Oberlin College

Oberlin College is a private liberal arts college and conservatory of music in Oberlin, Ohio. It is the oldest coeducational liberal arts college in the United States and the second oldest continuously operating coeducational institute of higher learning in the world; the Oberlin Conservatory of Music is the oldest continuously operating conservatory in the United States. In 1835 Oberlin became one of the first colleges in the United States to admit African Americans, in 1837 the first to admit women, it has been known since its founding for progressive student activism. The College of Arts & Sciences offers more than 50 majors and concentrations. Oberlin is a member of the Great Lakes Colleges Association and the Five Colleges of Ohio consortium. Since its founding, Oberlin has graduated 16 Rhodes Scholars, 20 Truman Scholars, three Nobel laureates, seven Pulitzer Prize winners, 12 MacArthur fellows; the history of Oberlin is better known than that of most American colleges. Oberlin's founders were featured prominently in the press.

Original documents and correspondence survive and are available. Robert Samuel Fletcher'20 published in 1943 a history, a landmark and the point of departure of all subsequent studies of Oberlin's history, his disciple Geoffrey Blodgett'53 has continued Fletcher's work. "'Oberlin' was an idea before it was a place." It began in revelation and dreams: Yankees' motives to emigrate west, attempting to be perfect in God's eyes, "educating a missionary army of Christian soldiers to save the world and inaugurate God's government on earth, the radical notion that slavery was America's most horrendous sin that should be repented of and brought to an end." Its immediate background was the great wave of Christian revivals in western New York State, in which Charles Finney was much involved. "Oberlin was the offspring of the revivals of 1830'31 and'32." Oberlin founder John Jay Shipherd was an admirer of Finney, when en route to Ohio for the first time, visited him in Rochester, New York. Finney tried to get Shipherd to stay with him as an assistant, but Shipherd "felt that he had his own important part to play in bringing on the millennium, God's triumphant reign on Earth.

Finney's desires were one thing, but Shipherd believed that the Lord's work for him lay farther west." Shipherd tried to get Finney to accompany him west, which he did, but not until 1835. Oberlin was to be a pious, simple-living community, a colony in a lightly-inhabited area, in which the school, training ministers and missionaries, would be the centerpiece; the Oberlin Collegiate Institute was founded in 1833 by Shipherd and another Presbyterian minister, Philo Stewart, "formerly a missionary among the Cherokees in Mississippi, at that time residing in Mr. Shipherd's family,", studying Divinity with Shipherd; the Institute was built on 500 acres of land donated by its owners, Titus Street, founder of Streetsboro and Samuel Hughes, who lived in Connecticut. Shipherd and Stewert named their project after Alsatian minister Jean-Frédéric Oberlin, on whom a book had just been published, from which Stewart was reading to Shipherd. Oberlin brought social Christianity to an isolated region of France, just as they hoped to bring it to the then-remote Western Reserve region of northeastern Ohio.

Their vision was: A community of Christian families with a Christian school which should be "a center of religious influence and power which should work mightily upon the surrounding country and the world — a sort of missionary institution for training laborers for the work abroad" — the school to be conducted on the manual labor system, to be open to both young men and young women. It was not proposed to establish a college but an academy for instruction in English and useful languages. In accordance with this plan the corporate name, "Oberlin College Institute" was chosen. Oberlin was much a part of the Utopian perfectionist enthusiasm that swept the country in the 1830s. "Shipherd came close to being a Christian communist, as he traveled about the country signing up recruits for the Oberlin colony, he carried with him a copy of the Oberlin covenant, which each colonist was required to sign." The Oberlin covenant is a fascinating document. It has strong communal overtones, though, in the end, private property is allowed.

It is keen on plain, straight living—no smoking, no chewing, no coffee or tea. But the main thrust of the covenant is toward missionary education to save a perishing world; the main terms of the Oberlin covenant, as summarized by Shipherd, were: Each member of the colony shall consider himself a steward of the Lord, & hold only so much property as he can advantageously manage for the Lord. Everyone, regardless of worldly maxims, shall return to Gospel simplicity of dress, diet and furniture, all appertaining to him, & be industrious & economical with the view of earning & saving as much as possible, not to hoard up for old age, & for children, but to glorify God in the salvation of men: And that no one need to be tempted to hoard up, the colonists, mutually pledge that they will provide in all respects for the widowed, orphan, & all the needy as well as for themselves & households; the Lane Rebels are mentioned in discussions of the early history of Oberlin It is l


Cropmarks or crop marks are a means through which sub-surface archaeological and recent features may be visible from the air or a vantage point on higher ground or a temporary platform. Along with parch marks, soil marks and frost marks can reveal buried archaeological sites not visible from the ground. Crop marks appear due to the principle of differential growth. One of the factors controlling the growth of vegetation is the condition of the soil. A buried stone wall, for example, will affect crop growth above it, as its presence channels water away from its area and occupies the space of the more fertile soil. Conversely, a buried ditch, with a fill containing more organic matter than the natural earth, provides much more conducive conditions and water will collect there, nourishing the plants growing above; the differences in conditions will cause some plants to grow more and therefore taller, others less and therefore shorter. Some species will react through differential ripening of their fruits or their overall colour.

Effective crops that exhibit differential growth include cereal crops and potatoes. Differential growth will follow any features buried below. Although the growth differences may appear small close up, from the air the pattern they make is more visible, as the small changes can be seen as marked differences in tone or colour in the context of the growing surrounding vegetation; when the sun is low to the horizon, shadows cast by the taller crops can become visible. By their nature crop marks are visible only seasonally and may not be visible at all except in exceptionally wet or dry years. Droughts can be useful to cropmark hunters, as the differential growth can become apparent in hardy species such as grass; the drought of 2010 produced good conditions for observing crop marks in the UK. Pre-parching stress in crops and grass, others factors that may affect plant health, can be captured in near infra-red photography. An alternative approach is thermal imaging, where differential water loss can create temperature differences, which result in thermal crop marks that are visible at any time during crop growth.

Thermal imaging can reveal archaeological residues as a result of thermal inertia or differential evaporation. The interaction of the processes involved can be complex and the prediction of optimal imaging time, for a given site, further complicated by environmental conditions including temperature variation and relative humidity. Thermal inertia and differential transpiration/evaporation are involved; the usefulness of cropmarks to archaeologists has been a fruit of inspection from aircraft, but the possibility was suggested by Rev. Gilbert White in The Natural History of Selborne, in a note appended to his Letter VI, to Thomas Pennant, apropos of local people's success in searching for bog oak for house construction, by discovering these trees "by the hoar frost, which lay longer over the space where they were concealed, than on the surrounding morass." To White it suggested the query "might not such observations be reduced to domestic use, by promoting the discovery of old obliterated drains and wells about houses.

Examples of archaeological sites where cropmarks have been observed are Balbridie and Fetteresso in Scotland. In 2009, investigation of crop marks near Stonehenge revealed a variety of 6,000-year-old prehistoric subterranean structures. Another example is the rediscovery of the Roman city Altinum, a precursor to the city of Venice, from a combination of visible and near-infrared photos of the area taken during a drought in 2007, which stressed the maize and soy crops; the multi period site at Mucking was discovered as a result of aerial photographs showing cropmarks and soil marks. The earliest photographs to reveal the site were taken by the Luftwaffe in 1943; the importance of the site was recognised following photographs taken by Kenneth Joseph in 1959. In 1982, Margaret Jones noted, she pointed out that some features do not produce crop marks and that some crop marks, when excavated, turn out not to be what they seem. Archaeological field survey Aerial archaeology Shadow marks Wilson, D. R. 2000 Air photo interpretation for archaeologists, London.

Agache, R. 1963. Détection des fossés comblés. Bulletin de la société préhistorique française, 1963, vol. 60, n°9-10, p. 642-647 Lasaponara R. N. Masini. 2007. Detection of archaeological crop marks by using satellite QuickBird multispectral imagery. In: Journal of Archaeological Science, 34, pp. 214-221 Daily Mail article with photographs Kite Aerial Photographers - Archaeology

Chris Morris (footballer)

Christopher Barry Morris is a former professional footballer, who played as a defender with Celtic, Sheffield Wednesday and Middlesbrough, among others. Morris had a successful playing career with the Republic of Ireland national side during the Jack Charlton era. Morris first began his career in 1982, signing for Sheffield Wednesday under ex-England international, Jack Charlton, in the old Division Two, he won promotion to the First Division with Wednesday in 1984. Morris made scoring one goal along the way. Morris moved north of the border to Celtic, signing for £125,000 on 10 August 1987, he made his debut in the 4–0 win over Morton, at age 23. Between 1987 and 1992, Morris was the regular right-back for the Bhoys, with 160 appearances and 8 goals to his name. Morris was the only Celtic player to play in all 55 games of the 1987–88 season, in which Celtic won both the Scottish Premier Division and Scottish Cup, he was on the team for a second Celtic Scottish Cup win in 1989. Morris moved on to Middlesbrough on 14 August 1992, where he remained for several seasons as a first team regular without becoming a crowd favourite.

Troubled by an anterior cruciate ligament injury, he retired at the end of the 1996-97 season, when Boro were runners-up in the FA Cup and Football League Cup, but a 3-point deduction for postponing a match at short notice had caused them to be relegated from the Premier League. In 1988, Morris once again caught the attention of Jack Charlton, who by was the Republic of Ireland boss. Morris, although born in England, held dual British and Irish citizenship since birth due to being the son of an Irish mother, he was called up to play for Ireland and made a promising debut in the 5-0 friendly win against Israel at Dalymount Park on 10 November 1987. Morris soon made the number 2 shirt his own, played his part in the successful qualification bid for Euro 88, the Republic's first major tournament. Morris played in all three games of the championships, including the famous 1–0 win over England. Although the Republic were eliminated following a late goal by Wim Kieft in their final group game against Holland, Morris became a household name in Ireland, along with the rest of the team, who were greeted as heroes on their return home.

Morris continued in the side that qualified for World Cup 1990 in Italy, another major first for the Republic. He played in every game This time it was a goal from Salvatore Schillaci of Italy that saw Ireland off in the quarter finals, but it was another high-point for the team, for Morris. Ireland failed to qualify for the next European Championships in 1992, Morris played his final game against Wales on 17 November 1992. Morris has a daughter, a son, from his first marriage. After leaving football, Morris went back to Cornwall to work for the family business "Morris Cornish Pasties," which his parents have run since 1971, he coaches Bodmin College football team, who were crowned east cornwall champions in Morris's first season with them. Celtic Scottish Football League: 1987–88 Scottish Cup: 1987–88 1988–89Middlesbrough Football League First Division: 1994–95 Football League Cup: runner-up 1996–97 FA Cup: runner-up 1996–97 List of Republic of Ireland international footballers born outside the Republic of Ireland Morris Cornish Pasties Chris Morris at Soccerbase Morris at Newcastle Fans