Oak Ridge National Laboratory is an American multiprogram science and technology national laboratory sponsored by the U. S. Department of Energy and administered and operated by UT–Battelle as a federally funded research and development center under a contract with the DOE. Established in 1942, ORNL is the largest science and energy national laboratory in the Department of Energy system by size and by annual budget. ORNL is located in Oak Ridge, near Knoxville. ORNL's scientific programs focus on materials, neutron science, high-performance computing, systems biology and national security. ORNL partners with the state of Tennessee and industries to solve challenges in energy, advanced materials, manufacturing and physics; the laboratory is home to several of the world's top supercomputers including the world's most powerful supercomputer ranked by the TOP500, is a leading neutron science and nuclear energy research facility that includes the Spallation Neutron Source and High Flux Isotope Reactor.
ORNL hosts the Center for Nanophase Materials Sciences, the BioEnergy Science Center, the Consortium for Advanced Simulation of Light-Water Reactors. Oak Ridge National Laboratory is managed by UT–Battelle, a limited liability partnership between the University of Tennessee and the Battelle Memorial Institute, formed in 2000 for that purpose; the annual budget is US$1.65 billion, 80% of, from the Department of Energy. As of 2012 there are 4,400 staff working at ORNL, 1,600 of whom are directly conducting research, an additional 3,000 guest researchers annually. There are five campuses on the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge reservation; the total area of the reservation 150 square kilometres of which the lab takes up 18 square kilometres. The town of Oak Ridge was established by the Army Corps of Engineers as part of the Clinton Engineer Works in 1942 on isolated farm land as part of the Manhattan Project. During the war, advanced research for the government was managed at the site by the University of Chicago's Metallurgical Laboratory.
In 1943, construction of the "Clinton Laboratories" was completed renamed to "Oak Ridge National Laboratory". The site was chosen for the X-10 Graphite Reactor, used to show that plutonium can be created from enriched uranium. Enrico Fermi and his colleagues developed the world's second self-sustaining nuclear reactor after Fermi's previous experiment, the Chicago Pile-1; the X-10 was the first reactor designed for continuous operation. After the end of World War II the demand for weapons-grade plutonium fell and the reactor and the laboratory's 1000 employees were no longer involved in nuclear weapons. Instead, it was used for scientific research. In 1946 the first medical isotopes were produced in the X-10 reactor, by 1950 20,000 samples had been shipped to various hospitals; as the demand for military science had fallen the future of the lab was uncertain. Management of the lab was contracted by the US government to Monsanto; the University of Chicago re-assumed responsibility, until in December 1947, when Union Carbide and Carbon Co. which operated two other facilities at Oak Ridge, took control of the laboratory.
Alvin Weinberg was named Director of Research, ORNL, in 1955 Director of the Laboratory. In 1950 the Oak Ridge School of Reactor Technology was established with two courses in reactor operation and safety. Much of the research performed at ORNL in the 1950s was relating to nuclear reactors as a form of energy production, both for propulsion and electricity. More reactors were built in the 1950s than in the rest of the ORNL's history combined. Another project was the world's first light water reactor. With its principles of neutron moderation and fuel cooling by ordinary water, it is the direct ancestor of most modern nuclear power stations; the US Military funded much of its development, for nuclear-powered submarines and ships of the US Navy. The US Army contracted portable nuclear reactors in 1953 for heat and electricity generation in remote military bases; the reactors were designed at ORNL, produced by American Locomotive Company and used in Greenland, the Panama Canal Zone and Antarctica.
The United States Air Force contributed funding to three reactors, the lab's first computers, its first particle accelerators. ORNL designed and tested a nuclear-powered aircraft in 1954 as a proof-of-concept for a proposed USAF fleet of long-range bombers, although it never flew; the provision of radionuclides by X-10 for medicine grew in the 1950s with more isotopes available. ORNL was the only Western source of californium-252. ORNL scientists lowered the immune systems of mice and performed the world's first successful bone marrow transplant. In the early 1960s there was a large push at ORNL to develop nuclear-powered desalination plants, where deserts met the sea, to provide water; the project, called Water for Peace, was backed by John F. Kennedy and Lyndon B. Johnson, presented at a 1964 United Nations conference, but increases in the cost of construction and falling public confidence in nuclear power caused the plan to fail; the Health Physics Research Reactor built in 1962 was used for radiation exposure experiments leading to more accurate dosage limits and dosimeters, improved
David Adams Leeming is an American philologist, Professor Emeritus of English and Comparative Literature at the University of Connecticut. Leeming is considered a leading authority on the comparative literature of mythology, a subject on which he has written and edited numerous encyclopedias and dictionaries. David Adams Leeming was born on February 26, 1937 in Peekskill, New York, the son of Frank Clifford and Margaret Adams Leeming, his father was an Episcopal priest. Leeming received his A. B. from Princeton University in 1958. In 1959 he did a summer course graduate study at the University of Caen. From New York University he received his M. A. in 1964, his Ph. D. in 1970. Leeming was Head of the English Department at Robert College in Istanbul, Turkey from 1958 to 1963. From 1964 to 1967 he was the secretary-assistant of author James Baldwin. Since 1969 Leeming was Assistant Professor of English at the University of Connecticut, he became Professor of English and Comparative Literature at the University of Connecticut, where he in years has served as Professor Emeritus.
Leeming is considered a leading authority on the comparative literature of mythology. He has written and edited numerous encyclopedias and dictionaries on the subject, he has written biographies on Beauford Delaney, James Baldwin, Stephen Spender. Leeming is a member of the Modern Language Association of America and the Federation of University Teachers. Leeming married Pamela Elaine Fraser on July 2, 1967, with whom he has the daughets Mary Adams and Juliet Ann. Mythology, 1973 The World of Myth, 1990 James Baldwin: A Biography, 1994 David Adams Leeming at LibraryThing
Robert Kempiński is a Polish chess grandmaster. He is a two-time Polish Chess Champion. Kempiński won easily. At the age of 14 he won the Polish junior championship in his age category, the year after that he won the Polish junior championship for U20. In the following years he represented Poland in international competitions, he won the European Youth Chess Championship three times: 1993, 1994 and 1995. In 1995 he won the world title in the World Youth Chess Championship in Guarapuava, ahead of Emil Sutovsky; the following year he was awarded the grandmaster title and participated in his first Chess Olympiad, has since participated in six chess olympiads 1996-2006, with a 52.1% overall performance. He won the Polish Chess Championship in 1997 and 2001. International tournament victories include: Zlín, České Budějovice, Lippstadt, Frýdek-Místek, Rubinstein Memorial, Bad Zwesten Neckar-Open, Porzellan-Cup, he participated in the FIDE World Chess Championship 2004, but was knocked out in the first round against Alexander Lastin.
Albert L. Murray was an American literary and jazz critic, novelist and biographer. Murray was born in Mobile County, Alabama, he attended the Tuskegee Institute on scholarship and received a B. S. in education in 1939. He enrolled in a graduate program at the University of Michigan before returning to Tuskegee in 1940 to teach literature and composition. In 1941, he married Mozelle Menefee. While based at Tuskegee, he completed additional graduate work at Northwestern University in 1941 and the University of Paris in 1951. During World War II, he joined the United States Army Air Forces in 1943 with the desire to "live long enough for Thomas Mann to finish the last volume of Joseph and His Brothers." In 1946, he transferred to the United States Air Force Reserve and enrolled at New York University on the GI Bill, where he received an M. A. in English in 1948. After returning to his position at Tuskegee, he opted to pursue a more financially remunerative career as a member of the Active Guard Reserve in 1951 to better support his young family.
Over the next decade, Murray was stationed in a number of locales and taught a geopolitics course in the Tuskegee ROTC program. He retired from the United States Air Force as a major in 1962 and returned to Harlem, where he was based for the remainder of his life. Thereafter, Murray began his literary career in earnest publishing in such periodicals as Life and The New Leader, his first book, The Omni-Americans, was published in 1970 to wide critical acclaim. Between 1970 and his death, he published nearly a dozen additional books, including four novels, he held visiting lectureships and professorships at several institutions, including the Columbia University Graduate School of Journalism, Colgate University, the University of Massachusetts Boston, the University of Missouri, Emory University, Drew University and Washington and Lee University. From 1981 to 1983, he was an adjunct associate professor of writing at Barnard College. In 1976, he received the prestigious ASCAP-Deems Taylor Award for his music criticism.
He received honorary doctorates from Colgate and Spring Hill College. Though they did not know each other at Tuskegee and Ellison became close friends shortly after Murray graduated, their mutually influential relationship — reflected in the book Trading Twelves: The Selected Letters of Ralph Ellison and Albert Murray — informed the thinking and writing of both men from the time of the writing of Ellison's Invisible Man, through Murray's social-aesthetic works and novels, up until Ellison's death in 1994. Murray and the American painter Romare Bearden became close friends after meeting in Paris in 1949 and influenced each other's art for several decades. Bearden's 1971 six-panel, 18-foot collage The Block was inspired by the view from Murray's apartment in the Lenox Terrace apartment complex; as detailed in Henry Louis Gates, Jr.'s New Yorker profile "King of Cats" and in Sanford Pinsker's article in the Virginia Quarterly Review, Murray received greater attention in the 1980s and 1990s due to his influence on critic Stanley Crouch and jazz musician Wynton Marsalis.
Both Crouch and Marsalis gained controversial notoriety for their advocacy of what Murray, in Stomping the Blues, identified as the core elements of jazz: swing, blues tonalities, acoustic sounds. After detailing Murray's insightful engagement — in non-fiction and fiction — of history, aesthetics, painting and literature, Gates concluded his profile by noting: "This is Albert Murray's century, we just live in it." With Marsalis, Murray was the co-founder of the program and institution known as Jazz at Lincoln Center. In addition to his own work, Murray was the credited ghostwriter of Count Basie's Good Morning Blues, a memoir, he died in Harlem in 2013, aged 97. The Omni-Americans: Some Alternatives to the Folklore of White Supremacy South to a Very Old Place Train Whistle Guitar, novel Stomping the Blues The Spyglass Tree The Blue Devils of Nada, a collection of essays The Hero And the Blues The Seven League Boots Trading Twelves: The Selected Letters of Ralph Ellison and Albert Murray. Conjugations and Reiterations: Poems From the Briarpatch File: On Context and American Identity Albert Murray on IMDb Pinsker, Sanford, "Albert Murray: the Black Intellectuals' Maverick Patriarch", Virginia Quarterly Review, Autumn 1996 "Distinguished Artist Award," Alabama Arts Council, 2003.
Go to iTunes U to view "Albert Murray and the Aesthetic Imagination of a Nation: A SympoSium" from Auburn University, January 2008. Appearances on C-SPAN Boynton, Robert "The New Intellectuals," The Atlantic Monthly, March 1995
"Old Aunt Jemima" is an American song composed by African American comedian and minstrel show performer Billy Kersands. The song became the inspiration for the Aunt Jemima brand of pancakes, as well as several characters in film, television and on radio named "Aunt Jemima". Kersands wrote his first version of "Old Aunt Jemima" in 1875, it was to become Kersands' most popular song. Robert Toll claimed that Kersands had performed this song over 2000 times by 1877. There were at least 3 different sets of "Old Aunt Jemima" lyrics by 1889. "Old Aunt Jemima" would be sung while a man in drag, playing the part of Aunt Jemima, performed on stage. It was not uncommon for the Aunt Jemima character to be played by a white man in blackface. Other minstrels incorporated Aunt Jemima into their acts, so Aunt Jemima became a common figure in minstrelsy. Other songs about Aunt Jemima were composed, such as "Aunt Jemima Song" and "Aunt Jemima's Picnic Day". One version of "Old Aunt Jemima" began with a stanza expressing dissatisfaction with the dullness of worship services in white churches, such as a complaint about the length of the prayers.
The song ended with the following two stanzas: The monkey dressed in soldier clothes," Old Aunt Jemima, oh! oh! oh! Went out in the woods for to drill some crows, Old Aunt Jemima, oh! oh! oh! The jay bird hung on the swinging limb, Old Aunt Jemima, oh! oh! oh! I up with a stone and hit him on the shin, Old Aunt Jemima, oh! oh! oh! Oh, Carline, oh, Can't you dance the bee line, Old Aunt Jemima, oh! oh! oh! "Oh!oh!oh!" The bullfrog married the tadpole's sister, Old Aunt Jemima, oh! oh! oh! He smacked his lips and he kissed her, Old Aunt Jemima, oh! oh! oh! She says if you love me as I love you, Old Aunt Jemima, oh! oh! oh! No knife can cut our love in two, Old Aunt Jemima, oh! oh! oh! Oh, Carline, oh, Can't you dance the bee line, Old Aunt Jemima, oh! oh! oh! Some variants of the song substituted "pea-vine" for "bee line". Another version included the verse: My old missus promise me, Old Aunt Jemima, oh! oh! oh! When she died she-d set me free, Old Aunt Jemima, oh! oh! oh! She lived so long her head got bald, Old Aunt Jemima, oh! oh! oh!
She swore she would not die at all, Old Aunt Jemima, oh! oh! oh! "Oh!oh!oh!"Sterling Stuckey maintains that Kersands did not write all of these lyrics, but adapted many of them from "slave songs"
Anne Mary Sibylla Liddell-Grainger, Baroness of Ayton is the mother of British politician Ian Liddell-Grainger. Her maternal grandparents were Alexander Cambridge, 1st Earl of Athlone, Princess Alice, Countess of Athlone, she was born in Kensington Palace, the daughter of Colonel Sir Henry Abel Smith and Lady May Abel Smith. She married David Liddell-Grainger, a Scottish politician, on 14 December 1957, they divorced in 1981. They had eight grandchildren: Ian Richard Peregrine Liddell-Grainger, they have three children: Peter Richard Liddell-Grainger Sophie Victoria Liddell-Grainger. May Alexandra Liddell-Grainger. Charles Montagu Liddell-Grainger, he remarried Martha Margaretha de Clermont on 20 October 2008. They are now separated. Simon Rupert Liddell-Grainger, he remarried Nathalie Judith Poulard on 4 February 2000. They have two children: Simon Alexander Liddell-Grainger Matthew Willis Liddell-Grainger Alice Mary Liddell-Grainger, they have two children: Danilo Pietro Panaggio Jessica Alice Panaggio Malcolm Henry Liddell-Grainger.
They have a child: Cameron Henry Liddell-Grainger Mrs Liddell-Grainger became a devout Christian, served as a missionary in Africa. She settled in Kennington, south London, she is in the line of succession to the British Throne as a great-great-granddaughter of Queen Victoria. She is a second cousin of Queen Elizabeth II. Burke's Peerage Who's Who 2009 YouTube: Queen's Cousin Weds