Old Saxon known as Old Low German, was a Germanic language and the earliest recorded form of Low German. It is a West Germanic language related to the Anglo-Frisian languages, it has been documented from the 8th century until the 12th century, when it evolved into Middle Low German. It was spoken throughout modern northwestern Germany in the coastal regions and in the eastern Netherlands by Saxons, a Germanic tribe who inhabited the region of Saxony, it shares Anglo-Frisian's Ingvaeonic nasal spirant law which sets it apart from Low Franconian and Irminonic languages, such as Dutch and German. The grammar of Old Saxon was inflected with five grammatical cases, three grammatical numbers and three grammatical genders; the dual forms referred to groups of two. Old Saxon and Old Dutch were considered to be distinct dialects of an otherwise unitary language rather than two languages because they were linked through a dialect continuum spanning the modern Netherlands and Germany. However, while these two languages both shared the same historical origins and some similar writing styles, Old Saxon shows a reduced morphology compared to Old Dutch, which retained some grammatical distinctions that Old Saxon abandoned.
There are various differences in their phonological evolution, Old Saxon being classified as an Ingvaeonic language, whereas Old Dutch is one of the Istvaeonic languages. In the Middle Ages, a dialect continuum existed between Old Saxon. Despite sharing some features, a number of disparities separate Old Saxon, Old English, Old Dutch. However, it seems that some Middle Dutch took the Old Saxon a-stem ending from some Middle Low German dialects, as modern Dutch still shows the plural ending -s added to certain words. Old Saxon evolved from Ingvaeonic dialects in the West Germanic branch of Proto-Germanic in the 5th century. However, Old Saxon if it is considered as an Ingvaeonic language, is not a pure Ingvaeonic dialect as Old Frisian and Old English are, the two latter sharing some other Ingvaeonic characteristics, like the great vowel shift that took place in both Old English and Old Frisian. This, plus the large number of different forms that the language took showing different West-Germanic features, led some philologists to mistakenly think that Old Dutch and Old Saxon were variations of the same language, that Old Saxon was indeed an Istvaeonic language.
Old Saxon evolved into Middle Low German over the course of the 11th and 12th century, with a great shift from Latin to Low German writing happening around 1150, so that the development of the language can be traced from that period. The most striking difference between Middle Low German and Old Saxon is in a feature of speech known as vowel reduction, which took place in the other West Germanic languages and some Scandinavian dialects such as Danish, reducing all unstressed vowels to schwa. Thus, such Old Saxon words like gisprekan or dagō became dāge. Old Saxon did not participate in the High German consonant shift, thus preserves stop consonants p, t, k that have been shifted in Old High German to various fricatives and affricates; the Germanic diphthongs ai, au develop into long vowels ē, ō, whereas in Old High German they appear either as ei, ou or ē, ō depending on the following consonant. Old Saxon, alone of the West Germanic languages except for Frisian preserves Germanic -j- after a consonant, e.g. hēliand "savior".
Germanic umlaut, when it occurs with short a, is inconsistent, e.g. hebbean or habbian "to have". This feature was carried over into the descendant-language of Old Saxon, Middle Low German, where e.g. the adjective krank had the comparative forms krenker and kranker. Apart from the e, the umlaut is not marked in writing; the table below lists the consonants of Old Saxon. Phonemes written in parentheses are not independent phonemes. Notes: The voiceless spirants /f/, /θ/, /s/ gain voiced allophones when between vowels; this change is only faithfully reflected in writing for. The other two allophones continued to be written as before. Fricatives were devoiced again word-finally. Beginning in the Old Saxon period, stops became devoiced word-finally as well. Most consonants could be geminated. Notably, geminated /v/ gave /bb/, geminated /ɣ/ gave /ɡɡ/. Geminated /h/ resulted in /xx/. Germanic *h is retained as in these positions and thus merges with devoiced /ɣ/. Notes: Long vowels were rare in unstressed syllables and occurred due to suffixation or compounding.
Notes: The closing diphthongs /ei/ and /ou/ sometimes occur in texts under the influence of Franconian or High German dialects, where they replace Old Saxon developments /ɛː/ and /ɔː/. The situation for the front opening diphthongs is somewhat unclear in some texts. Wo
The Veleti or Wilzi were a group of medieval Lechitic tribes within the territory of modern northeastern Germany, related to Polabian Slavs. In common with other Slavic groups between the Elbe and Oder Rivers, they were described by Germanic sources as Wends. In the late 10th century, they were continued by the Lutici. In Einhard's Vita Karoli Magni, the Wilzi are said to refer to themselves as Welatabians; the first mention of a tribe named Veltae is founding Ptolemy's Geography where, writing in the second century, Ptolemy states in Book III, chapter V: "Back from the Ocean, near the Venedicus Bay, the Veltae dwell, above whom are the Ossi." The Bavarian Geographer's anonymous medieval document compiled in Regensburg in 830 contains a list of the tribes in Central Europe east of the Elbe. Among other tribes it lists the Uuilci, featuring 95 civitas; the Veleti did not remain a unified tribe for long. Local tribes developed, the most important being: the Kissini along the lower Warnow and Rostock, named after their capital Kessin.
The Hevelli living in the Havel area and, though more unlikely, the Rujanes of Rugia might once have been part of the Veletians. The Leitha region of Lower Austria may have been named for a tribe of Veneti, the Leithi; this political splitting of the Veleti occurred due to the size of the inhabited area, with settlements grouped around rivers and forts and separated by large strips of woodlands. The Veletian king Dragowit had been defeated and made a vassal by Charlemagne in the only expedition into Slavic territory led by Charlemagne himself, in 798, causing the central Veletian rule to collapse; the Veleti were invaded by the Franks during their continuous expeditions into Obodrite lands, with the Obodrites being allies of the Franks against the Saxons. Einhard made these a biography of Charlemagne, King of the Franks. After the 10th century, the Veleti disappeared from written records, were replaced by the Lutici who at least in part continued the Veleti tradition. Pomerania during the Early Middle Ages List of Medieval Slavic tribes Lutici Obotrites Christiansen, Erik.
The Northern Crusades. London: Penguin Books. P. 287. ISBN 0-14-026653-4. Herrmann, Joachim. Die Slawen in Deutschland. Berlin: Akademie-Verlag GmbH. Dragowit, Fürst der Wilzen
Holy Roman Empire
The Holy Roman Empire was a multi-ethnic complex of territories in Western and Central Europe that developed during the Early Middle Ages and continued until its dissolution in 1806 during the Napoleonic Wars. The largest territory of the empire after 962 was the Kingdom of Germany, though it came to include the neighboring Kingdom of Bohemia, the Kingdom of Burgundy, the Kingdom of Italy, numerous other territories. On 25 December 800, Pope Leo III crowned the Frankish king Charlemagne as Emperor, reviving the title in Western Europe, more than three centuries after the fall of the earlier ancient Western Roman Empire in 476; the title continued in the Carolingian family until 888 and from 896 to 899, after which it was contested by the rulers of Italy in a series of civil wars until the death of the last Italian claimant, Berengar I, in 924. The title was revived again in 962 when Otto I was crowned emperor, fashioning himself as the successor of Charlemagne and beginning a continuous existence of the empire for over eight centuries.
Some historians refer to the coronation of Charlemagne as the origin of the empire, while others prefer the coronation of Otto I as its beginning. Scholars concur, however, in relating an evolution of the institutions and principles constituting the empire, describing a gradual assumption of the imperial title and role; the exact term "Holy Roman Empire" was not used until the 13th century, but the concept of translatio imperii, the notion that he—the sovereign ruler—held supreme power inherited from the ancient emperors of Rome, was fundamental to the prestige of the emperor. The office of Holy Roman Emperor was traditionally elective, although controlled by dynasties; the German prince-electors, the highest-ranking noblemen of the empire elected one of their peers as "King of the Romans", he would be crowned emperor by the Pope. The empire never achieved the extent of political unification as was formed to the west in France, evolving instead into a decentralized, limited elective monarchy composed of hundreds of sub-units: kingdoms, duchies, prince-bishoprics, Free Imperial Cities, other domains.
The power of the emperor was limited, while the various princes, lords and cities of the empire were vassals who owed the emperor their allegiance, they possessed an extent of privileges that gave them de facto independence within their territories. Emperor Francis II dissolved the empire on 6 August 1806 following the creation of the Confederation of the Rhine by emperor Napoleon I the month before. In various languages the Holy Roman Empire was known as: Latin: Sacrum Imperium Romanum, German: Heiliges Römisches Reich, Italian: Sacro Romano Impero, Czech: Svatá říše římská, Polish: Święte imperium rzymskie, Slovene: Sveto rimsko cesarstvo, Dutch: Heilige Roomse Rijk, French: Saint-Empire romain. Before 1157, the realm was referred to as the Roman Empire; the term sacrum in connection with the medieval Roman Empire was used beginning in 1157 under Frederick I Barbarossa: the term was added to reflect Frederick's ambition to dominate Italy and the Papacy. The form "Holy Roman Empire" is attested from 1254 onward.
In a decree following the 1512 Diet of Cologne, the name was changed to the Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation, a form first used in a document in 1474. The new title was adopted because the Empire had lost most of its Italian and Burgundian territories to the south and west by the late 15th century, but to emphasize the new importance of the German Imperial Estates in ruling the Empire due to the Imperial Reform. By the end of the 18th century, the term "Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation" had fallen out of official use. Besides, contradicting the traditional view concerning that designation, Hermann Weisert has stated in a study on imperial titulature that, despite the claim of many textbooks, the name "Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation" never had an official status and points out that documents were thirty times as to omit the national suffix as include it. This, or the shortened "Roman Empire of the German Nation", is used in Germany to refer to the Holy Roman Empire. In a famous assessment of the name, the political philosopher Voltaire remarked sardonically: "This body, called and which still calls itself the Holy Roman Empire was in no way holy, nor Roman, nor an empire."
As Roman power in Gaul declined during the 5th century, local Germanic tribes assumed control. In the late 5th and early 6th centuries, the Merovingians, under Clovis I and his successors, consolidated Frankish tribes and extended hegemony over others to gain control of northern Gaul and the middle Rhine river valley region. By the middle of the 8th century, the Merovingians had been reduced to figureheads, the Carolingians, led by Charles Martel, had become the de facto rulers. In 751, Martel's son Pepin became King of the Franks, gained the sanction of the Pope; the Carolingians would maintain a close alliance with the Papacy. In 768, Pepin's son Charlemagne became King of the Franks and began an extensive expansion of the realm, he incorporated the territories of present-day France, northern Italy, beyond, linking the Frankish kingdom with Papal lands. In 797, the Eastern Roman Emperor Constantine VI was removed from the throne by his mother Irene who declared herself Empress; as the Church regarded a male Roman Emperor as the head of Christendom, Pope
Adam of Bremen
Adam of Bremen was a German medieval chronicler. He worked in the second half of the eleventh century. Adamus is most famous for his chronicle Gesta Hammaburgensis Ecclesiae Pontificum. Little is known of his life other than hints from his own chronicles, he is believed to have come from Meissen in Saxony. The dates of his birth and death are uncertain, but he was born before 1050 and died on 12 October of an unknown year. From his chronicles it is apparent; the honorary name of Magister Adam shows that he had passed through all the stages of a higher education. It is probable. In 1066 or 1067 he was invited by archbishop Adalbert of Hamburg to join the Church of Bremen. Adam was accepted among the capitulars of Bremen, by 1069 he appeared as director of the cathedral's school. Soon thereafter he began to write the history of Bremen/Hamburg and of the northern lands in his Gesta, his position and the missionary activity of the church of Bremen allowed him to gather information on the history and the geography of Northern Germany.
A stay at the court of Svend Estridsen gave him the opportunity to find information about the history and geography of Denmark and the other Scandinavian countries. Among other things he wrote about in Scandinavia were the sailing passages across Øresund such as today's Elsinore to Helsingborg route. Chłopacka Hanna: Adam Bremeński. In: Słownik Starożytności Słowiańskich. Vol. 1. 1961, p. 3-4. Literature by and about Adam of Bremen in the German National Library catalogue Adamus Bremensis: Gesta Hammaburgensis ecclesiae pontificum "Adam Bremensis". Repertorium "Historical Sources of the German Middle Ages"
Wends is a historical name for Slavs living near Germanic settlement areas. It does not refer to a homogeneous people, but to various peoples, tribes or groups depending on where and when it is used. In the Middle Ages the term "Wends" referred to West Slavs and Slovenes living within the Holy Roman Empire, though not always; the name has survived in Finnic languages denoting Russia. According to one theory, Germanic peoples first applied this name to the ancient Veneti, after the migration period they transferred it to their new neighbours, the Slavs. For the medieval Scandinavians, the term Wends meant Slavs living near the southern shore of the Baltic Sea, the term was therefore used to refer to Polabian Slavs like the Obotrites, Rugian Slavs, Veleti/Lutici and Pomeranian tribes. For people living in the medieval Northern Holy Roman Empire and its precursors for the Saxons, a Wend was a Slav living in the area west of the River Oder, an area entitled Germania Slavica, settled by the Polabian Slav tribes in the north and by others, such as the Sorbs and the Milceni, in the middle.
The Germans in the south used the term Winde instead of Wende and applied it, just as the Germans in the north, to Slavs they had contact with. Following the 8th century, the Frankish kings and their successors organised nearly all Wendish land into marches; this process turned into the series of crusades. By the 12th century, all Wendish lands had become part of the Holy Roman Empire. In the course of the Ostsiedlung, which reached its peak in the 12th to 14th centuries, this land was settled by Germans and reorganised. Due to the process of assimilation following German settlement, many Slavs west of the Oder adopted the German culture and language. Only some rural communities which did not have a strong admixture with Germans and continued to use West Slavic languages were still termed Wends. With the gradual decline of the use of these local Slavic tongues, the term Wends disappeared, too; some sources claim that in the 13th century there were actual historic people called Wends or Vends living as far as northern Latvia around the city of Wenden.
Henry of Livonia in his 13th-century Latin chronicle described. Today, only one group of Wends still exists: the Lusatian Sorbs in present-day eastern Germany; the term "Wends" derived from the Roman-era people called in Latin Veneti, Venedi or Venethi, in Greek Ουενεδαι / Ouenedai. This people was mentioned by Ptolemy as inhabiting the Baltic coast. In the 1st millennium AD, during the Slavic migrations which split the formed Slav ethnicity into Southern and Western groups, some West Slavs moved into the areas between the Rivers Elbe and Oder - moving from east to west and from south to north. There they assimilated the remaining Germanic population that had not left the area in the Migration period, their German neighbours adapted the term they had been using for peoples east of the River Elbe before to the Slavs, calling them Wends as they called the Venedi before and the Vandals also. In his late sixth century work History of Armenia, Movses Khorenatsi mentions their raids into the lands named Vanand after them.
While the Wends were arriving in so-called Germania Slavica as large homogeneous groups, they soon divided into a variety of small tribes, with large strips of woodland separating one tribal settlement area from another. Their tribal names were derived from local place names. Settlements were secured by round burghs made of wood and clay, where either people could retreat in case of a raid from the neighbouring tribe or used as military strongholds or outposts; some tribes unified into larger, duchy-like units. For example, the Obotrites evolved from the unification of the Holstein and Western Mecklenburg tribes led by mighty dukes known for their raids into German Saxony; the Lutici were an alliance of tribes living between Pomeranians. They remained independent, their leaders met in the temple of Rethra. In 983, many Wend tribes participated in a great uprising against the Holy Roman Empire, which had established Christian missions, German colonies and German administrative institutions in pagan Wendish territories.
The uprising was successful and the Wends delayed Germanisation for about two centuries. Wends and Danes had early and continuous contact including settlement and through the closest South Danish islands of Møn, Lolland and Falster, all having place-names of Wendish origin. There were trading and settlement outposts by Danish towns as important as Roskilde, when it was the capital:'Vindeboder' is the name of a city neighbourhood there. Danes and Wends fought wars due to piracy and crusading. After their successes in 983 the Wends came under increasing pressure from Germans and Poles; the Poles invaded Pomerania several times. The Danes raided the Baltic shores; the Holy Roman Empire and its margraves tried to restore their marches. In 1068/69 a German expedition destroyed Rethra, one of the major pagan Wend temples; the Wendish religious centre shifted to Arkona thereafter. In 1124 and 1128, the Po
Slavic paganism or Slavic religion define the religious beliefs and ritual practices of the Slavs before the formal Christianisation of their ruling elites. The latter occurred at various stages between the 8th and the 13th century: The Southern Slavs living on the Balkan Peninsula in South Eastern Europe, bordering with the Byzantine Empire to the south, came under the sphere of influence of Byzantine Orthodox Christianity, beginning with the creation of the Slavic alphabet in 855 by the brothers Saints Cyril and Methodius and the adoption of Christianity in Bulgaria in 863 CE; the East Slavs followed with the official adoption in 988 CE by Vladimir the Great of Kievan Rus'. The West Slavs came under the sphere of influence of the Roman Catholic Church since the 12th century, Christianisation for them went hand in hand with full or partial Germanisation; the Christianisation of the Slavic peoples was, however, a slow and—in many cases—superficial phenomenon in what is today Russia. Christianisation was vigorous in western and central parts of what is today Ukraine, as they were closer to the capital Kiev, but there, popular resistance led by volkhvs, pagan priests or shamans, recurred periodically for centuries.
Though the Byzantine Christianization firstly has slowed down the Eastern Slavic traditions in Rus', it has preserved the Slavic traditions in the long term. While local Slavic figures and myths, such as Baba Roga in Croatia were forgotten, Slavic culture continued to exist and flourish in the Eastern Slavic countries. In the case of a Christian Latinization of the Eastern Slavic countries, this may not have been the case; the West Slavs of the Baltic withstood tenaciously against Christianity until it was violently imposed on them through the Northern Crusades. Among Poles and East Slavs, rebellion outbreaks occurred throughout the 11th century. Christian chroniclers reported that the Slavs re-embraced their original religion. Many elements of the indigenous Slavic religion were incorporated into Slavic Christianity, besides this, the worship of Slavic gods has persisted in unofficial folk religion until modern times; the Slavs' resistance to Christianity gave rise to a "whimsical syncretism" which in Old Church Slavonic vocabulary was defined as dvoeverie, "double faith".
Since the early 20th century, Slavic folk religion has undergone an organised reinvention and reincorporation in the movement of Slavic Native Faith. Twentieth-century scholars who pursued the study of ancient Slavic religion include Vyacheslav Ivanov, Vladimir Toporov, Marija Gimbutas, Boris Rybakov, Roman Jakobson amongst others. Rybakov is noted for his effort of re-examination of medieval ecclesiastical texts, synthesising his findings with archaeological data, comparative mythology and nineteenth-century folk practices, for having given one of the most coherent pictures of ancient Slavic religion in his major book Paganism of the Ancient Slavs and other works. Among earlier, nineteenth-century scholars there was Bernhard Severin Ingemann, known for his study of Fundamentals of a North Slavic and Wendish mythology. Historical documents about Slavic religion include the Primary Chronicle, compiled in Kiev around 1111, the Novgorod First Chronicle compiled in the Novgorod Republic, they contain detailed reports of the annihilation of the official Slavic religion of Kiev and Novgorod, the subsequent "double faith".
The Primary Chronicle contains the authentic text of Rus-Greek treatises with native pre-Christian oaths. From the eleventh century onwards, various Rus writings were produced against the survival of Slavic religion, Slavic gods were interpolated in the translations of foreign literary works, such as the Malalas Chronicle and the Alexandreis; the West Slavs who dwelt in the area between the Vistula and the Elbe stubbornly resisted the Northern Crusades, the history of their resistance is written down in the Latin Chronicles of three German clergymen—Thietmar of Merseburg and Adam of Bremen in the eleventh century and Helmold in the twelfth—, in the twelfth-century biographies of Otto of Bamberg, in Saxo Grammaticus' thirteenth-century Gesta Danorum. These documents, together with minor German documents and the Icelandic Knýtlinga saga, provide an accurate description of northwestern Slavic religion; the religions of other Slavic populations are less documented, because writings about the theme were produced late in time after Christianisation, such as the fifteenth-century Polish Chronicle, contain a lot of sheer inventions.
In the times preceding Christianisation, some Greek and Roman chroniclers, such as Procopius and Jordanes in the sixth century, sparsely documented some Slavic concepts and practices. Slavic paganism survived, in more or less pure forms, among the Slovenes along the Soča river up to the 1330s; the linguistic unity, negligible dialectal differentiation, of the Slavs until the end of the first millennium CE, the lexical uniformity of religious vocabulary, witness a uniformity of early Slavic religion. It has been argued. Ivanov and Toporov identified Slavic religion as an outgrowth of a common Proto-Indo-European religion, sharing strong similarities with other neighbouring Indo-European belief systems such as those of Balts, Thracians and Indo-Iranians. Slavic religion and mythology is considered more conservative and closer to original Proto-Indo-European reli
Regensburg is a city in south-east Germany, at the confluence of the Danube and Regen rivers. With more than 150,000 inhabitants, Regensburg is the fourth-largest city in the State of Bavaria after Munich and Augsburg; the city is the political and cultural centre and capital of the Upper Palatinate. The medieval centre of the city is a UNESCO World Heritage Site. In 2014, Regensburg was among the top sights and travel attractions in Germany; the first settlements in Regensburg date from the Stone Age. The Celtic name Radasbona was the oldest given to a settlement near the present city. Around AD 90, the Romans built a fort there. In 179, a new Roman fort Castra Regina was built for Legio III Italica during the reign of Emperor Marcus Aurelius, it was an important camp on the most northerly point of the Danube. It is believed that as early as in late Roman times the city was the seat of a bishop, St Boniface re-established the Bishopric of Regensburg in 739. From the early 6th century, Regensburg was the seat of a ruling family known as the Agilolfings.
From about 530 to the first half of the 13th century, it was the capital of Bavaria. Regensburg remained an important city during the reign of Charlemagne. In 792, Regensburg hosted the ecclesiastical section of Charlemagne's General Assembly, the bishops in council who condemned the heresy of adoptionism taught by their Spanish counterparts, Elipandus of Toledo and Felix of Urgel. After the partition of the Carolingian Empire in 843, the city became the seat of the Eastern Frankish ruler, Louis II the German. Two years fourteen Bohemian princes came to Regensburg to receive baptism there; this was the starting point of Christianization of the Czechs, the diocese of Regensburg became the mother diocese of that of Prague. These events had a wide impact on the cultural history of the Czech lands, as they were part of the Roman Catholic and not the Slavic-Orthodox world. A memorial plate at St John's Church was unveiled a few years ago, commemorating the incident in the Czech and German languages.
In 800 the city had 23,000 inhabitants and by 1000 this had doubled to 40,000 people. On 8 December 899 Arnulf of Carinthia, descendant of Charlemagne, died at Regensburg, Germany. In 1096, on the way to the First Crusade, Peter the Hermit led a mob of crusaders that attempted to force the mass conversion of the Jews of Regensburg and killed all those who resisted. Between 1135 and 1146, the Stone Bridge across the Danube was built at Regensburg; this bridge opened major international trade routes between northern Europe and Venice, this began Regensburg's golden age as a residence of wealthy trading families. Regensburg became the cultural centre of southern Germany and was celebrated for its gold work and fabrics. In 1245 Regensburg became a Free Imperial City and was a trade centre before the shifting of trade routes in the late Middle Ages. At the end of the 15th century in 1486, Regensburg became part of the Duchy of Bavaria, but its independence was restored by the Holy Roman Emperor ten years later.
The city adopted the Protestant Reformation in 1542 and its Town Council remained Lutheran. From 1663 to 1806, the city was the permanent seat of the Imperial Diet of the Holy Roman Empire, which became known as the Perpetual Diet of Regensburg. Thus, Regensburg was one of the central towns of the Empire, attracting visitors in large numbers. A minority of the population remained Roman Catholic, Roman Catholics were denied civil rights, but the town of Regensburg must not be confused with the Bishopric of Regensburg. Although the Imperial city had adopted the Reformation, the town remained the seat of a Roman Catholic bishop and several abbeys. Three of the latter, St. Emmeram, Niedermünster and Obermünster, were estates of their own within the Holy Roman Empire, meaning that they were granted a seat and a vote at the Imperial Diet. So there was the unique situation that the town of Regensburg comprised five independent "states": the Protestant city itself, the Roman Catholic bishopric, the three monasteries.
In addition, it was seen as the traditional capital of the region Bavaria, acted as functional co-capital of the Empire due to the presence of the Perpetual Diet, it was residence of the Emperor's Commissary-Principal to the same diet, who with one brief exception was a prince himself. In 1803 the city lost its status as an imperial city following its incorporation into the Principality of Regensburg, it was handed over to the Archbishop-Elector of Mainz and Archchancellor of the Holy Roman Empire Carl von Dalberg in compensation for the territory of the Electorate of Mainz located on the left bank of the Rhine, annexed by France under the terms of the Treaty of Lunéville in 1801. The Archbishopric of Mainz was formally transferred to Regensburg. Dalberg united the bishopric, the monasteries, the town itself, making up the Principality of Regensburg. Dalberg modernized public life. Most he awarded equal rights to Protestants and Roman Catholics alike. In 1810 Dalberg ceded Regensburg to the Kingdom of Bavaria, he himself being compensated by t