Seaweed or macroalgae refers to several species of macroscopic, marine algae. The term includes some types of Rhodophyta and Chlorophyta macroalgae. Marine algae species such as kelps provide essential nursery habitat for fisheries and other marine species and thus protect food sources. Understanding these roles provides guiding principles for conservation and sustainable use of seaweeds to take precedence over industrial exploitation. Mechanical dredging of kelp, for instance, destroys dependent fisheries. Seaweed are a rich source of multiple biologically active compounds including proteins and polysaccharides with promising uses in nutrition, biomedicine and other uses. "Seaweed" lacks a formal definition. A seaweed may belong to one of several groups of multicellular algae: the red algae, green algae, brown algae; as these three groups do not have a common multicellular ancestor, the seaweed are in a polyphyletic group. In addition, some tuft-forming bluegreen algae are sometimes considered to be seaweed.
Seaweed's appearance somewhat resembles non-arboreal terrestrial plants. Thallus: the algal body lamina or blade: a flattened structure, somewhat leaf-like sorus: a spore cluster on Fucus, air bladder: a flotation-assisting organ on the blade on kelp, float: a flotation-assisting organ between the lamina and stipe stipe: a stem-like structure, may be absent holdfast: a specialized basal structure providing attachment to a surface a rock or another alga haptera: a finger-like extension of the holdfast anchoring to a benthic substrateThe stipe and blade are collectively known as the frond. Two specific environmental requirements dominate seaweed ecology; these are the presence of light sufficient to drive photosynthesis. Another common requirement is a firm attachment point, although some genera such as Sargassum and Gracilaria have species that float freely; as a result, seaweed most inhabit the part of a sea, close to the shore and within that zone more on rocky shores than on sand or shingle.
Seaweed occupy a wide range of ecological niches. The highest elevation is only wetted by the tops of sea spray, the lowest is several meters deep. In some areas, littoral seaweed can extend several miles out to sea; the limiting factor in such cases is sunlight availability. The deepest living seaweed are some species of red algae. Others have adapted to live in tidal rock pools. In this habitat, seaweed must withstand changing temperature and salinity and occasional drying. Seaweed has a variety of purposes, for which it is foraged from the wild. At the beginning of 2011, Indonesia produced 3 million tonnes of seaweed and surpassed the Philippines as the world's largest seaweed producer. By 2011, the production was estimated to have reached 10 million tonnes. Seaweed is consumed by coastal people in East Asia, e.g. Japan, Korea and Southeast Asia, e.g. Brunei, Thailand, Cambodia, Indonesia and Malaysia, in South Africa, Peru, the Canadian Maritimes, South West England, Wales and Scotland. In Asia, nori, zicai are sheets of dried Porphyra used in soups, sushi wrap or onigiri.
Chondrus crispus is another red alga used in producing food additives, along with Kappaphycus and gigartinoid seaweed. Porphyra is a red alga used in Wales to make laverbread. Laverbread, made from the seaweed, sometimes with oat flour, is a popular dish there. In northern Belize, edible seaweed are mixed with milk, nutmeg and vanilla to make a common beverage affectionately called "dulce". Seaweed are harvested or cultivated for the extraction of alginate and carrageenan, gelatinous substances collectively known as hydrocolloids or phycocolloids. Hydrocolloids have attained commercial significance as food additives; the food industry exploits their gelling, water-retention and other physical properties. Agar is used in foods such as confectionery and poultry products and beverages and moulded foods. Carrageenan is used in salad dressings and sauces, dietetic foods, as a preservative in meat and fish products, dairy items and baked goods; the development of seaweed as an alternative and sustainable source of food and animal feed ingredients depends on the sustainability of the natural resource of raw biomass and on moving the process of feed development from laboratory to industrial scale.
Alginates are used in wound dressings, production of dental moulds. In microbiology research, agar – a plant-based jelly similar to gelatin and made from seaweed – is extensively used as culture medium. Carrageenans and agaroses, with other lesser-known macroalgal polysaccharides, have several important biological activities or applications in biomedicine. Research suggests that the Australian seaweed Delisea pulchra may interfere with bacterial colonization. Sulfated saccharides from both red and green algae have been known to inhibit some DNA and RNA enveloped viruses. Seaweed extract is used in some diet pills. Other seaweed pills exploit the same effect as gastric banding, expanding in the stomach to make the body feel more full; the strong photosynthesis of algae creates a large affinity for nutrients.
The Indian Ocean is the third largest of the world's oceanic divisions, covering 70,560,000 km2. It is bounded by Asia on the north, on the west by Africa, on the east by Australia, on the south by the Southern Ocean or, depending on definition, by Antarctica; the Indian Ocean is named after India. Called the Sindhu Mahasagara or the great sea of the Sindhu by the Ancient Indians, this ocean has been variously called Hindu Ocean, Indic Ocean, etc. in various languages. The Indian Ocean was known earlier as the Eastern Ocean; the term was still in use during the mid-18th century. The borders of the Indian Ocean, as delineated by the International Hydrographic Organization in 1953 included the Southern Ocean but not the marginal seas along the northern rim, but in 2000 the IHO delimited the Southern Ocean separately, which removed waters south of 60°S from the Indian Ocean, but included the northern marginal seas. Meridionally, the Indian Ocean is delimited from the Atlantic Ocean by the 20° east meridian, running south from Cape Agulhas, from the Pacific Ocean by the meridian of 146°49'E, running south from the southernmost point of Tasmania.
The northernmost extent of the Indian Ocean is 30° north in the Persian Gulf. The Indian Ocean covers 70,560,000 km2, including the Red Sea and the Persian Gulf but excluding the Southern Ocean, or 19.5% of the world's oceans. The ocean's continental shelves are narrow. An exception is found off Australia's western coast; the average depth of the ocean is 3,890 m. Its deepest point is Sunda Trench at a depth of 7,450 m. North of 50° south latitude, 86% of the main basin is covered by pelagic sediments, of which more than half is globigerina ooze; the remaining 14% is layered with terrigenous sediments. Glacial outwash dominates the extreme southern latitudes; the major choke points include Bab el Mandeb, Strait of Hormuz, the Lombok Strait, the Strait of Malacca and the Palk Strait. Seas include the Gulf of Aden, Andaman Sea, Arabian Sea, Bay of Bengal, Great Australian Bight, Laccadive Sea, Gulf of Mannar, Mozambique Channel, Gulf of Oman, Persian Gulf, Red Sea and other tributary water bodies.
The Indian Ocean is artificially connected to the Mediterranean Sea through the Suez Canal, accessible via the Red Sea. All of the Indian Ocean is in the Eastern Hemisphere and the centre of the Eastern Hemisphere, the 90th meridian east, passes through the Ninety East Ridge. Marginal seas, gulfs and straits of the Indian Ocean include: Several features make the Indian Ocean unique, it constitutes the core of the large-scale Tropical Warm Pool which, when interacting with the atmosphere, affects the climate both regionally and globally. Asia prevents the ventilation of the Indian Ocean thermocline; that continent drives the Indian Ocean monsoon, the strongest on Earth, which causes large-scale seasonal variations in ocean currents, including the reversal of the Somali Current and Indian Monsoon Current. Because of the Indian Ocean Walker circulation there is no continuous equatorial easterlies. Upwelling occurs near the Horn of Africa and the Arabian Peninsula in the Northern Hemisphere and north of the trade winds in the Southern Hemisphere.
The Indonesian Throughflow is a unique Equatorial connection to the Pacific. The climate north of the equator is affected by a monsoon climate. Strong north-east winds blow from October until April. In the Arabian Sea the violent Monsoon brings rain to the Indian subcontinent. In the southern hemisphere, the winds are milder, but summer storms near Mauritius can be severe; when the monsoon winds change, cyclones sometimes strike the shores of the Arabian Sea and the Bay of Bengal. The Indian Ocean is the warmest ocean in the world. Long-term ocean temperature records show a rapid, continuous warming in the Indian Ocean, at about 0.7–1.2 °C during 1901–2012. Indian Ocean warming is the largest among the tropical oceans, about 3 times faster than the warming observed in the Pacific. Research indicates that human induced greenhouse warming, changes in the frequency and magnitude of El Niño events are a trigger to this strong warming in the Indian Ocean. South of the Equator the Indian Ocean is gaining heat from June to October, during the austral winter, while it is losing heat from November to March, during the austral summer.
Among the few large rivers flowing into the Indian Ocean are the Zambezi and Jubba in Africa. The ocean's currents are controlled by the monsoon. Two large gyres, one in the northern hemisphere flowing clockwise and one south of the equator moving anticlockwise, constitute the dominant flow pattern. During the winter monsoon, circulation is reversed north of 30°S and winds are weakened during winter and the transitional periods between the monsoons. Deep water circulation is controlled by inflows from the Atlantic Ocean, the Red Sea, Antarctic currents. North of 20 ° south latitude the minimum surface temperature is 22 °C. Southward of 40° south latitude, temperatures
Bali is a province of Indonesia and the westernmost of the Lesser Sunda Islands. Located east of Java and west of Lombok, the province includes the island of Bali and a few smaller neighbouring islands, notably Nusa Penida, Nusa Lembongan, Nusa Ceningan; the provincial capital, Denpasar, is the most populous city in the Lesser Sunda Islands and the second largest, after Makassar, in Eastern Indonesia. Bali is the only Hindu-majority province in Indonesia, with 83.5% of the population adhering to Balinese Hinduism. Bali is Indonesia's main tourist destination, which has seen a significant rise in tourists since the 1980s. Tourism-related business makes up 80% of its economy, it is renowned for its developed arts, including traditional and modern dance, painting, leather and music. The Indonesian International Film Festival is held every year in Bali. In March 2017, TripAdvisor named Bali as the world's top destination in its Traveller's Choice award. Bali is part of the area with the highest biodiversity of marine species.
In this area alone, over 500 reef-building coral species can be found. For comparison, this is about seven times as many as in the entire Caribbean. Most Bali was the host of the Miss World 2013 and 2018 Annual Meetings of the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank Group. Bali is the home of a UNESCO World Heritage Site, it is home to a unified confederation of kingdoms composed of 10 traditional royal Balinese houses, each house ruling a specific geographic area. The confederation is the successor of the Bali Kingdom; the royal houses are not recognised by the government of Indonesia. Bali was inhabited around 2000 BCE by Austronesian people who migrated from Southeast Asia and Oceania through Maritime Southeast Asia. Culturally and linguistically, the Balinese are related to the people of the Indonesian archipelago, the Philippines and Oceania. Stone tools dating from this time have been found near the village of Cekik in the island's west. In ancient Bali, nine Hindu sects existed, namely Pasupata, Siwa Shidanta, Bodha, Resi and Ganapatya.
Each sect revered a specific deity as its personal Godhead. Inscriptions from 896 and 911 do not mention a king, until 914, they reveal an independent Bali, with a distinct dialect, where Buddhism and Sivaism were practiced simultaneously. Mpu Sindok's great-granddaughter, married the Bali king Udayana Warmadewa around 989, giving birth to Airlangga around 1001; this marriage brought more Hinduism and Javanese culture to Bali. Princess Sakalendukirana appeared in 1098. Suradhipa reigned from 1115 to 1119, Jayasakti from 1146 until 1150. Jayapangus appears on inscriptions between 1178 and 1181, while Adikuntiketana and his son Paramesvara in 1204. Balinese culture was influenced by Indian and Hindu culture, beginning around the 1st century AD; the name Bali dwipa has been discovered from various inscriptions, including the Blanjong pillar inscription written by Sri Kesari Warmadewa in 914 AD and mentioning Walidwipa. It was during this time that the people developed their complex irrigation system subak to grow rice in wet-field cultivation.
Some religious and cultural traditions still practiced. The Hindu Majapahit Empire on eastern Java founded a Balinese colony in 1343; the uncle of Hayam Wuruk is mentioned in the charters of 1384–86. A mass Javanese immigration to Bali occurred in the next century when the Majapahit Empire fell in 1520. Bali's government became an independent collection of Hindu kingdoms which led to a Balinese national identity and major enhancements in culture and economy; the nation with various kingdoms became independent for up to 386 years until 1906, when the Dutch subjugated and repulsed the natives for economic control and took it over. The first known European contact with Bali is thought to have been made in 1512, when a Portuguese expedition led by Antonio Abreu and Francisco Serrão sighted its northern shores, it was the first expedition of a series of bi-annual fleets to the Moluccas, that throughout the 16th century traveled along the coasts of the Sunda Islands. Bali was mapped in 1512, in the chart of Francisco Rodrigues, aboard the expedition.
In 1585, a ship foundered off the Bukit Peninsula and left a few Portuguese in the service of Dewa Agung. In 1597, the Dutch explorer Cornelis de Houtman arrived at Bali, the Dutch East India Company was established in 1602; the Dutch government expanded its control across the Indonesian archipelago during the second half of the 19th century. Dutch political and economic control over Bali began in the 1840s on the island's north coast, when the Dutch pitted various competing Balinese realms against each other. In the late 1890s, struggles between Balinese kingdoms in the island's south were exploited by the Dutch to increase their control. In June 1860, the famous Welsh naturalist, Alfred Russel Wallace, travelled to Bali from Singapore, landing at Buleleng on the north coast of the island. Wallace's trip to Bali was instrumental in helping him devise his Wallace Line theory; the Wallace Line is a faunal boundary that runs through the strait between Lombok. It has been found to be a boundary between species.
In his travel memoir The Malay Archipelago, Wallace wrote of his experience in Bali, of which has strong mention of the unique Balinese irrigation methods: I was both astonished and delighted.
Indonesia the Republic of Indonesia, is a country in Southeast Asia, between the Indian and Pacific oceans. It is the world's largest island country, with more than seventeen thousand islands, at 1,904,569 square kilometres, the 14th largest by land area and the 7th largest in combined sea and land area. With over 261 million people, it is the world's 4th most populous country as well as the most populous Muslim-majority country. Java, the world's most populous island, is home to more than half of the country's population; the sovereign state is a constitutional republic with an elected parliament. It has 34 provinces. Jakarta, the country's capital, is the second most populous urban area in the world; the country shares land borders with Papua New Guinea, East Timor, the eastern part of Malaysia. Other neighbouring countries include Singapore, the Philippines, Australia and India's Andaman and Nicobar Islands. Despite its large population and densely populated regions, Indonesia has vast areas of wilderness that support a high level of biodiversity.
The country has abundant natural resources like oil and natural gas, tin and gold. Agriculture produces rice, palm oil, coffee, medicinal plants and rubber. Indonesia's major trading partners are China, United States, Japan and India. History of the Indonesian archipelago has been influenced by foreign powers drawn to its natural resources, it has been an important region for trade since at least the 7th century, when Srivijaya and later Majapahit traded with entities from mainland China and the Indian subcontinent. Local rulers absorbed foreign cultural and political models from the early centuries and Hindu and Buddhist kingdoms flourished. Muslim traders and Sufi scholars brought Islam, while European powers brought Christianity and fought one another to monopolise trade in the Spice Islands of Maluku during the Age of Discovery. Although sometimes interrupted by the Portuguese and British, the Dutch were the foremost European power for much of its 350-year presence in the archipelago. In early 20th century, the concept of "Indonesia" as a nation state emerged, independence movements began to take shape.
During the decolonisation of Asia after World War II, Indonesia achieved independence in 1949 following an armed and diplomatic conflict with the Netherlands. Indonesia consists of hundreds of distinct native ethnic and linguistic groups, with the largest—and politically dominant—ethnic group being the Javanese. A shared identity has developed, defined by a national language, ethnic diversity, religious pluralism within a Muslim-majority population, a history of colonialism and rebellion against it. Indonesia's national motto, "Bhinneka Tunggal Ika", articulates the diversity that shapes the country. Indonesia's economy is the world's 16th largest by nominal GDP and the 7th largest by GDP at PPP. Indonesia is a member of several multilateral organisations, including the UN, WTO, IMF and G20, it is a founding member of Non-Aligned Movement, Association of Southeast Asian Nations, Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, East Asia Summit, Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank and Organisation of Islamic Cooperation.
The name Indonesia derives from the Greek name of the Indos and the word nesos, meaning "Indian islands". The name dates to the 18th century, far predating the formation of independent Indonesia. In 1850, George Windsor Earl, an English ethnologist, proposed the terms Indunesians—and, his preference, Malayunesians—for the inhabitants of the "Indian Archipelago or Malayan Archipelago". In the same publication, one of his students, James Richardson Logan, used Indonesia as a synonym for Indian Archipelago. However, Dutch academics writing in East Indies publications were reluctant to use Indonesia. After 1900, Indonesia became more common in academic circles outside the Netherlands, native nationalist groups adopted it for political expression. Adolf Bastian, of the University of Berlin, popularised the name through his book Indonesien oder die Inseln des Malayischen Archipels, 1884–1894; the first native scholar to use the name was Ki Hajar Dewantara, when in 1913 he established a press bureau in the Netherlands, Indonesisch Pers-bureau.
Fossils and the remains of tools show that the Indonesian archipelago was inhabited by Homo erectus, known as "Java Man", between 1.5 million years ago and 35,000 years ago. Homo sapiens reached the region around 45,000 years ago. Austronesian peoples, who form the majority of the modern population, migrated to Southeast Asia from what is now Taiwan, they arrived around 4,000 years ago, as they spread through the archipelago, confined the indigenous Melanesians to the far eastern regions. Ideal agricultural conditions and the mastering of wet-field rice cultivation as early as the 8th century BCE allowed villages and small kingdoms to flourish by the first century CE; the archipelago's strategic sea-lane position fostered inter-island and international trade, including links with Indian kingdoms and Chinese dynasties, which were established several centuries BCE. Trade has since fundamentally shaped Indonesian history. From the 7th century CE, the powerful Srivijaya naval kingdom flourished as a result of trade and the influences of Hinduism and Buddhism that were imported with it.
Between the 8th and 10th century CE, the agricultural Buddhist Saile
Batu, East Java
Batu the City of Batu, is a city in the East Java Province of Indonesia. It is about 20 km to the northwest of Malang, it was a part of Malang Regency. With a population of 190,000 people, it lies on the southern slopes of Mount Arjuno-Welirang, its population consists of Javanese. The town used to be a recreation place for the Dutch colonial officers in the Dutch colonial area. Batu means "rock" in Indonesian. Since the 10th century, the area of Batu and its surroundings has been known as a resting place for the royal family, because the region is a mountainous area with comfortable air supported by the beauty of natural scenery as a characteristic of mountainous regions. During the reign of Medang Kingdom under King Sindok, a royal official named Mpu Supo was ordered by the King to build a royal family resting place in the mountains with nearby water springs. With a hard effort Mpu Supo discovered an area, now better known as the tourist area of Songgoriti. With the approval of King Sindok, Mpu Supo began to build the Songgoriti area as a royal family retreat and built a temple named Supo Temple.
From some local community leaders, it has been told that the title Batu comes from the name of a cleric follower of Prince Diponegoro named Abu Ghonaim or referred to as the Kyai Gubug Angin which the local community was familiar with calling it Mbah Wastu. From Javanese cultural habits that shorten and shorten the designation of someone's name, considered too long to make it shorter and faster when calling someone Mbah Wastu is called Mbah Tu to be Mbatu or Batu as a term used for a mild climate city in East Java; the history of Abu Ghonaim's existence as a forerunner and person known as a community leader who started the babad alas and was used as inspiration from the designation of the Batu region, in fact Abu Ghonaim himself was from the Central Java region. Abu Ghonaim as a loyal follower of Prince Diponegoro, intentionally left his native area of Central Java and moved to the hillside of Mount Panderman to avoid the pursuit and arrest of the Dutch soldiers. Abu Ghonaim or Mbah Wastu who started his new life together with the surrounding community.
Many residents and surrounding communities and other communities came around the residence of Mbah Wastu. They lived in a group in the Bumiaji and Temas; the city of Batu lies on the slopes of several mountains. The most prominent are Mount Anjasmoro, Mount Arjuno, Mount Welirang, Mount Banyak, Mount Kawi, Mount Panderman, Mount Semeru, Mount Wukir. In the 19th century, the Dutch East Indies government developed Batu as a mountain resort. Villas and resort facilities were built in Batu during the period. Most of the topography of Batu city is dominated by highland and hilly terrain with valleys running down mountain slopes. In northern Batu, there is a dense forest, Raden Soerjo Forest Park, a protected forest area. Most soils in Batu city are andosols, sequentially present with cambisol and alluvial; these form mechanical soils which contain substantial amounts of minerals coming from volcanic eruptions. These soils tend to be fertile. Batu is a near-exact antipode to the city of San Fernando de Venezuela.
The climate in Batu city at lower elevation features tropical monsoon climate, at higher elevation, the city's climate is classified by Köppen as subtropical highland climate. The driest month is August with precipitation total 35 mm, while the wettest month is January with precipitation total 406 mm; the temperature is moderated by the altitude, as the city is located at average 953 meters above sea level. The hottest month is October with average 22.2 °C, while the coolest month is August with average 11.4 °C. The city is divided into three districts: Batu and Junrejo; the districts are further subdivided into 24 villages. The names of the villages are: The economy of Batu City is dependent on tourism and agriculture; the location of Batu City, in the mountainous region and rapid tourism development makes most of the GDP growth in Batu depended by this sector. In agriculture, Batu is one of the largest apple-producing regions in Indonesia, which makes it dubbed "The City of Apples". Apple agriculture in Batu has four varieties, there are "Manalagi", "Rome Beauty", "Anna", "Wangling".
The city produces a lot of vegetables, garlic. Besides that, Batu is an artist city where there are many painting and art galleries in this city; the Batu has several shopping centers ranging from modern shopping centers to modern and traditional markets. Among the most famous modern shopping centers in Batu are Lippo Plaza Batu and Plaza Batu, while the famous traditional market in Batu is Pasar Batu. In addition, there is a floating market in Batu called the Nusantara Floating Market which makes it the first floating market in East Java; the Nusantara Floating Market Complex is a unit of the Museum Angkut tourism complex in Batu. Batu is well known for its tourism sites; some are: There is a historic colonial-style hotel, the Kartika Wijaya, founded in 1891 by the Sarkies Brothers, prominent Armenian immigrants best known for founding a chain of luxury hotels throughout Southeast Asia Dutch East Indies. It was built as a vacation villa for the Sarkies family and was turned into a hotel. Official website Batu travel guide
Jam Gadang is a clock tower and major landmark and tourist attraction in the city of Bukittinggi, West Sumatra, Indonesia. It is located near the main market, Pasar Ateh, it has large clocks on each face. Jam Gadang is located in a city in the Minangkabau Highlands of West Sumatra, it sits in the middle of the Sabai Nan Aluih Park, near the Ateh Market and palace of Mohammad Hatta. The structure was built in 1926, during the Dutch colonial era, as a gift from Queen Wilhelmina to the city's controleur, it was designed by architects Yazin and Sutan Gigi Ameh at a cost of 3,000 guilder. A rooster figure was placed on the apex, but it was changed into a Jinja-like ornament during the Japanese occupation. Following Indonesian independence, the tower's top was reshaped to its present form, which resembles traditional Minang roofs. Local oral tradition holds that the internal mechanisms of the clock are twin to those of Elizabeth Tower in London. On March 6, 2007, the Jam Gadang tower was damaged by two earthquakes.
Over the following years it was refurbished by the Indonesia Heritage Trust. Funding for the 600 million rupiah restoration came from the Netherlands; the refurbished tower was inaugurated on December 22, 2010, as part of Bukittinggi's 262nd anniversary celebrations. The Jam Gadang tower has been as an observation posts during fires, such as one that affected the Ateh Market. During Ramadhan, the call to prayer that marks the breaking of the fast is sounded from the tower; the tower has four clocks made in Recklinghausen Germany by Bernard Vortmann and was shipped via Rotterdam. Each clock face has a diameter of 80 centimetres; the tower's base is 13 by 4 metres and it stands 26 metres tall. The clocks use "IIII" for the number 4 instead of the traditional Roman number "IV". According to one local story, the four vertical lines represents the four workers who died while constructing the building. Another story suggests that the clocks used "IIII" to avoid rumors that "IV" stood for a Dutch victory.
The laying of the tower's cornerstone was done by the 6-year-old son of Rook Maker, the city secretary of Bukittinggi at the time. The Jam Gadang tower is considered the city's main tourist attraction. Given its iconic appearance, the structure is a frequent object of local souvenirs, it is printed on apparel, used as model for sculpting and magnet design, so forth. It is common for tourists visiting Bukittinggi to take photographs in front of the tower, local residents offer photography services for this purpose. Tourists visiting the tower were once allowed to climb to the top, but as of 2016 require written permission to do so. Many hotels are located near Jam Gadang; the Jam Gadang plaza has, since 2016, hosted traditional Minang dances for tourists. It serves as the centre of New Year celebration in Bukittinggi. Clock tower
Mount Gede Pangrango National Park
Mount Gede Pangrango National Park is a national park in West Java, Indonesia. The park is 150 km ² in area, it evolved from existing conservation areas, such as Cibodas Botanical Gardens, Cimungkat Nature Reserve, Situgunung Recreational Park and Mount Gede Pangrango Nature Reserve, has been the site of important biological and conservation research over the last century. In 1977 UNESCO declared it part of the World Network of Biosphere Reserves. Mount Gede and Pangrango are twin volcanoes; the two summits are connected by a high saddle known as Kandang Badak. The mountain slopes are steep and are cut into flowing stream, which carve deep valleys and long ridges. Lower and upper montane and subalpine forests have been well studied. To the north of Mount Gede is a field of Javanese Edelweiss; the park contains a large number of species known to occur only within its boundaries, this may be a result of the disproportionate amount of research over many years. Gunung Gede-Pangrango is inhabited by 251 of the 450 bird species found in Java.
Among these are endangered species like the Javan hawk-eagle and the Javan scops owl. Among the endangered mammal species in the Park there are several primates such as the silvery gibbon, Javan surili and Javan lutung. Other mammals include Javan leopard, leopard cat, Indian muntjac, Java mouse-deer, Sumatran dhole, Malayan porcupine, Sunda stink badger, yellow-throated marten, Bartels's rat. Visitors enter the park by one of the four gates of the park: the Cibodas, Gunung Putri, Selabintana gates, all give access to the peaks. Cibodas gate is the site of the park's headquarters. From Jakarta, the area is two hours drive via Cibodas Botanical Gardens. Volcanoes of Indonesia Geography of Indonesia Official site Ministry of Forestry: Gunung Gede-Pangrango National Park