children"; the film was re-released theatrically in 1965 through New Trends Associates, in March 1973 through Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer.

The title was modified to "Gretel: An Opera Fantasy" beginning with the 2001 DVD release. In 1952, Evalds Dajevskis began working for Myerberg Productions' to conceptualize the look of the film and design the miniature sets. Dajevskis built the sets out of thick paper mache, appliqued paper cutouts, painted backings; the Witch's Gingerbread House, the Hall of the Angels, Hansel and Gretel's home were all constructed with trap doors underneath. Since the sets were so large, there was no way to animate the figures except from below; the film was shot in Myerberg's Second Avenue Studios. The puppets used in the film were called "kinemans"; the bodies of the kinemins were sculpted in clay by James Summers and cast in foam latex by George Butler. Summers did the paint job and their "makeup; the puppets cost $2,500 apiece to build. The Witch was re-named Rosina Rubylips; this is different from the original opera, where the witch tells Hansel that her name is Rosine Leckermaul. The mother and father figures were sculpted to resemble Mildred Dunnock and Frank Rogier, who supplied their voices.

After production, the Hansel & Gretel sets were cut up, carted away, sold to an amusement park where they were poorly reconstructed in a tent for display. In 1955, vandals looted Myerberg's East Second Street studio and destroyed the remaining kinemins. In 1965, screenwriter Padraic Colum sold his copy of the screenplay to the Binghamton University Libraries. Within the collection, the screenplay is identified as: Box 18, Folder 10: Play Manuscript 21 and is available for research viewing. In 1971, producer Michael Myerberg placed "The Michael Myerberg Papers, 1940-1971" with University of Wisconsin–Madison Library. "Hansel and Gretel" is among the productions documented through correspondence, financial records, promotional materials and scripts. Anna Russell as Rosina Rubylips, the Witch Mildred Dunnock as Mother Frank Rogier as Father Constance Brigham as Hansel and Gretel Helen Boatwright as Dew Fairy Delbert Anderson as Sandman 1954 Parents' Magazine Medal for Movie of the Month 1959 Grammy Award nominee for "Best Recording for Children" 1995 Dove Foundation Family Approved Seal RKO promoted the film in time for the 1954 Christmas season.

There was $10 million worth of tie-ins, including candy, clothing and toys. The film has been released on VHS, CED videodisc, DVD; the VHS and CED videodiscs contain the original title. The DVD was released on October 30, 2001 with the modified title of "Hansel and Gretel: An Opera Fantasy". An LP of the film's soundtrack was released in 1955 under the label "X" RCA, in 1959 under the label RCA Victor, in 1960 under the label RCA Camden. In 1959, it was nominated for a Grammy Award in the category "Best Recording for Children". Hansel and Gretel: An Opera Fantasy on IMDb Blog with history of the film and pictures The Art of Evalds Dajevskis

Francis Ledwidge

Francis Edward Ledwidge was an Irish war poet and soldier from County Meath. Sometimes known as the "poet of the blackbirds", he was killed in action at the Battle of Passchendaele during World War I. Ledwidge was born at Janeville, Slane, in Ireland, the eighth of nine children in a poverty-stricken family, his parents, Patrick Ledwidge and wife Anne Lynch, believed in giving their children the best education they could afford. But when Francis was only five his father Patrick died prematurely, which forced his wife and the children out to work at an early age. Francis left the local national school aged thirteen, while he continued to educate himself, he worked at what work he could find, as farm hand, road mender and supervisor of roads, as copper miner and shop assistant. Appointed secretary of the Slane branch of the Meath Labour Union he had aspirations of permanent white-collar work, he was known for his connections with Sinn Féin. Built, with striking brown eyes and a sensuous face, Ledwidge was a keen poet, writing where he could – sometimes on gates or fence posts.

From the age of fourteen his works were published in his local newspaper, the Drogheda Independent reflecting his passion for the Boyne Valley. While working as a road labourer he won the patronage of the writer Lord Dunsany after writing to him in 1912, enclosing copybooks of his early work. Dunsany, a man of letters well known in Dublin and London literary and dramatic circles, whose own start in publishing had been with a few poems, promoted him in Dublin and introduced him to W. B. Yeats with whom he became acquainted. Dunsany supported Ledwidge with money and literary advice for some years, providing him with access to and a workspace in Dunsany Castle's Library where he met the Irish writer Katharine Tynan, corresponding with her regularly. Dunsany prepared his first collection of poetry Songs of the Fields, which appealed to the expectations of the Irish Literary Revival and its social taste for rural poetry. Despite Ledwidge's growing association with the aristocratic Lord Dunsany, he retained a keen interest in the conditions of working men.

He was one of the founder members in 1906 of the Slane branch of the Meath Labour Union. He familiarised himself with the writings of James Connolly finding no contradiction between Christianity and socialism. In 1913 he was temporary secretary of the union, the following year elected to the Navan district rural council and board of guardians. Ledwidge was nationalist, his efforts to found a branch of the Gaelic League in Slane were thwarted by members of the local council. The area organiser encouraged him to continue his struggle, he did manage to act as a founding member with his brother Joseph of the Slane Branch of the Irish Volunteers, a nationalist force created in response to the arming of the Ulster Volunteers who swore to resist the introduction of Home Rule for Ireland by force, if need be. The Irish Volunteers were set up to prevent their belligerence and to ensure Home Rule would come to pass. On the outbreak of World War I in August 1914, on account of Ireland's involvement in the war, the Irish Volunteers split into two factions, the National Volunteers who supported John Redmond's appeal to join Irish regiments in support of the Allied war cause and those who did not.

Francis was of the latter party. Having defended this position at a local council meeting, he enlisted in Lord Dunsany's regiment, joining 5th battalion Royal Inniskilling Fusiliers, part of the 10th Division; this was against the urgings of Dunsany who opposed his enlistment and had offered him a stipend to support him if he stayed away from the war. Some have speculated that he went to war because his sweetheart Ellie Vaughey had found a new lover, John O'Neill, whom she married, but Ledwidge himself wrote, forcefully, that he could not stand aside while others sought to defend Ireland's freedom. Ledwidge seems to have fitted into Army life well, achieved promotion to lance corporal. In 1915, he saw action at Suvla Bay in the Dardanelles. Having survived huge losses sustained by his company in the Battle of Gallipoli, he became ill after a back injury on a tough mountain journey in Serbia, a locale which inspired a number of poems. Ledwidge was dismayed by the news of the Easter Rising, was court-martialled and demoted for overstaying his home leave and being drunk in uniform.

He gained and lost stripes over a period in Derry, returned to the front, received back his lance corporal's stripe one last time in January 1917 when posted to the Western Front, joining 1st Battalion, Royal Inniskilling Fusiliers, part of 29th Division. Ledwidge continued to write when feasible throughout the war years, though he lost much work, for example, in atrocious weather in Serbia, he sent much of his output to Lord Dunsany, himself moving on war assignments, as well as to readers among family and literary contacts. On 31 July 1917, a group from Ledwidge's battalion of the Royal Inniskilling Fusiliers were road-laying in preparation for an assault during the Third Battle of Ypres, near the village of Boezinge, northwest of Ieper. While Ledwidge was drinking tea in a mud hole with his comrades, a shell exploded alongside, killing the poet and five others

Salvador Fidalgo

Salvador Fidalgo y Lopegarcía was a Spanish explorer. He commanded an exploring expedition for Spain to Alaska and the Pacific Northwest during the late 18th century. Fidalgo was born in La Seu d'Urgell in the province of Lleida, Spain, the heir of a noble Navarrese family, he entered joined the Spanish Navy as a guardiamarina at the Real Colegio de Guardiamarinas in Cádiz. He given the rank of Alférez de Fragata, he was chosen to be a member of Vicente Tofiño's team of cartographers working during the 1780s on the first atlas of Spain's ports and coastal waters. He served on various assignments in the Mediterranean and saw action against the British and Portuguese. In 1778 he was promoted to Teniente de Navío and assigned to the Spanish naval station at San Blas, Mexico; the Spanish claim to Alaska and the Pacific Northwest had dated back to a 1493 papal bull and rights contained in the 1494 Treaty of Tordesillas. The first European expedition to reach the west coast of North America was led by the Spaniard Vasco Núñez de Balboa, which achieved the Pacific coast of Panama in 1513.

Balboa claimed the Pacific Ocean for the Spanish Crown, as well as the lands touching it, including all of the west coast of North America. This action of Balboa further solidified the Spanish claim of exclusive control over the entire west coast of North America; the claims unchallenged, the Spanish Empire did not explore or settle the northwest coast of North America in the 250 years after Balboa's claim. By the late 18th century, learning of Russian Empire and British arrivals along the Pacific coast, Spain grew sufficiently concerned about their claims to the Pacific Northwest and set out to learn the extent of the Russian and British encroachment. In 1790, at the direction of Juan Vicente de Güemes Padilla Horcasitas y Aguayo, 2nd Count of Revillagigedo, the Viceroy of New Spain, Fidalgo was sent to New Spain's northernmost settlement, San Lorenzo de Nootka, just off today's Vancouver Island. In May 1790, Fidalgo sailed out of Nootka and some weeks anchored off present-day Cordova, Alaska.

The expedition found no signs of Russian presence, traded with natives in the area. On June 3, 1790, they put ashore on today's Orca Inlet, in a solemn ceremony, Fidalgo erected a large wooden cross, re-asserted Spanish sovereignty, named the area Puerto Córdova. Fidalgo continued along the Alaskan coast, reaching today's Gravina Point, where the same ceremony re-asserting Spanish sovereignty was performed. On June 15, 1790, they discovered a port, which they named Puerto Valdez, after Antonio Valdés Minister of the Spanish Navy. On July 4, 1790, the expedition made their first contact with the Russians, on the southwestern coast of the Kenai Peninsula, which Fidalgo named Puerto Revillagigedo; the expedition pressed on to the main Russian settlement of the time on Kodiak Island, in today's Three Saints Bay. Fidalgo entertained the Russians aboard his ship, on July 5, 1790, conducted another ceremony of sovereignty, near the Russian outpost of Alexandrovsk, southwest of today's Anchorage on the Kenai Peninsula.

Fidalgo led the expedition back to San Blas, arriving on November 15, 1790. In 1792 Salvador Fidalgo was assigned to establish a Spanish post at Neah Bay, on the southwestern coast of the Strait of Juan de Fuca in present-day U. S. state of Washington. He arrived from San Blas on the corvette Princesa on May 28, 1792; the post soon had cleared land for a garden, a livestock enclosure with a number of cows, sheep and goats, a stockade with a small garrison. The post was established during the Nootka Convention negotiations between Spain and Britain in the wake of the Nootka Crisis, it was uncertain. Fidalgo's work at Neah Bay was in preparation for a possible relocation of Spain's Nootka Sound post. During the autumn of 1792 a conflict occurred between the Makah, natives of Neah Bay, the Spanish. Fidalgo's second in command, Pilot Antonio Serantes, was killed and in retaliation Fidalgo ordered an attack on the Makah, inflicting many casualties. For this action Fidalgo was reprimanded by his superior officers.

The post at Neah Bay was abandoned and Fidalgo was recalled to Nootka Sound. In 1794 Salvador Fidalgo was promoted to Capitán de Fragata. In 1795 he sailed to the Philippines to deliver diplomatic documents. In 1801 he suppressed a Native American rebellion at the Tiburón Island in the Gulf of California, he died on September 27, 1803 near Mexico City. Fidalgo Island, near Puget Sound, was named in his honor

Jordan Flores

Jordan Michael Flores is an English footballer who plays as a midfielder for Dundalk in the League of Ireland Premier Division. Born in Wigan, Flores began his career at hometown team Wigan Athletic, a team he grew up supporting and was season ticket holder, along with his father, Manny, he first joined the club when he was 15 having been a Centre of Excellence player. After progressing through the U16 side, Flores was promoted to the U18 side in the summer of 2012. Flores was first included in a matchday squad for his Wigan Athletic on 12 August 2014, remaining an unused substitute as they lost 1–2 to League Two team Burton Albion at the Pirelli Stadium in the first round of the League Cup, he was first called up for a league match on 31 January 2015, again remaining unused for their goalless Championship draw away to Ipswich Town at Portman Road, was on the bench for two more games in February. He made his professional debut on 2 May on the final day of the season, with Wigan relegated to League One, replacing Tim Chow after 64 minutes of an eventual 0–3 defeat to Brentford at Griffin Park.

At the end of the 2014–15 season, Flores signed a one–year contract with the club after being offered a contract extension. On 19 September 2015, Flores made his first league start for Wigan Athletic and scored his first senior goal in a 2–1 win against Fleetwood Town at the DW Stadium. A week he was sent off in a 1–1 draw at Oldham Athletic for a retaliatory kick at Jay Fulton. Following this, Flores served a three match suspension. Although he served the three match suspension, he spent the most of the season on the substitute bench and played in the development squad, he faced with injury concerns after injuring his shoulder at the end of 2015. At the end of the 2015–16 season, Flores was named the club's Young Player of the Season and won Goal of the Season following a vote by Wigan Athletic supporters. In addition, he signed a one–year contract, keeping him until 2017. Ahead of the 2016–17 season, Flores recovered from a shoulder injury and was featured for the club's pre–season tour, he made his first appearance of the season, where he started the whole game, in a 2–1 loss against Oldham Athletic on 9 August 2016.

Flores went on to make two more league appearances for the side by January. At the end of the 2016–17 season, Flores signed a two–year contract after being offered an extension to stay at the club. In the 2017–18 season, Flores scored on his only appearance for Wigan Athletic, in a 2–1 win over Blackpool in the first round of the League Cup. On 30 January 2017, Flores signed for League Two club Blackpool on loan for the remainder of the season, he made his debut five days in a 1–1 draw with Colchester United at Bloomfield Road, playing the full 90 minutes. He scored his first goal for the Tangerines in a 4–1 victory at Carlisle United on 11 February 2017. After the match, Flores was voted Man of the Match by the club's supporters. Since joining the club, Flores established himself in the first team and made an impression for the side. Flores scored his second goal for Blackpool, in a 3–0 win over Plymouth Argyle on 7 March 2017. A month on 17 April 2017, he scored his third goal for Blackpool, in a 1–0 win over Doncaster Rovers.

He helped Blackpool earn promotion back to League One at the first attempt. At the end of the 2016–17 season, having made 21 appearances and scoring 3 times, he returned to his parent club, Wigan Athletic. On 18 August 2017, Flores was loaned to League Two club Chesterfield a season-long loan deal, he made his Chesterfield debut the next day, where he started the whole game, in a 2–0 win over Port Vale on 19 August 2017. It wasn't until on 17 October 2017 when he scored his first Chesterfield goal, in a 2–0 win over Crawley Town. However, his loan was cut short after being involved in a car accident and never played for the side again. By the time of his departure, he went on to make 15 appearances for the side. After his loan spell at Chesterfield was terminated, Flores joined Conference side AFC Fylde on loan until 4 April 2018, his only appearance came on 24 March 2018, where he started as left–back and played for 62 minutes before being substituted, in a 2–0 loss against Dagenham & Redbridge.

On 9 August 2018, Flores joined Allsvenskan side Östersunds on loan until the end of 2018. On 25 January 2019, Irish champions Dundalk announced the signing of Flores on a two-year deal. Flores was involved in a two-car head-on accident while on his way to the Proact Stadium on 23 October 2017 for training with Chesterfield, he was taken to the Chesterfield Royal Hospital NHS Foundation Trust by ambulance before being transferred to the Northern General Hospital in Sheffield. By November, he was discharged from the hospital and began rehabilitating his injuries sustained from the crash. Four months after the crash, Flores was charged with driving offence after it was found that he was driving without due care and attention, which led to a road smash, he was fined £902 after pleading guilty to driving without due care and attention. Flores attended Aspull and revealed that his mother worked for the school. Flores said, he stated that he has a Spanish heritage. Blackpool EFL League Two play-offs: 2017Dundalk League of Ireland Premier Division: 2019 League of Ireland Cup: 2019 President's Cup: 2019 Champions Cup: 2019 Jordan Flores at Soccerway

Solar panels on spacecraft

Spacecraft operating in the inner Solar System rely on the use of photovoltaic solar panels to derive electricity from sunlight. Outside the orbit of Jupiter, solar radiation is too weak to produce sufficient power within current solar technology and spacecraft mass limitations, so radioisotope thermoelectric generators are instead used as a power source; the first spacecraft to use solar panels was the Vanguard 1 satellite, launched by the US in 1958. This was because of the influence of Dr. Hans Ziegler, who can be regarded as the father of spacecraft solar power. Solar panels on spacecraft supply power for two main uses: Power to run the sensors, active heating and telemetry. Power for spacecraft propulsion – electric propulsion, sometimes called solar-electric propulsion. For both uses, a key figure of merit of the solar panels is the specific power, which indicates on a relative basis how much power one array will generate for a given launch mass relative to another. Another key metric is stowed packing efficiency, which indicates how the array will fit into a launch vehicle.

Yet another key metric is cost. To increase the specific power, typical solar panels on spacecraft use close-packed solar cell rectangles that cover nearly 100% of the Sun-visible area of the solar panels, rather than the solar wafer circles which though close-packed, cover about 90% of the Sun-visible area of typical solar panels on Earth. However, some solar panels on spacecraft have solar cells that cover only 30% of the Sun-visible area. Solar panels need to have a lot of surface area that can be pointed towards the Sun as the spacecraft moves. More exposed surface area means. Since spacecraft have to be small, this limits the amount of power. All electrical circuits generate waste heat. Heat must be radiated from their surfaces. High-power spacecraft may have solar arrays that compete with the active payload itself for thermal dissipation; the innermost panel of arrays may be "blank" to reduce the overlap of views to space. Such spacecraft include the higher-power communications satellites and Venus Express, not high-powered but closer to the Sun.

Spacecraft are built. Thus, they can always stay in the direct path of the light rays no matter how the spacecraft is pointed. Spacecraft are designed with solar panels that can always be pointed at the Sun as the rest of the body of the spacecraft moves around, much as a tank turret can be aimed independently of where the tank is going. A tracking mechanism is incorporated into the solar arrays to keep the array pointed towards the sun. Sometimes, satellite operators purposefully orient the solar panels to "off point," or out of direct alignment from the Sun; this happens if the batteries are charged and the amount of electricity needed is lower than the amount of electricity made. Space contains varying levels of electromagnetic radiation as well as ionizing radiation. Solar Energetic Particles and Galactic Cosmic Rays are the two radiation sources of interest; the Van Allen belts contain protons and electrons, while GCR contains ionized nucleons ranging from Helium to Uranium. Solar panels will experience efficiency degradation over time as a result of both kinds of radiation.

With borosilicate glass panel coverings, this may be between 5-10% efficiency loss per year. Other glass coverings, such as fused silica and lead glasses, may reduce this efficiency loss to less than 1% per year; the degradation rate is a function of the total ionizing dose. Gallium arsenide-based solar cells are favored over crystalline silicon in industry because they have a higher efficiency and degrade more than silicon in the radiation present in space; the most efficient solar cells in production are multi-junction photovoltaic cells. These use a combination of several layers of gallium arsenide, indium gallium phosphide, germanium to capture more energy from the solar spectrum. Leading edge multi-junction cells are capable of exceeding 38.8% under non-concentrated AM1.5G illumination and 46% using concentrated AM1.5G illumination. To date, solar power, other than for propulsion, has been practical for spacecraft operating no farther from the Sun than the orbit of Jupiter. For example, Magellan, Mars Global Surveyor, Mars Observer used solar power as does the Earth-orbiting, Hubble Space Telescope.

The Rosetta space probe, launched 2 March 2004, used its 64 square metres of solar panels as far as the orbit of Jupiter. Solar power for propulsion was used on the European lunar mission SMART-1 with a Hall effect thruster; the Juno mission, launched in 2011, is the first mission to Jupiter to use solar panels instead of the traditional RTGs that are used by previous outer Solar System missions, making it the furthest spacecraft to use solar panels to date. It has 72 square metres of panels. Another spacecraft of interest is Dawn which went into orbit around 4 Vesta in 2011, it used ion thrusters to get to Ceres. The potential for solar powered spacecraft beyond Jupiter has been studied; the International Space Station uses solar arrays to power everything on the station. The 262,400 solar cells cover around 27,000 squa