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Observation is the active acquisition of information from a primary source. In living beings, observation employs the senses. In science, observation can involve the perception and recording of data via the use of scientific instruments; the term may refer to any data collected during the scientific activity. Observations can be qualitative, that is, only the absence or presence of a property is noted, or quantitative if a numerical value is attached to the observed phenomenon by counting or measuring; the scientific method requires observations of natural phenomena to test hypotheses. It consists of the following steps: Ask a question about a natural phenomenon Make observations of the phenomenon Formulate a hypothesis that tentatively answers the question Predict logical, observable consequences of the hypothesis that have not yet been investigated Test the hypothesis' predictions by an experiment, observational study, field study, or simulation Draw a conclusion from data gathered in the experiment, or revise the hypothesis or form a new one and repeat the process Write a descriptive method of observation and the results or conclusions reached Have peers with experience researching the same phenomenon evaluate the resultsObservations play a role in the second and fifth steps of the scientific method.

However, the need for reproducibility requires that observations by different observers can be comparable. Human sense impressions are qualitative, making them difficult to record or compare; the use of measurement developed to allow recording and comparison of observations made at different times and places, by different people. Measurement consists of using observation to compare the phenomenon being observed to a standard unit; the standard unit can be an artifact, process, or definition which can be duplicated or shared by all observers. In measurement the number of standard units, equal to the observation is counted. Measurement reduces an observation to a number which can be recorded, two observations which result in the same number are equal within the resolution of the process. Human senses are subject to errors in perception, such as optical illusions. Scientific instruments were developed to aid human abilities of observation, such as weighing scales, telescopes, thermometers and tape recorders, translate into perceptible form events that are unobservable by the senses, such as indicator dyes, spectrometers, infrared cameras, interferometers, geiger counters, radio receivers.

One problem encountered throughout scientific fields is that the observation may affect the process being observed, resulting in a different outcome than if the process was unobserved. This is called the observer effect. For example, it is not possible to check the air pressure in an automobile tire without letting out some of the air, thereby changing the pressure. However, in most fields of science it is possible to reduce the effects of observation to insignificance by using better instruments. Considered as a physical process itself, all forms of observation involve amplification and are thus thermodynamically irreversible processes, increasing entropy. In some specific fields of science the results of observation differ depending on factors which are not important in everyday observation; these are illustrated with "paradoxes" in which an event appears different when observed from two different points of view, seeming to violate "common sense". Relativity: In relativistic physics which deals with velocities close to the speed of light, it is found that different observers may observe different values for the length, time rates and many other properties of an object, depending on the observer's velocity relative to the object.

For example, in the twin paradox one twin goes on a trip near the speed of light and comes home younger than the twin who stayed at home. This is not a paradox: time passes at a slower rate when measured from a frame moving with respect to the object. In relativistic physics, an observation must always be qualified by specifying the state of motion of the observer, its reference frame. Quantum mechanics: In quantum mechanics, which deals with the behavior of small objects, it is not possible to observe a system without changing the system, the "observer" must be considered part of the system being observed. In isolation, quantum objects are represented by a wave function which exists in a superposition or mixture of different states. However, when an observation is made to determine the actual location or state of the object, it always finds the object in a single state, not a "mixture"; the interaction of the observation process appears to "collapse" the wave function into a single state. So any interaction between an isolated wave function and the external world that results in this wave function collapse is called an observation or measurement, whether or not it is part of a deliberate observation process.

The human senses do not function like a video camcorder, impartially recording all observations. Human perception occurs by a complex, unconscious process of abstraction, in which certain details of the incoming sense data are noticed and remembered, the rest forgotten. What is kept and what is thrown away depends on an internal model or representation of the world, called by psychologists a schema, built up over our entire lives; the data is fitted into this schema. When events are remembered, memory gaps may be filled by "plausible" data the mind makes up to fit the model. How much attention the various perceived data are given depends on an internal value system, which judges how important it is to the indi

Frankie Sullivan

Frank Michael "Frankie" Sullivan III is an American guitarist and songwriter. Best known for being a founding member of the band Survivor, he has been the only permanent fixture in its lineup since the band's 1977 inception. Along with former bandmate and vocalist Jim Peterik, Sullivan co-wrote all of the group's hits, including "Eye of the Tiger" and "Burning Heart" from the Rocky III and IV movie soundtracks. According to pianist and keyboardist Jimmy Tranchitella of Northlake, Sullivan's musical career began in his early teens; as he sat in on local garage-band practices and assisted with equipment changes, band members began to observe his serious interest allowing him to play guitar after practice. He was a member of the hard rock band Mariah in 1976

Ink (novel)

Ink: The Book of All Hours 2 is a speculative fiction novel by Hal Duncan. It is a sequel to Vellum: The Book of All Hours, it was first published in the United Kingdom by Pan Macmillan in February 2007 and that same month, in the USA by Del Rey, an imprint of Random House. The Vellum is a reality, it can be reprogrammed using something called the Cant, this is what some deities from ancient myths, called the Unkin, have done. One group of Unkin see themselves as Angels, have set up a Covenant promising to reject any ancient deity looking to regain his or her past glory. A group of newly born Unkin who refuse to take part in such war are the main characters: Thomas Messenger, a homosexual young man who’s trying to disappear into the Vellum where he’ll never be found. Besides the myths and legends referred to, there are several vivid references to history, with some of the characters living through events such as the Glasgow 1919 Battle of George Square; the seven main characters are archetypes of characters from myths and legends: Jack known as Jack Flash, Spring Heeled Jack and Captain Jack Carter.

From a psychoanalytic point of view, the seven main characters can be seen as the Super-ego as guiding conscience, the wild and libidinous Id, the Anima and Animus as a triple goddess/god figure, the “inner child” of the Self, the Ego that has to deal with society and reality, the Shadow as the dark side, the wise hermit or old soldier as an image of age and experience. The homosexual theme is strongly referred to in the character of Thomas/Puck and his relationship with Jack. Puck is explicitly identified with Matthew Shephard; the main characters' story is framed within the story of the Book of All Hours, a tome in which Metatron, the scribe of the Covenant, has inscribed the destiny of the whole Vellum. This frame story appears in short sections called Errata, at the end of each chapter; the events in the novel are described in a non-linear order, with several skips ahead and back in time. In the first part of the novel, "Hinter's Knights", Euripides's The Bacchae is not only referenced but enacted by the characters on a stage, while the second part, "Eastern Mourning", hints more or less subtly to various passages of the Bible, more the Old Testament, with a particular focus on the story of Sodom and on the Binding of Isaac.

The reception to Ink varied. Some critics found it confusing, although most admitted its stylistic value, while others appreciated its experimental nature. Ink has been shortlisted for the 2011 Tähtivaeltaja Awards, assigned to the best science fiction novel released in Finland during the previous year. Ink has been translated into German by Hannes Riffel, Finnish by Nina Saikkonen, French by Florence Dolisi, Spanish by Luis Gallego Tévar and Polish by Anna Reszka

Marvin Menzies

Marvin Eugene Menzies is an American college basketball coach, the associate head coach at Grand Canyon University, being named to the position on April 18, 2019. Menzies joined the Grand Canyon staff after 12 consecutive seasons as a head coach including a three-year run at UNLV and nine seasons at New Mexico State. Menzies was announced as UNLV head coach on April 17, 2016 as the successor to Chris Beard, who the previous week had accepted the head coaching position at Texas Tech. Fired from UNLV in March of 2019, Menzies was replaced by former South Dakota State head coach T. J. Otzelberger. At New Mexico State, Menzies replaced previous coach Reggie Theus. Like Theus, Menzies came to NMSU after spending the previous two years as an assistant coach under Rick Pitino at the Louisville. In fact, Menzies had been hired by Louisville to replace Theus when he left that institution to take the head coaching job at NMSU in 2005; the NMSU job was Menzies' first head coaching position at a four-year institution.

Menzies was the 24th person to hold the head coaching position in the history of Aggie basketball. Prior to his stint at Louisville, Menzies had served as an assistant coach at USC, San Diego State and Sacramento State and had served as head coach at Santa Monica College, he came to NMSU with 14 years of collegiate coaching experience. Menzies holds a bachelor's degree in economics from UCLA and a master's in education from California State University, Sacramento, he is a member of Phi Beta Sigma fraternity. New Mexico State profile


Brainly is a peer-to-peer learning community and educational technology company based in New York City, New York, United States and Krakow, Poland. Brainly operates a group of social learning networks for students and educators. Brainly advocates to share and explore knowledge in a collaborative manner, engaging in peer-to-peer educational assistance; the network has elements of gamification in the form of motivational points and ranks, encourages users to engage in the online community by asking questions and answering those of other students. Brainly has 150 million monthly unique users across 35 countries including the United States, India, Brazil and Turkey. Called, the company was founded in 2009 in Poland by Michał Borkowski, Tomasz Kraus and Łukasz Haluch. The first million unique users monthly was achieved within 6 months after the release. In January 2011, the company founded, the first international project dedicated to Russian language speakers. Several other versions in multiple languages for the following markets included Turkey, Latin America and Spain and Brazil.

In December 2013, seven new language versions of Brainly were released, including English, Indian, Thai and Italian sites. Brainly was funded by the co-founders, but raised funds from Point Nine Capital. In October 2014, the company announced that it had raised another round of funding from General Catalyst Partners, Runa Capital and other venture capital firms; the total amount of the investment was $9 million and allowed further product development, as well as the opening of the US-based headquarters in New York City. In May 2016, another funding round of $18 million of combined debt and equity was disclosed. In June 2016, Brainly acquired the US-based OpenStudy. In March or April 2017, changed to Brainly. In October 2017, Brainly raised $14 million in the funding round led by Kulczyk Investments. In January 2018, Brainly announced it had acquired the video education start-up, Bask, to bring video technology to the Brainly platform. In July 2019, Brainly raised $30 million in a Series C funding round led by Naspers, with participation from Runa Capital and Manta Ray.

The total funds raised by the company. Brainly provides questions and answers for students and parents looking for help with homework-related tasks. Students use Brainly to strengthen their skills across core subjects such as math, history and social studies; the platform allows them to connect with their peers, subject matter experts, professional educators to discuss their subjects and seek answers to their questions. Users may post comments to every question and answer and can collaborate on problems. All questions are categorized by respective of country and school level; each user is given a fixed amount points upon registration, which they can use to ask questions, one can answer questions to gain additional points

Magic Hour (Cast album)

Magic Hour is the third album by the English band Cast, released on 17 May 1999.'Beat Mama' and'Magic Hour' were both released as singles, reached No. 9 and No. 28 on the UK Singles Chart respectively. All songs written by John Power. "Beat Mama" – 4:10 "Compared to You" – 3:38 "She Falls" – 3:31 "Dreamer" – 3:43 "Magic Hour" – 3:08 "Company Man" – 3:51 "Alien" – 5:26 "Higher" – 4:04 "Chasing the Day" – 4:20 "The Feeling Remains" – 3:54 "Burn the Light" – 4:01 "Hideaway" – 24:42The song "Hideaway" ends at minute 6:40. After 13 minutes of silence, begins the hidden song "Solo Strings". CastJohn Power – vocals, guitar Peter Wilkinson – backing vocals, bass Liam "Skin" Tyson – guitar Keith O'Neill – drumsProductionGil Norton – producer, mixing Danton Supple – engineer, mixing David Arnold – string arrangements Nicholas Dodd – conductor Bob Ludwigmastering Magic Hour at Billboard Magic Hour at Allmusic