In Greek mythology, Styx is a deity and a river that forms the boundary between Earth and the Underworld called "Hades", the name of its ruler. The rivers Styx, Acheron and Cocytus all converge at the center of the underworld on a great marsh, which sometimes is called the Styx. According to Herodotus, the river Styx originates near Feneos. Styx is a goddess with prehistoric roots in Greek mythology as a daughter of Tethys, after whom the river is named and because of whom it had miraculous powers; the deities of the Greek pantheon swore all their oaths upon the river Styx because, according to classical mythology, during the Titan war, the goddess of the river, sided with Zeus. After the war, Zeus declared. Zeus swore to give Semele whatever she wanted and was obliged to follow through when he realized to his horror that her request would lead to her death. Helios promised his son Phaëton whatever he desired resulting in the boy's death. Myths related to such early deities did not survive long enough to be included in historic records, but tantalizing references exist among those that have been discovered.
According to some versions, Styx could make someone invulnerable. According to one tradition, Achilles was dipped in the waters of the river by his mother during his childhood, acquiring invulnerability, with exception of his heel, by which his mother held him; the only spot where Achilles was vulnerable was therefore that heel, where he was struck and killed by Paris's arrow during the Trojan War. This is the source of a metaphor for a vulnerable spot. Styx was a feature in the afterworld of classical Greek mythology, similar to the Christian area of Hell in texts such as The Divine Comedy and Paradise Lost; the ferryman Charon is described as having transported the souls of the newly dead across this river into the underworld. Dante put Phlegyas as ferryman over the Styx and made it the fifth circle of Hell, where the wrathful and sullen are punished by being drowned in the muddy waters for eternity, with the wrathful fighting each other. In ancient times some believed that a coin placed in the mouth of a dead person would pay the toll for the ferry across the river to the entrance of the underworld.
It was said. The ritual was performed by the relatives of the dead; the variant spelling Stix was sometimes used in translations of Classical Greek before the 20th century. By metonymy, the adjective stygian came to refer to anything dark and murky. Styx was the name of an Oceanid nymph, one of the three thousand daughters of Tethys and Oceanus, the goddess of the River Styx. In classical myths, her husband was Pallas and she gave birth to Zelus, Nike and Bia. In these myths, Styx supported Zeus in the Titanomachy, where she was said to be the first to rush to his aid. For this reason, her name was given the honor of being a binding oath for the deities. Knowledge of whether this was the original reason for the tradition did not survive into historical records following the religious transition that led to the pantheon of the classical era; as of 2 July 2013, Styx became the name of one of Pluto's moons. The other moons of Pluto have names from Greco-Roman mythology related to the underworld. Chisholm, Hugh, ed..
"Styx". Encyclopædia Britannica. Cambridge University Press
Plutarch named, upon becoming a Roman citizen, Lucius Mestrius Plutarchus, was a Greek biographer and essayist, known for his Parallel Lives and Moralia. He is classified as a Middle Platonist. Plutarch's surviving works were intended for both Greek and Roman readers. Plutarch was born to a prominent family in the small town of Chaeronea, about 80 kilometres east of Delphi, in the Greek region of Boeotia, his family was wealthy. The name of Plutarch's father has not been preserved, but based on the common Greek custom of repeating a name in alternate generations, it was Nikarchus; the name of Plutarch's grandfather was Lamprias, as he attested in Moralia and in his Life of Antony. His brothers and Lamprias, are mentioned in his essays and dialogues, which speak of Timon in particular in the most affectionate terms. Rualdus, in his 1624 work Life of Plutarchus, recovered the name of Plutarch's wife, from internal evidence afforded by his writings. A letter is still extant, addressed by Plutarch to his wife, bidding her not to grieve too much at the death of their two-year-old daughter, named Timoxena after her mother.
He hinted at a belief in reincarnation in that letter of consolation. The exact number of his sons is not certain, although two of them and the second Plutarch, are mentioned. Plutarch's treatise De animae procreatione in Timaeo is dedicated to them, the marriage of his son Autobulus is the occasion of one of the dinner parties recorded in the "Table Talk". Another person, Soklarus, is spoken of in terms which seem to imply that he was Plutarch's son, but this is nowhere stated, his treatise on marriage questions, addressed to Eurydice and Pollianus, seems to speak of the latter as having been an inmate of his house, but without any clear evidence on whether she was his daughter or not. Plutarch studied mathematics and philosophy at the Academy of Athens under Ammonius from 66 to 67. At some point, Plutarch received Roman citizenship; as evidenced by his new name, Lucius Mestrius Plutarchus, his sponsor for citizenship was Lucius Mestrius Florus, a Roman of consular status whom Plutarch used as a historical source for his Life of Otho.
He lived most of his life at Chaeronea, was initiated into the mysteries of the Greek god Apollo. For many years Plutarch served as one of the two priests at the temple of Apollo at Delphi, the site of the famous Delphic Oracle, twenty miles from his home. By his writings and lectures Plutarch became a celebrity in the Roman Empire, yet he continued to reside where he was born, participated in local affairs serving as mayor. At his country estate, guests from all over the empire congregated for serious conversation, presided over by Plutarch in his marble chair. Many of these dialogues were recorded and published, the 78 essays and other works which have survived are now known collectively as the Moralia. In addition to his duties as a priest of the Delphic temple, Plutarch was a magistrate at Chaeronea and he represented his home town on various missions to foreign countries during his early adult years. Plutarch held the office of archon in his native municipality only an annual one which he served more than once.
He undertook the humblest of duties. The Suda, a medieval Greek encyclopedia, states that Emperor Trajan made Plutarch procurator of Illyria. However, most historians consider this unlikely, since Illyria was not a procuratorial province, Plutarch did not speak Illyrian. According to the 8th/9th-century historian George Syncellus, late in Plutarch's life, Emperor Hadrian appointed him nominal procurator of Achaea – which entitled him to wear the vestments and ornaments of a consul. Plutarch spent the last thirty years of his life serving as a priest in Delphi, he thus connected part of his literary work with the sanctuary of Apollo, the processes of oracle-giving and the personalities who lived or traveled there. One of his most important works is the "Why Pythia does not give oracles in verse". More important is the dialogue "On the E in Delphi", which features Ammonius, a Platonic philosopher and teacher of Plutarch, Lambrias, Plutarch's brother. According to Ammonius, the letter E written on the temple of Apollo in Delphi originated from the following fact: the wise men of antiquity, whose maxims were written on the walls of the vestibule of the temple, were not seven but five: Chilon, Thales and Pittakos.
However, the tyrants Cleobulos and Periandros used their political power in order to be incorporated in the list. Thus, the E, which corresponds to number 5, constituted an acknowledgment that the Delphic maxims originated from the five real wise men; the portrait of a philosopher exhibited at the exit of the Archaeological Museum of Delphi, dating to the 2nd century AD, had been in the past identified with Plutarch. The man, although bearded, is depicted at a young age, his hair and beard are rendered in thin incisions. The gaze is due to the heavy eyelids and the incised pupils; the portrait is no longer thought to represent Plutarch. But a fragmentary hermaic stele next to the portrait did once bear a portrait of Plutarch, since it is inscribed, "The Delphians along with the Chaeroneans dedicated this to Plutarch, following the precepts of the Amphictyony". Plutarc
A kantharos or cantharus is a type of ancient Greek cup used for drinking. Although all surviving examples are in Greek pottery, the shape, like many Greek vessel types originates in metalwork. In its iconic "Type A" form, it is characterized by its deep bowl, tall pedestal foot, pair of high-swung handles which extend above the lip of the pot; the Greek words kotylos and kotyle are other ancient names for this same shape. The kantharos is a cup used to hold wine for drinking or for ritual use or offerings; the kantharos seems to be an attribute of Dionysos, the god of wine, associated with vegetation and fertility. As well as a banqueting cup, they could be used in pagan rituals as a symbol of rebirth or resurrection, the immortality offered by wine, "removing in moments of ecstasy the burden of self-consciousness and elevating man to the rank of deity." Kylix Rhyton Ancient Greek vase painting Pottery of ancient Greece Gina Hander. "CU Classics: Greek Vase Exhibit: Kantharos". Colorado University.
E. Mulder. "Boeotia, Land of the Kantharos". University of Leiden
Drachma was the currency used in Greece during several periods in its history: An ancient Greek currency unit issued by many Greek city states during a period of ten centuries, from the Archaic period throughout the Classical period, the Hellenistic period up to the Roman period under Greek Imperial Coinage. Three modern Greek currencies, the first introduced in 1832 and the last replaced by the euro in 2001; the euro did not begin circulating until 2002 but the exchange rate was fixed on 19 June 2000, with legal introduction of the euro taking place in January 2002. It was a small unit of weight; the name drachma is derived from the verb δράσσομαι. It is believed that the same word with the meaning of "handful" or "handle" is found in Linear B tablets of the Mycenean Pylos. A drachma was a fistful of six oboloí or obeloí used as a form of currency as early as 1100 BC and being a form of "bullion": bronze, copper, or iron ingots denominated by weight. A hoard of over 150 rod-shaped obeloi was uncovered at Heraion of Argos in Peloponnese.
Six of them are displayed at the Numismatic Museum of Athens. It was the standard unit of silver coinage at most ancient Greek mints, the name obol was used to describe a coin, one-sixth of a drachma; the notion that drachma derived from the word for fistful was recorded by Herakleides of Pontos, informed by the priests of Heraion that Pheidon, king of Argos, dedicated rod-shaped obeloi to Heraion. Similar information about Pheidon's obeloi was recorded at the Parian Chronicle. Ancient Greek coins had distinctive names in daily use; the Athenian tetradrachm was called owl, the Aeginetic stater was called chelone, the Corinthian stater was called hippos and so on. Each city would mint its own and have them stamped with recognizable symbols of the city, known as badge in numismatics, along with suitable inscriptions, they would be referred to either by the name of the city or of the image depicted; the exact exchange value of each was determined by the quantity and quality of the metal, which reflected on the reputation of each mint.
Among the Greek cities that used the drachma were: Abdera, Alexandria, Antioch, Chios, Corinth, Eretria, Catana, Maronia, Pella, Rhegion, Smyrni, Syracuse, Thasos, Tenedos and more. The 5th century BC Athenian tetradrachm coin was the most used coin in the Greek world prior to the time of Alexander the Great, it featured the helmeted profile bust of Athena on an owl on the reverse. In daily use they were called γλαῦκες glaukes, hence the proverb Γλαῦκ’ Ἀθήναζε,'an owl to Athens', referring to something, in plentiful supply, like'coals to Newcastle'; the reverse is featured on the national side of the modern Greek 1 euro coin. Drachmae were minted on different weight standards at different Greek mints; the standard that came to be most used was the Athenian or Attic one, which weighed a little over 4.3 grams. After Alexander the Great's conquests, the name drachma was used in many of the Hellenistic kingdoms in the Middle East, including the Ptolemaic kingdom in Alexandria and the Parthian Empire based in what is modern-day Iran.
The Arabic unit of currency known as dirham, known from pre-Islamic times and afterwards, inherited its name from the drachma or didrachm. The Armenian dram derives its name from the drachma, it is difficult to estimate comparative exchange rates with modern currency because the range of products produced by economies of centuries gone by were different from today, which makes purchasing power parity calculations difficult. S. dollars, whereas classical historians say that in the heyday of ancient Greece the daily wage for a skilled worker or a hoplite was one drachma, for a heliast half a drachma since 425 BC. Modern commentators derived from Xenophon that half a drachma per day would provide "a comfortable subsistence" for "the poor citizens". Earlier in 422 BC, we see in Aristophanes that the daily half-drachma of a juror is just enough for the daily subsistence of a family of three. A modern person might think of one drachma as the rough equivalent of a skilled worker's daily pay in the place where they live, which could be as low as US$1, or as high as $100, depending on the country.
Fractions and multiples of the drachma were minted by many states, most notably in Ptolemaic Egypt, which minted large coins in gold and bronze. Notable Ptolemaic coins included the gold pentadrachm and octadrachm, silver tetradrachm and pentakaidecadrachm; this was noteworthy as it would not be until the introduction of the Guldengroschen in 1486 that coins of substantial size would be minted in significant quantities. For the Roman successors of the drachma, see Roman provincial coins; the weight of the silver drachma was 4.3 grams or 0.15 ounces, although weights varied from one city-state to another. It was divided into six obols of 0.72 grams, which wer
In science and engineering, the weight of an object is related to the amount of force acting on the object, either due to gravity or to a reaction force that holds it in place. Some standard textbooks define weight as a vector quantity, the gravitational force acting on the object. Others define weight as the magnitude of the gravitational force. Others define it as the magnitude of the reaction force exerted on a body by mechanisms that keep it in place: the weight is the quantity, measured by, for example, a spring scale. Thus, in a state of free fall, the weight would be zero. In this sense of weight, terrestrial objects can be weightless: ignoring air resistance, the famous apple falling from the tree, on its way to meet the ground near Isaac Newton, would be weightless; the unit of measurement for weight is that of force, which in the International System of Units is the newton. For example, an object with a mass of one kilogram has a weight of about 9.8 newtons on the surface of the Earth, about one-sixth as much on the Moon.
Although weight and mass are scientifically distinct quantities, the terms are confused with each other in everyday use. Further complications in elucidating the various concepts of weight have to do with the theory of relativity according to which gravity is modelled as a consequence of the curvature of spacetime. In the teaching community, a considerable debate has existed for over half a century on how to define weight for their students; the current situation is that a multiple set of concepts co-exist and find use in their various contexts. Discussion of the concepts of heaviness and lightness date back to the ancient Greek philosophers; these were viewed as inherent properties of objects. Plato described weight as the natural tendency of objects to seek their kin. To Aristotle and levity represented the tendency to restore the natural order of the basic elements: air, earth and water, he ascribed absolute weight to earth and absolute levity to fire. Archimedes saw weight as a quality opposed to buoyancy, with the conflict between the two determining if an object sinks or floats.
The first operational definition of weight was given by Euclid, who defined weight as: "weight is the heaviness or lightness of one thing, compared to another, as measured by a balance." Operational balances had, been around much longer. According to Aristotle, weight was the direct cause of the falling motion of an object, the speed of the falling object was supposed to be directly proportionate to the weight of the object; as medieval scholars discovered that in practice the speed of a falling object increased with time, this prompted a change to the concept of weight to maintain this cause effect relationship. Weight was split into a "still weight" or pondus, which remained constant, the actual gravity or gravitas, which changed as the object fell; the concept of gravitas was replaced by Jean Buridan's impetus, a precursor to momentum. The rise of the Copernican view of the world led to the resurgence of the Platonic idea that like objects attract but in the context of heavenly bodies. In the 17th century, Galileo made significant advances in the concept of weight.
He proposed a way to measure the difference between the weight of a moving object and an object at rest. He concluded weight was proportionate to the amount of matter of an object, not the speed of motion as supposed by the Aristotelean view of physics; the introduction of Newton's laws of motion and the development of Newton's law of universal gravitation led to considerable further development of the concept of weight. Weight became fundamentally separate from mass. Mass was identified as a fundamental property of objects connected to their inertia, while weight became identified with the force of gravity on an object and therefore dependent on the context of the object. In particular, Newton considered weight to be relative to another object causing the gravitational pull, e.g. the weight of the Earth towards the Sun. Newton considered space to be absolute; this allowed him to consider concepts as true velocity. Newton recognized that weight as measured by the action of weighing was affected by environmental factors such as buoyancy.
He considered this a false weight induced by imperfect measurement conditions, for which he introduced the term apparent weight as compared to the true weight defined by gravity. Although Newtonian physics made a clear distinction between weight and mass, the term weight continued to be used when people meant mass; this led the 3rd General Conference on Weights and Measures of 1901 to declare "The word weight denotes a quantity of the same nature as a force: the weight of a body is the product of its mass and the acceleration due to gravity", thus distinguishing it from mass for official usage. In the 20th century, the Newtonian concepts of absolute time and space were challenged by relativity. Einstein's equivalence principle put all observers, accelerating, on the same footing; this led to an ambiguity as to what is meant by the force of gravity and weight. A scale in an accelerating elevator cannot be distinguished from a scale in a gravitational field. Gravitational force and weight thereby became frame-dependent quantities.
This prompted the abandonment of the concept as superfluous in the fundamental sciences such as physics and chemistry. Nonetheless, the concept remained important in the teaching of physics; the ambiguities introduced by relativity led, starting in the 1960s, to considerable debate in the teaching community as how to define weight for their s
An obelus is a symbol consisting of a short horizontal line with a dot above and another dot below, in other uses it is a symbol resembling a small dagger. In mathematics it is used to represent the mathematical operation of division, it is therefore called the division sign. In editing texts an obelus takes the form of a dagger mark and is used as a reference mark, or to indicate that a person is dead, used to indicate a footnote; the word "obelus" comes from ὀβελός, the Ancient Greek word for a sharpened stick, spit, or pointed pillar. This is the same root as that of the word "obelisk"; this sign was used in ancient manuscripts to mark passages that were suspected of being corrupted or spurious. The dagger symbol called an obelisk, is derived from the obelus and continues to be used for this purpose; as Streeter writes: The obelus, invented by Aristarchus to mark suspected passages in Homer, is frequent in manuscripts of the Gospel to mark just those sections, like the Pericope in John, which modern editors reject.
The first corrector of the contemporary διορθωτής, was at pains to enclose in brackets and mark with dots for deletion two famous passages in Luke written by the original scribe which, being absent from B W 579 and the Egyptian versions, we infer were not accepted in the text at that time dominant in Alexandria, viz. the incident of the "Bloody Sweat" in Gethsemane and the saying "Father forgive them". In mathematics, the obelus symbol represents division; the obelus was first used as a symbol for division in 1659 in the algebra book Teutsche Algebra by Johann Rahn. Some think that John Pell, who edited the book, may have been responsible for this use of the symbol. Other symbols for division include the slash or solidus, the colon, the fraction bar; the obelus has been used to represent subtraction in Northern Europe. In Italy the obelus is sometimes used to denote a range of values; the ISO 80000-2 standard for mathematical notation recommends only the solidus or fraction bar for division, or the colon for ratios.
The obelus was assigned to code point 0xF7 in ISO 8859-1. This was inherited by the Unicode character set, where the obelus is known as the "division sign" and has the code point U+00F7. In HTML, it can be encoded. In Microsoft Windows, the obelus is produced with Alt+0247 on the number pad, or by pressing Alt Gr+⇧ Shift++ when an appropriate keyboard layout is in use. In classic Mac OS and macOS, it is produced with ⌥ Option+/. On UNIX-based systems using Screen or X with a Compose key enabled, it can be produced by composing: and -, it may be input by Unicode code-point on GTK-based applications by pressing Control+⇧ Shift+U, followed by the code point in hexadecimal and terminated by ↵ Enter. In LaTeX, the obelus is obtained by \div. Commercial minus sign, ⁒, which visually resembles a tilted obelus Jeff Miller: Earliest Uses of Various Mathematical Symbols Michael Quinion: Where our arithmetic symbols come from The dictionary definition of obelus at Wiktionary
Henry George Liddell was dean of Christ Church, Vice-Chancellor of Oxford University, headmaster of Westminster School, author of A History of Rome, co-author of the monumental work A Greek–English Lexicon, known as "Liddell and Scott", still used by students of Greek. Lewis Carroll wrote Alice's Adventures in Wonderland for Henry Liddell's daughter Alice. Liddell received his education at Oxford, he gained a double first degree in 1833 became a college tutor, was ordained in 1838. Liddell was Headmaster of Westminster School from 1846 to 1855. Meanwhile, his life work, the great lexicon, which he and Robert Scott began as early as 1834, had made good progress, the first edition of Liddell and Scott's Lexicon appeared in 1843, it became the standard Greek–English dictionary, with the 8th edition published in 1897. As Headmaster of Westminster Liddell enjoyed a period of great success, followed by trouble due to the outbreak of fever and cholera in the school. In 1855 he accepted the deanery of Oxford.
In the same year he brought out his History of Ancient Rome and took a active part in the first Oxford University Commission. His tall figure, fine presence and aristocratic mien were for many years associated with all, characteristic of Oxford life. Coming just at the transition period when the "old Christ Church," which Pusey strove so hard to preserve, was becoming broader and more liberal, it was chiefly due to Liddell that necessary changes were effected with the minimum of friction. In 1859 Liddell welcomed the Prince of Wales when he matriculated at Christ Church, being the first holder of that title who had matriculated since Henry V. While Liddell was Dean of Christ Church, he arranged for the building of a new choir school and classrooms for the staff and pupils of Christ Church Cathedral School on its present site. Before the school was housed within Christ Church itself. In July 1846, Liddell married Lorina Reeve, with whom he had nine children including Alice Liddell of Lewis Carroll fame.
In conjunction with Sir Henry Acland, Liddell did much to encourage the study of art at Oxford, his taste and judgment gained him the admiration and friendship of Ruskin. In 1891, owing to advancing years, he resigned the deanery; the last years of his life were spent at Ascot, where he died on 18 January 1898. Two roads in Ascot, Liddell Way and Carroll Crescent honour the relationship between Henry Liddell and Lewis Carroll. Liddell was an Oxford "character" in years, he figures in contemporary undergraduate doggerel: I am the Dean, this Mrs Liddell. She plays first, I, second fiddle, she is the Broad, I am the High – We are the University. The Victorian journalist, George W. E. Russell, conveys something of Liddell's image: The Vice-Chancellor who matriculated me was the majestic Liddell, with his six feet of stately height draped in scarlet, his'argent aureole' of white hair, his three silver maces borne before him, always helped me to understand what Sydney Smith meant when he said, of some nonsensical proposition, that no power on earth and except the Dean of Christ Church, should induce him to believe it.
Henry George Liddell was the author of A Greek-English Dictionary Based on the German Work of Francis Passow, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1843, numerous editions of the same, including abridgments for student use, written with Robert Scott. A History of Rome from the Earliest Times to the Establishment of the Empire, Vols. I & II, London: John Murray, 1855 Life of Julius Caesar, New York: Sheldon & Co. 1860, excerpted from the Roman history. The Student's Rome: A History of Rome from the Earliest Times to the Establishment of the Empire, London: John Murray, 1865, excerpted from the Roman history and revised, his father was Henry Liddell, Rector of Easington, the younger son of Sir Henry Liddell, 5th Baronet and the former Elizabeth Steele. His father's elder brother, Sir Thomas Liddell, 6th Baronet, was raised to the Peerage as Baron Ravensworth in 1821, his mother was a daughter of Thomas Lyon and the former Mary Wren. On 2 July 1846, Henry married Lorina Reeve, they were parents of ten children: Edward Harry Liddell.
Lorina Charlotte'Ina' Liddell. James Arthur Charles Liddell. Alice Pleasance Liddell, for whom the story of the children's classic Alice's Adventures in Wonderland was told. Edith Mary Liddell. Rhoda Caroline Anne Liddell. Albert Edward Arthur Liddell. Violet Constance Liddell. Sir Frederick Francis Liddell: First Parliamentary Counsel and Ecclesiastical Commissioner. Lionel Charles Liddell. Lewis Carroll Alice Liddell Media related to Henry George Liddell at Wikimedia Commons A genealogical profile from thePeerage.com Two portraits, National Portrait Gallery