Nursultan Nazarbayev

Nursultan Äbishuly Nazarbayev is a Kazakh politician serving as the Chairman of the Security Council of Kazakhstan and served as the first President of Kazakhstan, in office from 24 April 1990 to his resignation on 19 March 2019. He is one of the longest-served non-royal leaders in the world, having ruled Kazakhstan for nearly three decades, he was named First Secretary of the Communist Party of the Kazakh SSR in 1989 and was elected as the nation's first president following its independence from the Soviet Union. He holds the title "Leader of the Nation". In April 2015, Nazarbayev was re-elected with 98% of the vote, as he ran unopposed. Nazarbayev has been accused of human rights abuses by several human rights organisations and suppressed dissent and presided over an authoritarian regime. No election held in Kazakhstan since independence has been judged to be fair by the West. In 2010, he announced reforms to encourage a multi-party system. In January 2017, Nazarbayev proposed constitutional reforms that would delegate powers to the Parliament of Kazakhstan.

Nazarbayev was born in Chemolgan, a rural town near Almaty, when Kazakhstan was one of the republics of the Soviet Union. His father was a poor labourer who worked for a wealthy local family until Soviet rule confiscated the family's farmland in the 1930s during Joseph Stalin's collectivization policy. Following this, his father took the family to the mountains to live out a nomadic existence, his family's religious tradition was Sunni Islam. Nazarbayev's father, avoided compulsory military service due to a withered arm he had sustained when putting out a fire. At the end of World War II the family returned to the village of Chemolgan, Nazarbayev began to learn the Russian language, he performed well at school, was sent to a boarding school in Kaskelen. After leaving school, Nazarbayev took up a one-year, government-funded scholarship at the Karaganda Steel Mill in Temirtau, he spent time training at a steel plant in Dniprodzerzhynsk, therefore was away from Temirtau when riots broke out there over working conditions.

By the age of twenty, he was earning a good wage doing "incredibly heavy and dangerous work" in the blast furnace. Nazarbayev joined the Communist Party in 1962, becoming a prominent member of the Young Communist League and full-time worker for the party, attended the Karagandy Polytechnic Institute, he was appointed secretary of the Communist Party Committee of the Karaganda Metallurgical Kombinat in 1972, four years became Second Secretary of the Karaganda Regional Party Committee. In his role as a bureaucrat, Nazarbayev dealt with legal papers, logistical problems, industrial disputes, as well as meeting workers to solve individual issues, he wrote that "the central allocation of capital investment and the distribution of funds" meant that infrastructure was poor, workers were demoralised and overworked, centrally set targets were unrealistic. In 1984, Nazarbayev became the Prime Minister of Kazakhstan, under Dinmukhamed Kunayev, the First Secretary of the Communist Party of Kazakhstan. At the sixteenth session of the Communist Party of Kazakhstan in January 1986, Nazarbayev criticized Askar Kunayev, head of the Academy of Sciences, for not reforming his department.

Dinmukhamed Kunayev, Nazarbayev's boss and Askar's brother, felt angered and betrayed. Kunayev went to Moscow and demanded Nazarbayev's dismissal while Nazarbayev's supporters campaigned for Kunayev's dismissal and Nazarbayev's promotion. Kunayev was ousted in 1986 and replaced by a Russian, Gennady Kolbin, who despite his office had little authority in Kazakhstan. Nazarbayev was named party leader on 22 June 1989, he was Chairman of the Supreme Soviet from 22 February to 24 April 1990. On 24 April 1990, Nazarbayev was named the first President of Kazakhstan by the Supreme Soviet, he supported Russian President Boris Yeltsin against the attempted coup in August 1991 by Soviet hardliners. Nazarbayev was close enough to Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev for Gorbachev to consider him for the post of Vice President of the Soviet Union; the Soviet Union disintegrated following the failed coup, though Nazarbayev was concerned with maintaining the close economic ties between Kazakhstan and Russia. In the country's first presidential election, held on 1 December, he appeared alone on the ballot and won 95% of the vote.

On 21 December, he signed the Alma-Ata Protocol, taking Kazakhstan into the Commonwealth of Independent States. Nazarbayev renamed the former State Defense Committees as the Ministry of Defense and appointed Sagadat Nurmagambetov as Defense Minister on 7 May 1992; the Supreme Council, under the leadership of Speaker Serikbolsyn Abdilin, began debating over a draft constitution in June 1992. The constitution created a strong executive branch with limited checks on executive power. Opposition political parties Azat and the Republican Party, held demonstrations in Almaty from 10–17 June calling for the formation of a coalition government and the resignation of the government of Prime Minister Sergey Tereshchenko and the Supreme Council; the Parliament of Kazakhstan, composed of Communist Party legislators who had yet to stand in an election since the country gained independence, adopted the constitution on 28 January 1993. An April 1995 referendum extended Nazarbayev's term until 2000, he was re-elected in January 1999 and again in December 2005.

The Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe criticised the last presidential election as fall

Ord River

The Ord River is a 320-kilometre long river in the Kimberley region of Western Australia. The river's catchment covers 46,100 square kilometres; the lower Ord river and the conjunction with Cambridge Gulf create the most northern estuarine environment in Western Australia. The Ord River Irrigation Scheme was built in stages during the 20th century. Australia's largest artificial lake by volume, Lake Argyle was completed in 1972, it has not been economically successful. The lower reaches of the river support an important wetland area known as the Ord River Floodplain, a protected area which contains numerous mangrove forests, creeks and extensive floodplains; the traditional owners are the Miriwoong Gajerrong peoples who have inhabited the area for thousands of years and knew the Ord river as Goonoonoorrang. It was given its current name in honour of Sir Harry St. George Ord GCMG, CB, RE, Governor of Western Australia from 1877 to 1880, by Alexander Forrest on 2 August 1879. Forrest's journal states.

We are still 300 miles from the telegraph line, cannot of course tell what difficulties may not yet be in store for us, so I feel bound to push on, at the same time no one can regret more than I do that I am unable to follow this magnificent stream to its mouth which I have no doubt will be found in Cambridge Gulf–the whole of its waters in that case being in Western Australian territory. I have named this river the Ord, after His Excellency the Governor of Western Australia, who has taken so great an interest in this expedition. Marked a tree F 158; the headwaters of the Ord river are located below the 983 metre Mount Wells and flows east and around the edge of Purnululu National Park before heading north through Lake Argyle passing west of Kununurra and discharging into the Cambridge Gulf, at the southern extremity of the Joseph Bonaparte Gulf, Timor Sea. The river has 35 tributaries of which the five longest are Bow River, Nicholson River, Dunham River, Panton River and Negri Rivers; the idea of damming the Ord was first mentioned over 100 years ago, when the Western Australia Commissioner of Tropical Agriculture, Adrian Despeissis, Substantial wooden dams constructed on a double row of jarrah piles driven into the bed of the river, with a core wall of puddle clay between, would appear to form suitable weirs.

Between 1935 and 1942 drought affected the Kimberley Pastoral Industry providing the key motivation for the Ord Scheme. The focus in 1937 was. Minister for Lands and Agriculture, F J S Wise, in 1937 wrote..we set a plan in motion during the past twelve months in connection with the establishment of experimental areas on Ivanhoe Station somewhere near Carlton Reach. Carlton Reach was the largest waterhole in the Kimberley, being dammed and held back by the Bandicoot Bar, a quartzite rock bar that held back the waterhole for many miles forming a natural permanent lake. In 1939, Michael Durack and Isaac Steinberg traveled to the region to investigate its suitability for resettling Jewish refugees. Any resettlement scheme would have involved irrigation works on the Ord. By 1941 the Carlton Reach Research Station known as the Ord River Experimental Station, was set up by Kimberley Michael Durack for the Western Australia Department of Agriculture with funds "siphoned off" from the Kalgoorlie pipeline and assistance from the Western Australia Public Works Department.

During August 1941 the newly appointed Director of Works, R. J. Dumas, spent three weeks in the East Kimberley...accompanied by F. Forman. T. Brennan, K. Durack, J. Walker and a full blood aboriginal, Jacko This party travelled by horseback along the Ord River and through the Ord River gorges in the Carr Boyd Range, selecting several possible dam sites. Work continued at the Carlton Reach experimental station for Kim Durack with assistance from his brother William A. Durack, on various agricultural experiments, centred on supplementing the pastoral industry. Early in 1944 Dumas wrote to the Commonwealth Government, advising of the soil, botanical and engineering surveys about to take place in the East Kimberley, the project must become a national one and any assistance from the Commonwealth would be welcome. By May 1944 there was a large body of agriculturalists and surveyors carrying out investigations in the vicinity of Carlton Reach; the Aborigines who lived in the Ord River basin were decimated through killing and the spread of introduced diseases.

It would be another two years before the Commonwealth Government became involved, with the establishment of a joint CSIR and Western Australia Department of Agriculture facility. As the Carlton Reach, Ord River experimental station site was river alluvium and most of the surveyed agricultural land was "Cununurra Clay", it was moved to a new site further down river and the new Kimberley Research Station was established in 1946. In 1951, The KRS Supervisory Committee indicated that sugar and rice were two cash crops that could justify dam construction. Over the 13 years between 1946 and 1959 various agricultural experiments were undertaken at KRS and in April 1959 the KRS Supervisory Committee recommended the establishment of a pilot farm. In August 1959, the Commonwealth Government made a grant of £5m to WA Government, most to be used for the Ord River Scheme; the Ord River Irrigation Area, known as the Ord River Irrigation Scheme (ORIS

Jules PatenĂ´tre des Noyers

Jules Patenôtre des Noyers was a French diplomat. Noyers was born in Baye. Educated at the École Normale Supérieure, he taught for some years in the Algiers lycée before he joined the diplomatic service in 1871, he took service from 1873 to 1876 in the North of Persia. In 1880, he was minister plenipotentiary in Sweden. In September 1883 he was named French minister to China and could conduct his most important mission in 1884, when he was sent as to regularize the French dominion in the Vietnamese protectorate state of Annam; the Harmand Treaty of 25 August 1883 had not been ratified by the French parliament and had upset the Chinese government. Patenôtre left Marseille at the end of April 1884 with a modified version of the treaty drafted by the Quai d'Orsay for signature by the king of Annam. At the end of May, he moved to a military vessel near Cap Saint-Jacques, learnt about the end of the Sino-French war and the Tientsin Accord of 11 May and received additional instructions from Paris, he arrived in Hải Phòng on 26 May and in Huế on 30 May, started discussions with Nguyễn Văn Tường, the Regent.

On 6 June 1884, the imperial Chinese seal - a symbol of the vassal status of Annam, given to Gia Long - was melted and the Patenôtre Treaty was signed. He proceeded to Shanghai where he arrived on 1 July to settle with China the difficulties which had arisen over the evacuation of the Chinese troops from Tongking; the negotiation failed, the French admiral Sébastien Lespès resumed hostilities against China in August 1884. The next year Patenôtre signed with Li Hongzhang a treaty of peace at Tientsin, by which the French protectorate in Annam and Tongking was recognized, both parties agreed to remain within their own borders in the future. After serving as minister plenipotentiary in Morocco, Patenôtre was sent to Washington, D. C. where he was raised to the rank of ambassador in 1893. He was ambassador at Madrid from 1897 to 1902, he was appointed a Grand Officer of the Order of Legion d'Honneur in 1902. Jules Patenotre des Noyers married Eleanor Elverson, the sister of James Elverson, Jr. and daughter of publisher James Elverson, Sr. by wife Sallie Duvall.

They had a daughter: Yvonne Patenôtre, married to Boniface, Marquis de Castellane, son of Boni de Castellane and Anna Gould, had issue. Billot, Albert L'affaire du Tonkin. Histoire diplomatique de l'établissement de notre protectorat sur l'Annam et de notre conflit avec la Chine, 1882-1885, par un diplomate, J. Hetzel et Cie, éditeurs, Paris, vi+ 430 pp. Devillers, Philippe Français et annamites. Partenaires ou ennemis? 1856-1902, Denoël, Coll. Destins croisés, L'aventure coloniale de la France, Paris, 1998, 517 pp. McAleavy, Henry Black Flags in Vietnam: The Story of a Chinese Intervention Allen & Unwin, Ltd. London, New York, 1968, 296 pp; this article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Pâtenôtre des Noyers, Jules". Encyclopædia Britannica. 20. Cambridge University Press