Francis Mawson Rattenbury was a British architect, although most of his career was spent in British Columbia, where he designed many notable buildings. Divorced amid scandal, he was murdered in England at the age of 67 by his second wife's lover. Rattenbury was born in 1867 in England, he began his architectural career with an apprenticeship in 1884 to the "Lockwood and Mawson Company" in England, where he worked until he left for Canada. In 1891, he arrived in the new Canadian province of British Columbia; the province, anxious to show its growing economic and political status, was engaged in an architectural competition to build a new legislative building in Victoria. The new immigrant entered, signing his drawings with the pseudonym "A B. C. Architect," and won the competition. Despite many problems, including going over-budget by $400,000, the British Columbia Parliament Buildings were opened in 1898; the grand scale of its 500-foot -long facade, central dome and two end pavilions, the richness of its white marble, its use of the currently-popular Romanesque style contributed to its being seen as an impressive monument for the new province.
Rattenbury's success in the competition garnered him many commissions in Victoria and other parts of the province, including additions to the Legislative Buildings in 1913–1915. In 1900 he was commissioned to design the 18 bedroom, three story Burns Manor in Calgary for his close friend Pat Burns, he designed Paardeburg Gate, a memorial to South African war soldiers opposite the Legislative Buildings, 1901. Rattenbury worked for the Canadian Pacific Railway as their Western Division Architect, his most well-known work for the CPR was The Empress, a Chateau-style hotel built in 1904–1908 in Victoria, with two wings added in 1909–1914. The architect, fell out with the CPR and went to work for their competition, the Grand Trunk Pacific Railway, he designed many hotels and stations for the GTP, but they were never completed due to the death of the president, Charles Melville Hays, in the sinking of the RMS Titanic and the company's subsequent bankruptcy. The CPR allowed him to return, he built the second CPR Steamship Terminal in Victoria in 1923–1924 in association with another architect, Percy James.
Rattenbury and James collaborated in the design of the Crystal Garden at the same time, although they had a public conflict over Rattenbury's refusal to give James credit and payment for his work on the Garden. Just as as he became popular and his architecture was out of favour. A symptom of his waning popularity, he lost the competition to build the Saskatchewan Legislative Building, built 1908–1912 in Regina, to E. and W. S. Maxwell, two Montreal architects trained at the École des Beaux-Arts in Paris. In contrast to the Maxwells, Rattenbury had no formal training in architecture and, with the increasing professionalism of the field, was soon outpaced by better-trained and better-educated architects. Soon after winning the competition for the Legislative Buildings in Victoria, Rattenbury was involved in a series of financial ventures. Most notably, he planned to supply meat and cattle to prospectors during the Klondike Gold Rush and he ordered three steam trains to serve the Yukon Territory.
These investments became profitable. After World War I, his luck turned sour with the failure of some financial speculations leading to conflicts with his business partners, his personal life began to show strains at this time. In 1923, he left his wife Florence Nunn, whom he had married in 1898, his children and Mary, for the 27-year-old, twice-married Alma Pakenham, his maltreatment of Florence, which included having the heating and lights turned off in their home after he moved out, the public flaunting of his affair with Alma, led his former clients and associates to shun him, forcing him to leave Victoria. He married Alma in 1925, he and Alma returned to Victoria in 1927 with her son from her second marriage. There, they had a son of their own, before deciding to move to Bournemouth, England, in 1929, the same year that Florence died. In Bournemouth, Rattenbury's financial problems continued, causing his relationship with Alma to deteriorate, she began an affair with their 18‑year‑old chauffeur.
Stoner had been recruited through an advertisement in the Bournemouth Daily Echo, had been living a sheltered friendless life with his parents before moving into the Rattenburys' home, the'Villa Madeira', in Manor Road. In the early hours of 23 March 1935, Rattenbury was discovered in his sitting room with severe head injuries, he had sustained a series of blows with a carpenter's mallet, the blows savage enough to remove the back of his skull. His wife confessed, but Stoner admitted to the housekeeper that it was he who had carried out the deed. Alma Rattenbury and Stoner were both charged, although Alma was to retract her confession after her elder son Christopher visited her in prison. Stoner was convicted and sentenced to death commuted to life imprisonment following the submission to the Home Secretary of a petition signed by over 300,000 people who felt that the young man had been manipulated into committing murder by the older woman. Alma, represented by Ewen Montagu, was acquitted of murder and of being an accessory after the fact but committed suicide a few days on 4 June 1935, stabbing herself six times in the breast with a dagger before throwing herself into the River Stour at Christchurch.
Stoner served only seven years of his sentence, being released
The Victoria Cougars were a major league professional ice hockey team that played in the Pacific Coast Hockey Association from 1911 to 1924 under various names, in the Western Hockey League from 1924 to 1926. The team was based in Victoria, British Columbia and won the Stanley Cup in 1925; the original Victoria franchise of the PCHA, the Senators, were formed in 1911, became the Aristocrats in 1913. That incarnation is best known for defeating the Stanley Cup champion Quebec Bulldogs in a 1913 exhibition series; the Aristocrats challenged the Toronto Blueshirts for the Cup the following year, but lost. In 1916 the team was forced to move to Spokane, after having their arena commandeered by the Canadian military; the club folded the following year as the Spokane Canaries. A new team was formed in 1918 and again were dubbed the Aristocrats, with players from the folded Portland Rosebuds. In 1922 they changed their name to the Victoria Cougars. Led by coach Lester Patrick, the Cougars would win a Stanley Cup in 1925 against the Montreal Canadiens of the National Hockey League.
The Cougars were the last non-NHL team to hoist the Stanley Cup as well as the last west coast team to win the Cup until the Anaheim Ducks won the Cup in 2007. They would attempt to repeat as champions in 1926 but they were unsuccessful as they lost the final series to the NHL's Montreal Maroons; the WHL dissolved after the season. That spring, a group of businessmen from Detroit won an NHL expansion franchise and bought the rights to many of the players from the Stanley Cup finalist Cougars; the new NHL franchise would retain the nickname "Cougars" in tribute. The Detroit Cougars would be renamed the Detroit Falcons, would be renamed the Detroit Red Wings. Among the notable players who wore the uniform of the Cougars were Hall of Famers Hec Fowler, Frank Foyston, Frank Fredrickson, Hap Holmes, Clem Loughlin, Harry Meeking and Jack Walker. Note: W = Wins, L = Losses, T = Ties, GF= Goals For, GA = Goals Against After the series win, a new angled ring with the words "Won/By/'Cougars' Victoria, B.
C. 1925" was added between the original bowl of the Cup and the original first ring of the base. All players and the manager were included on the new ring. List of ice hockey teams in British Columbia List of Stanley Cup champions Victoria Aristocrats of the PCHA Victoria Cougars of the PCHA Victoria Cougars of the WCHL & WHL
In Canada, the First Nations are the predominant indigenous peoples in Canada south of the Arctic Circle. Those in the Arctic area are distinct and known as Inuit; the Métis, another distinct ethnicity, developed after European contact and relations between First Nations people and Europeans. There are 634 recognized First Nations governments or bands spread across Canada half of which are in the provinces of Ontario and British Columbia. Under the Employment Equity Act, First Nations are a "designated group", along with women, visible minorities, people with physical or mental disabilities. First Nations are not defined as a visible minority under the Act or by the criteria of Statistics Canada. North American indigenous; some of their oral traditions describe historical events, such as the Cascadia earthquake of 1700 and the 18th-century Tseax Cone eruption. Written records began with the arrival of European explorers and colonists during the Age of Discovery, beginning in the late 15th century.
European accounts by trappers, traders and missionaries give important evidence of early contact culture. In addition and anthropological research, as well as linguistics, have helped scholars piece together an understanding of ancient cultures and historic peoples. Although not without conflict, Euro-Canadians' early interactions with First Nations, Métis, Inuit populations were less combative compared to the violent battles between colonists and native peoples in the United States. Collectively, First Nations, Métis peoples constitute Indigenous peoples in Canada, Indigenous peoples of the Americas, or first peoples. First Nation as a term became used beginning in 1980s to replace the term Indian band in referring to groups of Indians with common government and language; the term had come into common usage in the 1970s to avoid using the word Indian, which some Canadians considered offensive. No legal definition of the term exists; some indigenous peoples in Canada have adopted the term First Nation to replace the word band in the formal name of their community.
A band is a "body of Indians for whose use and benefit in common lands... have been set apart... moneys are held... or declared... to be a band for the purposes of" the Indian Act by the Canadian Crown. The term Indian is a misnomer given to indigenous peoples of North America by European explorers who erroneously thought they had landed on the Indian subcontinent; the use of the term Native Americans, which the US government and others have adopted, is not common in Canada. It refers more to the Indigenous peoples residing within the boundaries of the United States; the parallel term Native Canadian is not used, but Native and autochtone are. Under the Royal Proclamation of 1763 known as the "Indian Magna Carta," the Crown referred to indigenous peoples in British territory as tribes or nations; the term First Nations is capitalized. Bands and nations may have different meanings. Within Canada, First Nations has come into general use for indigenous peoples other than Inuit and Métis. Individuals using the term outside Canada include U.
S. tribes within the Pacific Northwest, as well as supporters of the Cascadian independence movement. The singular used on culturally politicized reserves, is the term First Nations person. A more recent trend is for members of various nations to refer to themselves by their tribal or national identity only, e.g. "I'm Haida". For pre-history, see: Paleo-Indians and Archaic periods First Nations by linguistic-cultural area: List of First Nations peoplesFirst Nations peoples had settled and established trade routes across what is now Canada by 1,000 BC to 500 BC. Communities developed, each with its own culture and character. In the northwest were the Athapaskan-speaking peoples, Slavey, Tłı̨chǫ, Tutchone-speaking peoples, Tlingit. Along the Pacific coast were the Haida, Kwakiutl, Nuu-chah-nulth, Nisga'a and Gitxsan. In the plains were the Blackfoot, Kainai and Northern Peigan. In the northern woodlands were the Chipewyan. Around the Great Lakes were the Anishinaabe, Algonquin and Wyandot. Along the Atlantic coast were the Beothuk, Innu and Micmac.
The Blackfoot Confederacies reside in the Great Plains of Montana and Canadian provinces of Alberta, British Columbia and Saskatchewan. The name "Blackfoot" came from the colour of the peoples' leather footwear, known as moccasins, they had painted the bottoms of their moccasins black. One account claimed that the Blackfoot Confederacies walked through the ashes of prairie fires, which in turn coloured the bottoms of their moccasins black, they had migrated onto the Great Plains from the Plateau area. The Blackfoot may have lived in their homeland since the end of the Pleistocene 11,000 years ago.. For thousands of years, they managed the prairie to support bison herds and cultivated berries and edible roots, they allowed only legitimate traders into their territory, making treaties only when the bison herds were exterminated in the 1870s. The Squamish history is a series of past events, both passed on through oral tradition and recent history, of the Squamish indigenous peoples of the Pacific Northwest Coast.
Prior to colonization, they recorded their history through oral tradition as a way to transmit stories and knowledge across generations. This was common among all the peoples; the writing system esta
World War I
World War I known as the First World War or the Great War, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918. Contemporaneously described as "the war to end all wars", it led to the mobilisation of more than 70 million military personnel, including 60 million Europeans, making it one of the largest wars in history, it is one of the deadliest conflicts in history, with an estimated nine million combatants and seven million civilian deaths as a direct result of the war, while resulting genocides and the 1918 influenza pandemic caused another 50 to 100 million deaths worldwide. On 28 June 1914, Gavrilo Princip, a Bosnian Serb Yugoslav nationalist, assassinated the Austro-Hungarian heir Archduke Franz Ferdinand in Sarajevo, leading to the July Crisis. In response, on 23 July Austria-Hungary issued an ultimatum to Serbia. Serbia's reply failed to satisfy the Austrians, the two moved to a war footing. A network of interlocking alliances enlarged the crisis from a bilateral issue in the Balkans to one involving most of Europe.
By July 1914, the great powers of Europe were divided into two coalitions: the Triple Entente—consisting of France and Britain—and the Triple Alliance of Germany, Austria-Hungary and Italy. Russia felt it necessary to back Serbia and, after Austria-Hungary shelled the Serbian capital of Belgrade on the 28th, partial mobilisation was approved. General Russian mobilisation was announced on the evening of 30 July; when Russia failed to comply, Germany declared war on 1 August in support of Austria-Hungary, with Austria-Hungary following suit on 6th. German strategy for a war on two fronts against France and Russia was to concentrate the bulk of its army in the West to defeat France within four weeks shift forces to the East before Russia could mobilise. On 2 August, Germany demanded free passage through Belgium, an essential element in achieving a quick victory over France; when this was refused, German forces invaded Belgium on 3 August and declared war on France the same day. On 12 August and France declared war on Austria-Hungary.
In November 1914, the Ottoman Empire entered the war on the side of the Alliance, opening fronts in the Caucasus and the Sinai Peninsula. The war was fought in and drew upon each power's colonial empire as well, spreading the conflict to Africa and across the globe; the Entente and its allies would become known as the Allied Powers, while the grouping of Austria-Hungary and their allies would become known as the Central Powers. The German advance into France was halted at the Battle of the Marne and by the end of 1914, the Western Front settled into a battle of attrition, marked by a long series of trench lines that changed little until 1917. In 1915, Italy opened a front in the Alps. Bulgaria joined the Central Powers in 1915 and Greece joined the Allies in 1917, expanding the war in the Balkans; the United States remained neutral, although by doing nothing to prevent the Allies from procuring American supplies whilst the Allied blockade prevented the Germans from doing the same the U. S. became an important supplier of war material to the Allies.
After the sinking of American merchant ships by German submarines, the revelation that the Germans were trying to incite Mexico to make war on the United States, the U. S. declared war on Germany on 6 April 1917. Trained American forces would not begin arriving at the front in large numbers until mid-1918, but the American Expeditionary Force would reach some two million troops. Though Serbia was defeated in 1915, Romania joined the Allied Powers in 1916 only to be defeated in 1917, none of the great powers were knocked out of the war until 1918; the 1917 February Revolution in Russia replaced the Tsarist autocracy with the Provisional Government, but continuing discontent at the cost of the war led to the October Revolution, the creation of the Soviet Socialist Republic, the signing of the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk by the new government in March 1918, ending Russia's involvement in the war. This allowed the transfer of large numbers of German troops from the East to the Western Front, resulting in the German March 1918 Offensive.
This offensive was successful, but the Allies rallied and drove the Germans back in their Hundred Days Offensive. Bulgaria was the first Central Power to sign an armistice—the Armistice of Salonica on 29 September 1918. On 30 October, the Ottoman Empire capitulated. On 4 November, the Austro-Hungarian empire agreed to the Armistice of Villa Giusti after being decisively defeated by Italy in the Battle of Vittorio Veneto. With its allies defeated, revolution at home, the military no longer willing to fight, Kaiser Wilhelm abdicated on 9 November and Germany signed an armistice on 11 November 1918. World War I was a significant turning point in the political, cultural and social climate of the world; the war and its immediate aftermath sparked numerous uprisings. The Big Four (Britain, the United States, It
Tudor Revival architecture
Tudor Revival architecture first manifested itself in domestic architecture beginning in the United Kingdom in the mid to late 19th century based on a revival of aspects of Tudor architecture or, more the style of English vernacular architecture of the Middle Ages that survived into the Tudor period. It became an influence in some other countries the British colonies. For example, in New Zealand, the architect Francis Petre adapted the style for the local climate. Elsewhere in Singapore a British colony, architects such as R. A. J. Bidwell pioneered what became known as the Black and White House; the earliest examples of the style originate with the works of such eminent architects as Norman Shaw and George Devey, in what at the time was thought of as a neo-Tudor design. Tudorbethan is a subset of Tudor Revival architecture which eliminated some of the more complex aspects of Jacobethan in favor of more domestic styles of "Merrie England", which were cosier and quaint, it was associated with the Arts and Crafts Movement.
The emphasis was on the simple and the less impressive aspects of Tudor architecture, imitating in this way medieval cottages or country houses. Although the style follows these more modest characteristics, items such as steeply pitched-roofs, half-timbering infilled with herringbone brickwork, tall mullioned windows, high chimneys, jettied first floors above pillared porches, dormer windows supported by consoles, at times thatched roofs, gave Tudor Revival its more striking effects, it is quite expensive. The Tudor Revival style was a reaction to the ornate Victorian Gothic Revival of the second half of the 19th century. Rejecting mass production, introduced by industry at that time, the Arts and Crafts movement related to Tudorbethan, drew on simple design inherent in aspects of its more ancient styles, Tudor and Jacobean; the Tudor style made one of its first appearances in Britain at Cragside, a hilltop mansion of eclectic architectural styles that incorporated certain Tudor features. However at the same time, Shaw designed Leyswood near Withyham in Sussex, a large mansion around a courtyard, complete with mock battlements, half-timbered upper facades and tall chimneys – all features quite associated with Tudor architecture.
Confusingly, it was promptly named "Queen Anne style", when in reality it combined a revival of Elizabethan and Jacobean design details including mullioned and oriel windows. The style began to incorporate the classic pre-Georgian features that are understood to represent "Queen Anne" in Britain; the term "Queen Anne" for this style of architecture tends to be more used in the USA than in Britain. In the USA it evolved into a form of architecture not recognisable as that constructed in either the Tudor or Queen Anne period. In Britain the style remained closer to its Tudor roots. Tudorbethan represents a subset of Tudor Revival architecture; this was modelled on the grand prodigy houses built by the courtiers of Elizabeth I and James VI. "Tudorbethan" took it a step further, eliminated the hexagonal or many-faceted towers and mock battlements of Jacobethan, applied the more domestic styles of "Merrie England", which were cosier and quaint. It was associated with the Arts and Crafts Movement. Outside North America, Tudorbethan is used synonymously with Tudor Revival and mock Tudor.
From the 1880s onwards, Tudor Revival concentrated more on the simple but quaintly picturesque Elizabethan cottage, rather than the brick and battlemented splendours of Hampton Court or Compton Wynyates. Large and small houses alike with half-timbering in their upper storeys and gables were completed with tall ornamental chimneys, in what was a simple cottage style, it was here that the influences of the crafts movement became apparent. However, Tudor Revival cannot be likened to the timber-framed structures of the originals, in which the frame supported the whole weight of the house, their modern counterparts consist of bricks or blocks of various materials, stucco, or simple studwall framing, with a lookalike "frame" of thin boards added on the outside to mimic the earlier functional and structural weight-bearing heavy timbers. An example of this is the "simple cottage" style of Ascott House in Buckinghamshire; this was designed by Devey for the Rothschild family, who were among the earliest patrons and promoters of this style.
Some more enlightened landlords at this time became more aware of the needs for proper sanitation and housing for their employees, some estate villages were rebuilt to resemble what was thought to be an idyllic Elizabethan village grouped around a village green and pond. The Tudor Revival, now concentrated on the picturesque. A well-known example of the idealised half-timbered style is Liberty & Co. department store in London, built in the style of a vast half-timbered Tudor mansion. The store specialised, among other goods, in fabrics and furnishings by the leading designers of the Arts and Crafts movement. In the early part of the century, one of the exponents who developed the style further was Edwin Lutyens. At The Deanery in Berkshire, 1899, where the client was the editor of the influential magazine Country Li
Royal Victoria Yacht Club
The Royal Victoria Yacht Club is located along the shores of Cadboro Bay in The Uplands a neighborhood of Oak Bay, adjacent to the city of Victoria, British Columbia and has facilities at Tseheum Harbour in Sidney. The Royal Victoria Yacht Club was formed on June 8, 1892, moved in 1912 to its current location, at the location of the old Hudson's Bay Company cattle wharf; the Royal Victoria Yacht Club is the oldest yacht club in British Columbia. Through the years, the club has hosted a number of regattas and sailing races, including a racing program for young sailors "The History of Oak Bay Website". Retrieved 27 December 2012. "A Brief History of the Royal Victoria Yacht Club". Retrieved 27 December 2012. Royal Victoria Yacht Club
Victoria, British Columbia
Victoria is the capital city of the Canadian province of British Columbia, located on the southern tip of Vancouver Island off Canada's Pacific coast. The city has a population of 85,792, while the metropolitan area of Greater Victoria has a population of 367,770, making it the 15th most populous Canadian metropolitan area. Victoria is the 7th most densely populated city in Canada with 4,405.8 people per square kilometre, a greater population density than Toronto. Victoria is the southernmost major city in Western Canada, is about 100 kilometres from British Columbia's largest city of Vancouver on the mainland; the city is about 100 km from Seattle by airplane, ferry, or the Victoria Clipper passenger-only ferry which operates daily, year round between Seattle and Victoria, 40 kilometres from Port Angeles, Washington, by ferry Coho across the Strait of Juan de Fuca. Named after Queen Victoria of the United Kingdom and, at the time, British North America, Victoria is one of the oldest cities in the Pacific Northwest, with British settlement beginning in 1843.
The city has retained a large number of its historic buildings, in particular its two most famous landmarks, Parliament Buildings and the Empress hotel. The city's Chinatown is the second oldest in North America after San Francisco's; the region's Coast Salish First Nations peoples established communities in the area long before non-native settlement several thousand years earlier, which had large populations at the time of European exploration. Known as "The Garden City", Victoria is an attractive city and a popular tourism destination with a thriving technology sector that has risen to be its largest revenue-generating private industry. Victoria is according to Numbeo; the city has a large non-local student population, who come to attend the University of Victoria, Camosun College, Royal Roads University, the Victoria College of Art, the Canadian College of Performing Arts, high school programs run by the region's three school districts. Victoria is popular with boaters with its rugged beaches.
Victoria is popular with retirees, who come to enjoy the temperate and snow-free climate of the area as well as the relaxed pace of the city. Prior to the arrival of European navigators in the late 1700s, the Victoria area was home to several communities of Coast Salish peoples, including the Songhees; the Spanish and British took up the exploration of the northwest coast, beginning with the visits of Juan Pérez in 1774, of James Cook in 1778. Although the Victoria area of the Strait of Juan de Fuca was not penetrated until 1790, Spanish sailors visited Esquimalt Harbour in 1790, 1791, 1792. In 1841 James Douglas was charged with the duty of setting up a trading post on the southern tip of Vancouver Island, upon the recommendation by George Simpson a new more northerly post be built in case Fort Vancouver fell into American hands. Douglas founded Fort Victoria on the site of present-day Victoria in anticipation of the outcome of the Oregon Treaty in 1846, extending the British North America/United States border along the 49th parallel from the Rockies to the Strait of Georgia.
Erected in 1843 as a Hudson's Bay Company trading post on a site called Camosun known as "Fort Albert", the settlement was renamed Fort Victoria in November 1843, in honour of Queen Victoria. The Songhees established a village across the harbour from the fort; the Songhees' village was moved north of Esquimalt. The crown colony was established in 1849. Between the years 1850-1854 a series of treaty agreements known as the Douglas Treaties were made with indigenous communities to purchase certain plots of land in exchange for goods; these agreements contributed to a town being laid out on the site and made the capital of the colony, though controversy has followed about the ethical negotiation and upholding of rights by the colonial government. The superintendent of the fort, Chief Factor James Douglas was made the second governor of the Vancouver Island Colony, would be the leading figure in the early development of the city until his retirement in 1864; when news of the discovery of gold on the British Columbia mainland reached San Francisco in 1858, Victoria became the port, supply base, outfitting centre for miners on their way to the Fraser Canyon gold fields, mushrooming from a population of 300 to over 5000 within a few days.
Victoria was incorporated as a city in 1862. In 1865, the North Pacific home of the Royal Navy was established in Esquimalt and today is Canada's Pacific coast naval base. In 1866 when the island was politically united with the mainland, Victoria was designated the capital of the new united colony instead of New Westminster – an unpopular move on the Mainland – and became the provincial capital when British Columbia joined the Canadian Confederation in 1871. In the latter half of the 19th century, the Port of Victoria became one of North America's largest importers of opium, serving the opium trade from Hong Kong and distribution into North America. Opium trade was legal and unregulated until 1865 the legislature issued licences and levied duties on its import and sale; the opium trade was banned in 1908. In 1886, with the completion of the Canadian Pacific Railway terminus on Burrard Inlet, Victoria's position as the commercial centre of British Columbia was irrevocably lost to the city of Vancouver, British Columbia.
The city subsequently began culti