The Oberkommando des Heeres was the High Command of the German Army during the Era of Nazi Germany. It was founded in 1935 as a part of Adolf Hitler's re-militarisation of Germany. From 1938 OKH was, together with OKL and OKM, formally subordinated to the OKW, with the exception of the Waffen-SS. During the war, OKH had the responsibility of strategic planning of Armies and Army Groups, while the General Staff of the OKH managed operational matters; each German Army had an Armeeoberkommando, Army Command, or AOK. Until the German defeat at Moscow in December 1941, OKH and its staff was de facto the most important unit within the German war planning. OKW took over this function for theatres other than the German-Soviet front. OKH commander held the title Oberbefehlshaber des Heeres. Following the Battle of Moscow, after OKH commander Field Marshal Walther von Brauchitsch was excused, Hitler appointed himself as Commander-in-Chief of the Army. Hitler had been the head of OKW since January 1938, using it to pass orders to the navy, air force, army.
After a major crisis developed in the Battle of Moscow, Walther von Brauchitsch was dismissed, Hitler appointed himself as head of the OKH while still retaining his position at the OKW. At the same time, he limited the OKH's authority to the Russian front, giving OKW direct authority over army units elsewhere; this enabled Hitler to declare that only he had complete awareness of Germany's strategic situation, should any general request a transfer of resources between the Russian front and another theater of operations. In 1944, these elements were subordinate to the OKH: C.-in-C. Reserve Army and Chief of Equipment: Friedrich Fromm Chief of Army General Division: Friedrich Olbricht Chief of Army Ordnance: Emil Leeb Chief of Army Personnel Division: Rudolf Schmundt Chief of Army Administrative Division: Herbert Osterkamp Army Propaganda and Public Relations Office: Hasso von Wedel – Albrecht Blau – Kurt Dittmar Inspector General of Armoured Troops: Heinz Guderian General officer commanding for Engineers and Fortifications: Alfred Jacob Inspector General for Officer Cadets: Karl-Wilhelm Specht The Commander-in-Chief of the Army was the head of the OKH and the German Army during the years of the Nazi regime.
Supreme Commanders of the Army were: The Chiefs of the OKH General Staff were: Although both OKW and OKH were headquartered in Zossen during the Third Reich, the functional and operational independence of both establishments were not lost on the respective staff during their tenure. Personnel at the sprawling Zossen compound remarked that if Maybach 2 was destroyed, the OKH staff in Maybach 1 would scarcely notice; these camouflaged facilities, separated physically by a fence maintained structurally different mindsets towards their objectives. On 28 April 1945, Hitler formally subordinated OKH to OKW, giving the latter command of forces on the Eastern Front. German general staff Glossary of World War II German military terms Maybach I and II Oberste Heeresleitung, the German Empire's highest army command during World War I "Not the Stuff of Legend: The German High Command in World War II" – lecture by Dr. Geoffrey Megargee, author of Inside Hitler's High Command, available at the official YouTube channel of the U.
S. Army Heritage and Education Center
Operation Bagration was the codename for the Soviet 1944 Belorussian Strategic Offensive Operation, a military campaign fought between 23 June and 19 August 1944 in Soviet Byelorussia in the Eastern Front of World War II. The Soviet Union inflicted the biggest defeat in German military history by destroying 28 out of 34 divisions of Army Group Centre and shattered the German front line, it was the fifth deadliest campaign on the European war scene, killing around 450,000 soldiers. On 23 June 1944, the Red Army attacked Army Group Centre in Byelorussia, with the objective of encircling and destroying its main component armies. By 28 June, the German Fourth Army had been destroyed, along with most of the Third Panzer and Ninth Armies; the Red Army exploited the collapse of the German front line to encircle German formations in the vicinity of Minsk in the Minsk Offensive and destroy them, with Minsk liberated on 4 July. With the end of effective German resistance in Byelorussia, the Soviet offensive continued further to Lithuania and Romania over the course of July and August.
The Red Army used the Soviet deep battle and maskirovka strategies for the first time to a full extent, albeit with continuing heavy losses. Operation Bagration diverted German mobile reserves to the central sectors, removing them from the Lublin-Brest and Lvov–Sandomierz areas, enabling the Soviets to undertake the Lvov–Sandomierz Offensive and Lublin–Brest Offensive; this allowed the Red Army to reach the Vistula river and Warsaw, which in turn put Soviet forces within striking distance of Berlin, conforming to the concept of Soviet deep operations—striking deep into the enemy's strategic depths. Germany's Army Group Centre had proved tough to counter as the Soviet defeat in Operation Mars had shown, but by June 1944, despite shortening its front line, it had been exposed following the defeats of Army Group South in the battles that followed the Battle of Kursk, the Battle of Kiev, the Dnieper-Carpathian Offensive and the Crimean Offensive in the late summer and winter of 1943–44. In the north, Army Group North was pushed back, leaving Army Group Center's lines protruding towards the east and at risk of losing contact with neighbouring army groups.
The German High Command expected the next Soviet offensive to fall against Army Group North Ukraine, while it lacked intelligence capabilities to divine the Soviet intentions. The Wehrmacht had redeployed one-third of Army Group Centre's artillery, half of its tank destroyers, 88 per cent of tanks to the south; the entire operational reserve on the Eastern front was deployed to Model's sector. Army Group Centre only had a total of 580 tanks, tank destroyers, assault guns, they were opposed by over self-propelled guns. German lines were thinly held. Operation Bagration, in combination with the neighbouring Lvov-Sandomierz Offensive, launched a few weeks in Ukraine, allowed the Soviet Union to recapture Belorussia and Ukraine within its 1941 borders, advance into German East Prussia, but more the Lvov-Sandomierz operation allowed the Red Army to reach the outskirts of Warsaw after gaining control of Poland east of the Vistula river; the campaign enabled the next operation, the Vistula–Oder Offensive, to come within sight of the German capital.
The Soviets were surprised at the success of the Belorussian operation which had nearly reached Warsaw. The Soviet advance encouraged the Warsaw uprising against the German occupation forces; the battle has been described as the triumph of the Soviet theory of the "operational art" because of the complete coordination of all the strategic front movements and signals traffic to fool the enemy about the target of the offensive. The military tactical operations of the Red Army avoided the mobile reserves of the Wehrmacht and continually "wrong-footed" the German forces. Despite the massive forces involved, Soviet front commanders left their adversaries confused about the main axis of attack until it was too late; the Russian word maskirovka is equivalent to the English word camouflage, but it has broader application in military use. During World War II the term was used by Soviet commanders to describe measures to create deception with the goal of inflicting surprise on the Wehrmacht forces; the Oberkommando des Heeres expected the Soviets to launch a major Eastern Front offensive in the summer of 1944.
The Stavka considered a number of options. The timetable of operations between June and August had been decided on by 28 April 1944; the Stavka rejected an offensive in either the L'vov sector or the Yassy-Kishinev sectors owing to the presence of powerful enemy mobile forces equal in strength to the Soviet strategic fronts. Instead they suggested four options: an offensive into Romania and through the Carpathian Mountains, an offensive into the western Ukrainian SSR aimed at the Baltic coast, an attack into the Baltic, an offensive in the Belorussian SSR; the first two options were rejected as being too open to flank attack. The third option was rejected on the grounds; the only safe option was an offensive into Belorussia which would enable subsequent offensives from Ukraine into Poland and Romania. The Soviet and German High Commands recognised western Ukraine as a staging area for an offensive into Poland; the Soviets, aware that the enemy would anticipate this, engag
My Life is the autobiography of the first female Prime Minister of Israel, Golda Meir. The book was first published by Weidenfeld & Nicolson with the title A Land of our own and by G. P. Putnam's Sons in 1975; the first German translation was published 1973 by the Scherz Verlag in Bern. The book became a New York Times best-seller; the title has the double-entendre of a well-known Jewish expression. The book was well received by Kirkus Reviews who described the book as "both frank and revealing of her personality and goals, her total lack of pretense is winning. Meir's practical idealism can be seen in efforts as diverse as the beautification of kibbutzim and her strong advocacy of unemployment benefits; the work that'most concerned and interested me,' she writes, was'the translation of socialist principles into the down-to-earth terminology of everyday life.' Although the political events narrated are well known they are recounted with spirit. Don't mistake this for just chicken soup with riposte-noodles: it's a model of its kind and a sure crowd-pleaser."
List of illustrations ix 1. My childhood 2. A political adolescence 3. I choose Palestine 4; the start of a new life 5. Pioneers and problems 6.'We shall fight Hitler' 7. The struggle against the British 8. We have our state 9. Minister to Moscow 10; the right to exist 11. African and other friendships 12. We are alone 13; the prime minister 14. The Yom Kippur War 15; the end of the road Index
The Texan is a 1930 American Western film directed by John Cromwell and starring Gary Cooper and Fay Wray. Based on the short story "The Double-Dyed Deceiver" by O. Henry, the film is about a daring bandit called the Llano Kid who shoots a young gambler in self-defense and is forced to hide from the law, he is helped by a corrupt lawyer who involves the bandit in a scheme to swindle a Mexican aristocrat whose son turns out to be the young gambler killed by the Llano Kid. The screenplay was written by Daniel Nathan Rubin, the story was adapted for the screen by Oliver H. P. Garrett and Victor Milner. Produced by Hector Turnbull for Paramount Pictures, The Texan was released in the United States on May 10, 1930; the film received positive reviews upon its theatrical release. A young bandit has a price on his head. After stopping in at the local blacksmith, John Brown, a religious man who fancies himself a sheriff, the Kid gets into a poker game during which he notices a young gambler cheating, confronts him, is forced to kill him in self-defense.
The Kid is pursued by Sheriff Brown and is apprehended, but is able to get the draw on the zealous lawman. As the Kid leaps into the saddle, Sheriff Brown pledges, "God will deliver you into my hands." Aboard a train, the Kid meets an unscrupulous lawyer named Thacker, who convinces him to pose as the son of Señora Ibarra, a wealthy South American widow whose son Enrique disappeared fifteen years earlier. Having set himself up as the widow's agent hired to find the lost son, Thacker plans to return with her "son" and swindle the widow's gold in the process. Soon the two men set sail aboard a schooner to South America, where they arrive at Señora Ibarra's family hacienda in a little seaport town of Buenas Tierras. With his basic Spanish speaking skills, new sideburns, tattooed hand, the Kid is able to pass himself off as Enrique, the long lost son of Señora Ibarra, their plans are interrupted, when the Kid meets and falls in love with his lovely "niece" Consuelo. Softened by Señora Ibarra's affection for him, his newfound love, he begins to have second doubts about the scheme.
When the Kid learns that Señora Ibarra's son was in fact the man he shot in self-defense in the saloon, he calls off his deal with Thacker. Angered by this turn of events, Thacker organizes a gang to steal the gold outright. Meanwhile, Sheriff Brown arrives at Buenas Tierras, having tracked down the Llano Kid, "delivered into his hands", he waits until nightfall before making the arrest. During the ensuing gunfight, the Kid is wounded, Thacker is killed. Afterwards, Brown has a change of heart after seeing courage; the sheriff agrees to keep the Kid's identity secret so Enrique can continue his life with his new family. Gary Cooper as The Llano Kid Fay Wray as Consuelo Emma Dunn as Señora Doña Marguerita Ibarra Oscar Apfel as Thacker James A. Marcus as Sheriff John Brown Donald Reed as Nick Ibarra Soledad Jiménez as The Dueña Veda Buckland as Mary, a Nurse César Vanoni as Pasquale Ed Brady as Henry Enrique Acosta as Sixto Romualdo Tirado as Cabman The Texan is based on the short story "The Double-Dyed Deceiver" by O. Henry, first published in Everybody's Magazine in December 1905.
The story was filmed as A Double-Dyed Deceiver with Jack Pickford in the lead role. In his review for The New York Times, Mordaunt Hall called the film "an expertly touched-up audible pictorial adaptation of O. Henry's story". Hall praises Cooper for his "capital acting", comparing his performance to his earlier success, The Virginian. "The lean, lanky Mr. Cooper elicits a great deal of sympathy as the double-dyed deceiver," Hall observes, he acknowledges the supporting performances by screen veterans Oscar Apfel, the "splendid" James Marcus, the "pleasing" Emma Dunn, Fay Wray, who "has never been more captivating than she is as Consuelo". Hall gives most of the credit for the film's success to director John Cromwell and screenwriter Oliver H. P. Garrett, who are able to balance the irony of O'Henry's original story with a love interest, "adroitly introduced without hindering the dénouement"; the Texan on IMDb The Texan at the TCM Movie Database The Texan at AllMovie
There are numerous historic sites and attractions in Westchester County. These include battlegrounds, churches, underground railroad depots and waystations, other sites from pre-Revolutionary and Revolutionary times, as well as historic and architecturally significant manors and estates in the area. Westchester County played an important role in the development of the modern suburb, there are many associated heritage sites and museums. A few of the best known are listed below: Bronx River Parkway The Capitol Theatre, Port Chester Caramoor Center for Music and the Arts, Katonah The Elephant Hotel, Somers Ferncliff Cemetery, Hartsdale Glen Island Park and Glen Island Harbour Club Irvington Town Hall Theater, Irvington Jacob Burns Film Center, Pleasantville The Old Croton Aqueduct The Old Croton Trail The Old Dutch Church, Sleepy Hollow Paramount Center for the Arts, Peekskill Philipsburg Manor House, Sleepy Hollow Philipse Manor Hall State Historic Site, Yonkers The Picture House, Pelham Playland, Rye Saint Paul's Church, Mount Vernon, NY The Performing Arts Center, Purchase Sing Sing Prison, Ossining The Square House Museum, Rye Sunnyside, Tarrytown Tarrytown Music Hall, Tarrytown Union Church of Pocantico Hills, Pocantico Hills Yonkers Raceway, Yonkers Battle Hill, White Plains 1838 Peter Augustus Jay House, Rye Jay Property, Rye Timothy Knapp House and Milton Cemetery, Rye Kykuit, Pocantico Hills Leland Castle, New Rochelle Lyndhurst, Tarrytown Thomas Paine Cottage, New Rochelle Jacob Purdy House, White Plains Hudson River Museum, Yonkers Thomas Paine Memorial Museum, New Rochelle Historic Hudson Valley History of Westchester County National Register of Historic Places listings in Westchester County, New York Westchester County Historical Society
Tawnia McKiernan is an American television director and producer. Since the mid-1990s she has amassed a number of directorial credits, she is the daughter of late television producer Stephen J. Cannell. McKiernan made her directorial debut on the series Renegade directing two episodes, she directed four episodes of Silk Stalkings. Both series were produced by her father Stephen J. Cannell, her other television work include V. I. P. Hunter, 10-8: Officers on Duty, NYPD Blue, Jonny Zero, The Closer, Blue Bloods, Las Vegas, E-Ring, Eyes, Close to Home, Women's Murder Club, ER, Army Wives, Terminator: The Sarah Connor Chronicles, Monk, In Plain Sight, Royal Pains, Warehouse 13, The Mentalist, Criminal Minds and The Magicians. In 2012, she directed the TV movie Secrets of Eden starring John Stamos, she is a co-chair member of the Directors Guild of America. In 2016, she will become the writer of the FOX revived series of The A-Team. Tawnia McKiernan on IMDb Tawnia McKiernan on Twitter