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Nurhaci

Nurhaci was a Jurchen chieftain who rose to prominence in the late 16th century in Manchuria. Nurhaci was part of the Aisin Gioro clan, reigned as the founding Khan of Later Jin from 1616 to 1626. Nurhaci reorganised and united various Jurchen tribes, consolidated the Eight Banners military system, launched attacks on Ming dynasty of China and Joseon dynasty of Korea, his conquest of Ming dynasty's northeastern Liaodong province laid the groundwork for the conquest of the rest of China by his descendants, who founded the Qing dynasty in 1636. He is generally credited with ordering the creation of a new written script for the Manchu language based on the Mongolian vertical script. Nurhaci is written as ᠨᡠᡵᡤᠠᠴᡳ in Manchu language; some suggests that the meaning of the name in the Manchu language is "the skin of a wild boar". Regarded as the founding father of the Qing dynasty, he is given the customary temple name of Taizu, traditionally assigned to founders of dynasties, his name is alternatively spelled Nurgaci, Nurhachi, or Nu-er-ha-chi.

Nurhaci was the last chieftain of the Jianzhou Jurchens and First Khan of the Later Jin dynasty. His title in Manchu as Khan was ᡤᡝᡵᡝᠨᡤᡠᡵᡠᠨ ᠪᡝᡠᠵᡳᡵᡝᡤᡝᠩᡤᡳᠶᡝᠨᡥᠠᠨ Geren Gurun-be Ujire Genggiyen Han, his regnal name was Tianming, in Mongolian Тэнгэрийн сүлдэт Tengri-yin Süldetü. It means "The Emperor of Heaven's Mandate." He was given a posthumous name in 1736, the shortened form of, "Emperor Gao" Nurhaci was born on 8 April 1559. Being a member of the Gioro clan of the Suksuhu River tribe, Nurhaci claimed descent from Mentemu, a Jurchen headman who lived some two centuries earlier; the young man grew up as a soldier in the household of the Ming dynasty general Li Chengliang in Fushun, where he learned a Chinese dialect Quonha, the official dialect of the courts. Nurhaci read the Chinese novels Romance of the Three Kingdoms and Water Margin learning all he knew about Chinese military and political strategies from them, he named his clan Aisin Gioro around 1612, when he formally ascended the throne as the Khan of the Later Jin dynasty.

In 1582, Nurhaci's father Taksi and grandfather Giocangga were killed in an attack on Gure by a rival Jurchen chieftain, Nikan Wailan while being led by Li Chengliang. The following year, Nurhaci began to unify the Jurchen bands around his area. In 1584, when Nurhaci was 25, he attacked Nikan Wailan at Turun to avenge the deaths of his father and grandfather, who are said to have left him nothing but thirteen suits of armor. Nikan Wailan fled away to Erhun, which Nurhaci attacked again in 1587. Nikan Wailan this time fled to Li Chengliang's territory; as a way to build relationship, Li gave Nikan Wailan to Nurhaci, who beheaded Nikan Wailan immediately. With Li's support, Nurhaci grew his strength in the following years. In 1593, the Yehe called upon a coalition of nine tribes: the Hada, Hoifa, Khorchin Mongols, Guwalca, Jušeri and the Yehe themselves to attack the Jianzhou Jurchens; the coalition was defeated at the Battle of Gure and Nurhaci emerged victorious. From 1599 to 1618, Nurhaci set out on a campaign against the four Hulun tribes.

He began by attacking the Hada in 1599 and conquering them in 1603. In 1607, Hoifa was conquered with the death of its beile Baindari, followed by an expedition against Ula and its beile Bujantai in 1613, the Yehe and its beile Gintaisi at the Battle of Sarhu in 1619. In 1599, Nurhaci gave two of his translators, Erdeni Baksi and Dahai Jargūci, the task of creating a Manchu alphabet by adapting the Mongolian script. In 1606, he was granted the title of Kundulun Khan by the Mongols. In 1616, Nurhaci declared himself Khan and founded the Jin dynasty called the Later Jin in reference to the legacy of the earlier Jurchen Jin dynasty of the 12th century, he constructed a palace at Mukden. The "Later Jin" was renamed to "Qing" by his son Hong Taiji after his death in 1626, however Nurhaci is referred to as the founder of the Qing dynasty. In order to help with the newly organized administration, five of his trusted companions were appointed as his chief councilors, Anfiyanggū, Eidu, Hūrhan and Hohori.

Only after he became Khan did he unify the Ula and the Yehe, the clan of his consort Monggo Jerjer. Nurhaci chose to variously emphasize either differences or similarities in lifestyles with other peoples like the Mongols for political reasons. Nurhaci said to the Mongols that "The languages of the Chinese and Koreans are different, but their clothing and way of life is the same, it is the same with us Mongols. Our languages are different, but our clothing and way of life is the same." Nurhaci indicated that the bond with the Mongols was not based in any real shared culture, rather it was for pragmatic reasons of "mutual opportunism", when he said to the Mongols: "You Mongols raise livestock, eat meat and wear pelts. My people live on grain. We two are not one country and we have different languages."When the Jurchens were reorganized by Nurhaci into the Eight Banners, many Manchu clans were artificially created as a g

The Last Supper (1976 film)

The Last Supper a 1976 Cuban historical film directed by Tomás Gutiérrez Alea, produced by the Instituto Cubano del Arte y la Industria Cinematográficos and starring Nelson Villagra as the Count. The film tells the story of a pious Havana plantation owner in the 1790s, during Cuba's Spanish colonial period; the plantation owner decides to recreate the Biblical Last Supper using twelve of the slaves working in his sugarcane fields, hoping to thus teach the slaves about Christianity. In a misguided attempt to enlighten his African-originating slaves, a Count invites twelve of them to a dinner on Maundy Thursday in a re-enactment of the Last Supper with himself as Christ. Whilst they eat and drink, he feeds them religious rhetoric and attempts to instruct them in the workings of Christianity, he commits to freeing one of the slaves. However, when these promises are not held up the next day, the slaves rebel; the slaves are hunted down and killed by their master, except one who escapes. List of Cuban films List of films featuring slavery African Film Festival of Cordoba-FCAT Last Supper, The on IMDb

Light in August

Light in August is a 1932 novel by the Southern author William Faulkner. It belongs to modernist literary genres. Set in the author's present day, the interwar period, the novel centers on two strangers who arrive at different times in Jefferson, Yoknapatawpha County, Mississippi, a fictional county based on Faulkner's home, Lafayette County, Mississippi; the plot first focuses on Lena Grove, a young pregnant white woman from Alabama looking for the father of her unborn child, shifts to explore the life of Joe Christmas, a man who has settled in Jefferson and passes as white, but who secretly believes he has some black ancestry. After a series of flashbacks narrating Christmas's early life, the plot resumes with his living and working with Lucas Burch, the father of Lena's child, who fled to Jefferson and changed his name when he found out that Lena was pregnant; the woman on whose property Christmas and Burch have been living, Joanna Burden, a descendant of Yankee abolitionists hated by the citizens of Jefferson, is murdered.

Burch is caught at the scene of the crime and reveals that Christmas had been romantically involved with her and is part black, thus implying that he is guilty of her murder. While Burch sits in jail awaiting his reward for turning in Christmas, Lena is assisted by Byron Bunch, a shy, mild-mannered bachelor who falls in love with her. Bunch seeks the aid of another outcast in the town, the disgraced former minister Gail Hightower, to help Lena give birth and protect Christmas from being lynched. Though Hightower refuses the latter, Christmas escapes to his house and is shot and castrated by a state guardsman. Burch leaves town without his reward, the novel ends with an anonymous man recounting a story to his wife about some hitchhikers he picked up on the road to Tennessee—a woman with a child and a man, not the father of the child, both looking for the woman's husband. In a loose, unstructured modernist narrative style that draws from Christian allegory and oral storytelling, Faulkner explores themes of race, sex and religion in the American South.

By focusing on characters that are misfits, outcasts, or are otherwise marginalized in their community, he portrays the clash of alienated individuals against a Puritanical, prejudiced rural society. Early reception of the novel was mixed, with some reviewers critical of Faulkner's style and subject matter. However, over time, the novel has come to be considered one of the most important literary works by Faulkner and one of the best English-language novels of the 20th century; the novel is set in the American South in the 1930s, during the time of Prohibition and Jim Crow laws that legalized racial segregation in the South. It begins with the journey of Lena Grove, a young pregnant white woman from Doane's Mill, trying to find Lucas Burch, the father of her unborn child, he has been fired from his job at Doane's Mill and moved to Mississippi, promising to send word to her when he has a new job. Not hearing from Burch and harassed by her older brother for her illegitimate pregnancy, Lena walks and hitchhikes to Jefferson, Mississippi, a town in Faulkner's fictional Yoknapatawpha County.

There she expects to find Lucas working at another planing mill, ready to marry her. Those who help her along her four-week trek are skeptical that Lucas Burch will be found, or that he will keep his promise when she catches up with him; when she arrives in Jefferson, Lucas is there. Looking for Lucas, trusting Lena meets shy, mild-mannered Byron Bunch, who falls in love with Lena but feels honor-bound to help her find Joe Brown. Thoughtful and religious, Byron is superior to Brown in every way but his shyness prevents him from revealing his feelings to Lena; the novel switches to the second plot strand, the story of Lucas Burch/Joe Brown's partner Joe Christmas. The surly, psychopathic Christmas has been on the run for years since at least injuring even killing his strict Methodist adopted father. Although he has light skin, Christmas suspects. Consumed with rage, he is a bitter outcast who wanders between black and white society provoking fights with blacks and whites alike. Christmas comes to Jefferson three years prior to the central events of the novel and gets a job at the mill where Byron, Joe Brown, works.

The job at the mill is a cover for Christmas's bootlegging operation, illegal under Prohibition. He has a sexual relationship with Joanna Burden, an older woman who descended from a powerful abolitionist family whom the town despises as carpetbaggers. Though their relationship is passionate at first, Joanna begins menopause and turns to religion, which frustrates and angers Christmas. At the end of her relationship with Christmas, Joanna tries to force him, at gunpoint, to kneel and pray. Joanna is murdered soon after: she is nearly decapitated; the novel leaves readers uncertain whether Joe Joe Brown is the murderer. Brown is Christmas' business partner in bootlegging and is leaving Joanna's burning house when a passing farmer stops to investigate and pull Joanna's body from the fire; the sheriff at first suspects Joe Brown, but initiates a manhunt for Christmas after Brown claims that Christmas is black. The manhunt is fruitless until Christmas arrives undisguised in a neighboring town. In Mottstown, he is arrested and jailed moved to Jefferson.

His grandparents arrive in town and visit Gail Hightower, the disgraced former minister of the town and friend of Byron Bunch. Bunch tries to convince Hightower to give the imprisoned Joe Christmas an alibi, but Hightower refuses. Though