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Ny Carlsberg Glyptotek

The Ny Carlsberg Glyptotek is an art museum in Copenhagen, Denmark. The collection is built around the personal collection of Carl Jacobsen, the son of the founder of the Carlsberg Breweries. A sculpture museum, as indicated by the name, the focal point of the museum is antique sculpture from the ancient cultures around the Mediterranean, including Egypt and Greece, as well as more modern sculptures such as a collection of Auguste Rodin's works, considered to be the most important outside France. However, the museum is noted for its collection of paintings that includes an extensive collection of French impressionists and Post-impressionists as well as Danish Golden Age paintings; the French Collection includes works by painters such as Jacques-Louis David, Pissarro, Degas and Cézanne, as well as those by Post-impressionists such as van Gogh, Toulouse-Lautrec and Bonnard. The museum's collection includes all the bronze sculptures of Degas, including the series of dancers. Numerous works by Norwegian-Danish sculptor Stephan Sinding are featured prominently in various sections of the museum.

Carl Jacobsen was a dedicated art collector. He was interested in antique art, but over the years he acquired a considerable collection of French and Danish sculptures; when his private villa in 1882 was extended with a winter garden, sculptures soon outnumbered plants in it. The same year the collection was opened to the public. In the following years the museum was expanded on a number of occasions to meet the need for more space for his growing collections. In 1885 his'house museum' had grown to a total of 19 galleries, the first 14 of, designed by Vilhelm Dahlerup while Hack Kampmann had built the last four as well as conducted a redesign of the winter garden. In spite of the many extensions, it was clear the existing premises were inadequate and that a new building was needed. On 8 March 1888 Carl Jacobsen donated his collection to the Danish State and the City of Copenhagen on condition that they provided a suitable building for its exhibition. Copenhagen's old fortifications had been abandoned and a site was chosen on a ravelin outside Holcks Bastion in the city's Western Rampart, just south of the Tivoli Gardens, founded in 1843.

Jacobsen was displeased with the location which he found to be too far from the city centre and he had reservations about the proximity of Tivoli which he found common. Instead he wanted a building on the emerging new city hall square, it was Carl Jacobsen who chose the name for the museum, with inspiration from Ludwig I's Glyptothek in Munich, as well as Wilhelm Dahlerup as the architect for the assignment. The moat around the radan was filled and the new museum opened first on 1 May 1897. At first it only included Jacobsen's modern collection with French and Danish works from the 18th century. In January 1899 Carl Jacobsen donated his collection of Antique art to the museum which made an expansion necessary, it was designed by Hack Kampmann while Dahlerup designed a winter garden which connected the new wing to the old building. It was inaugurated in 1906. In 1996 the museum was once again extended, this time with an infill constructed in one of its courtyards to the design of Henning Larsen.

In 2006, the building underwent a major renovation programme under the direction of Danish architects Dissing + Weitling. and Bonde Ljungar Arkitekter MAA. The building is noted for its elegance in its own right and the synthesis it creates with the works of art; the Dahlerup Wing, the oldest part of the museum, is a lavish historicist building. The façade is in red brick with polished granite columns in a Venetian renaissance style, it houses the Danish collections. The Kampmann Wing is a more simple, neo-classical building, built as a series of galleries around a central auditorium used for lectures, small concerts and poetry readings; the two wings are connected by the Winter Garden with mosaic floors, tall palms, a fountain and topped by a dome made in copper and wrought iron. The Henning Larsen Wing is a minimalistic infill, built in a former inner courtyard and affording access to the roof. Official meetings and banquets sometimes take place in the Glyptotek, such as the certification of Polio-free Europe, 21 June 2002.

The Ny Carlsberg Glyptotek's collections comprise more than 10,000 works of art. The Antique collection displays sculptures and other antiquities from the ancient cultures around the Mediterranean; the extensive Greek and Etruscan Collection comprises marble statues, small terra cotta statues, reliefs and other artifacts. The Etruscan collection is the largest outside Italy; the German archeologist Wolfgang Helbig was Carl Jacobsen's broker in Rome for 25 years, acquiring more than 950 sculptures and Etruscan antiquities for the Ny Carlsberg Museum. The Egyptian Collection comprises more than 1,900 pieces, dating from 3000 BCE to the 1st century CE and representing both Ancient Egypt, the Middle Kingdom and the Roman Period, it was founded in 1882 when Carl Jacobsen made his first Egyptian acquisition, a Sarcophagus purchased from the Egyptian Museum in Cairo. Many of the objects in the collection were augmented when the Ny Carlsberg Foundation sponsored excavations in Egypt in the beginning of the 20th century led by the English Egyptologist W. M. F. Petrie.

The holdings include several mummies, displayed in a crypt-like gallery below the normal galleries. The Near Eastern Collection spans a period of 7150 years, the oldest artifact being from 6500 BCE and the youngest being from 650 CE, featuring such cultures as the Levant, Anatolia

Mi plačemo iza tamnih naočara

Mi plačemo iza tamnih naočara is the first and only studio album by the Serbian post-punk/darkwave band Dobri Isak, released by SKC Niš in 1986. The album released on compact cassette and with a limited printing of a hundred copies only sold out and became a collector's item; the original album cover features an image of fictional comic book superhero The Phantom. In December 2009, the album was re-released by PMK Records with seven bonus tracks of unreleased material; the following year, PMK released the limited edition reissue of the album, featuring the band logo written in red on the album cover and a black CD, in 150 copies. All tracks by Dobri Isak except "Feniks", by Arnold Layne Predrag Cvetičanin "Frodo" - guitar, vocals Miloš Miladinović "Pacov" - bass guitar, backing vocals Saša Marković "Markiz" - drums, backing vocals Saša Marković "Stipsa" - album producer Nenad Cvetičanin Dejan Krasić In 1994, on the album Land Ho!, Nenad Cvetičanin's band Arnold Layne & Alhemija, covered the song "Mi plačemo iza tamnih naočara".

In 2010, Croatian rock band Mlijeko covered "Mi plačemo iza tamnih naočara" on their self-titled debut album. The Serbian alternative music group Horkestar, composed of a five piece band and a thirty piece choir, performs the song "Sinoć si sanjao da si pas" on their live appearances. In 2013, the Serbian trip hop band Paydo Komma covered "Mi plačemo iza tamnih naočara". Mi plačemo iza tamnih naočara at Discogs Enciklopedija niškog Rock'n' Rolla 1962 - 2000, Stanojević Vladan.

Bonding in solids

Solids can be classified according to the nature of the bonding between their atomic or molecular components. The traditional classification distinguishes four kinds of bonding: Covalent bonding, which forms network covalent solids Ionic bonding, which forms ionic solids Metallic bonding, which forms metallic solids Weak inter molecular bonding, which forms molecular solids Typical members of these classes have distinctive electron distributions, thermodynamic and mechanical properties. In particular, the binding energies of these interactions vary widely. Bonding in solids can be of mixed or intermediate kinds, hence not all solids have the typical properties of a particular class, some can be described as intermediate forms. A network covalent solid consists of atoms held together by a network of covalent bonds, hence can be regarded as a single, large molecule; the classic example is diamond. High strength High elastic modulus High melting point BrittleTheir strength and high melting points are consequences of the strength and stiffness of the covalent bonds that hold them together.

They are characteristically brittle because the directional nature of covalent bonds resists the shearing motions associated with plastic flow, are, in effect, broken when shear occurs. This property results in brittleness for reasons studied in the field of fracture mechanics. Network covalent solids vary from insulating to semiconducting in their behavior, depending on the band gap of the material. A standard ionic solid consists of atoms held together by ionic bonds, by the electrostatic attraction of opposite charges. Among the ionic solids are compounds formed by alkali and alkaline earth metals in combination with halogens. Ionic solids are of intermediate strength and brittle. Melting points are moderately high, but some combinations of molecular cations and anions yield an ionic liquid with a freezing point below room temperature. Vapour pressures in all instances are extraordinarily low. Metallic solids are held together by a high density of shared, delocalized electrons, resulting in metallic bonding.

Classic examples are metals such as copper and aluminum, but some materials are metals in an electronic sense but have negligible metallic bonding in a mechanical or thermodynamic sense. Metallic solids have, by definition. Solids with purely metallic bonding are characteristically ductile and, in their pure forms, have low strength; these properties are consequences of the non-directional and non-polar nature of metallic bonding, which allows atoms to move past one another without disrupting their bonding interactions. Metals can be strengthened by introducing crystal defects that interfere with the motion of dislocations that mediate plastic deformation. Further, some transition metals exhibit directional bonding in addition to metallic bonding. A classic molecular solid consists of small, non-polar covalent molecules, is held together by London dispersion forces; these forces are weak, resulting in pairwise interatomic binding energies on the order of 1/100 those of covalent and metallic bonds.

Binding energies tend to increase with increasing molecular polarity. Solids that are composed of small, weakly bound molecules are mechanically weak and have low melting points; the non-directional nature of dispersion forces allows easy plastic deformation, as planes of molecules can slide over one another without disrupting their attractive interactions. Molecular solids are insulators with large band gaps; the four classes of solids permit six pairwise intermediate forms: Covalent and ionic bonding form a continuum, with ionic character increasing with increasing difference in the electronegativity of the participating atoms. Covalent bonding corresponds to sharing of a pair of electrons between two atoms of equal electronegativity; as bonds become more polar, they become ionic in character. Metal oxides vary along the iono-covalent spectrum; the Si–O bonds in quartz, for example, are polar yet covalent, are considered to be of mixed character. What is in most respects a purely covalent structure can support metallic delocalization of electrons.

Transition metals and intermetallic compounds based on transition metals can exhibit mixed metallic and covalent bonding, resulting in high shear strength, low ductility, elevated melting points. Materials can be intermediate between molecular and network covalent solids either because of the intermediate organization of their covalent bonds, or because the bonds themselves are of an intermedia