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CarbonCast is a precast concrete technology that uses carbon-fibre grid as secondary reinforcing or as a shear truss. It was introduced by AltusGroup, Inc. a North American partnership of 17 precast concrete manufacturers and seven industry suppliers founded to expedite the research and national commercialization of concrete innovations. The CarbonCast line of commercial products includes: CarbonCast High Performance Insulated Wall Panels are composed of two concrete wythes separated by continuous insulation and connected by C-GRID carbon fibre shear trusses CarbonCast Insulated Architectural Cladding feature inner and outer wythes 1-3⁄4″thick or more for a total concrete thickness of 3-1⁄2″; the wythes sandwich a layer of insulation of 2″ or more depending on R-value requirements CarbonCast Architectural Cladding employs a steel reinforced Vierendeel-like truss frame attached to a thin, C-GRID reinforced diaphragm face. Insulating foam forms around patented V-ribs, designed to create a thermal break with the face of the panel, displaces concrete to provide insulation while C-GRID carbon fibre shear trusses mechanically link the face and truss ribs CarbonCast Double Tees replace conventional steel mesh reinforcing in the flange with C-GRID carbon fibre grid The use of carbon fibre grid over conventional reinforcement yields a number of unique properties to CarbonCast components: Lower weight - When carbon fibre grid replaces steel mesh in the face of concrete products, manufacturers can use less concrete cover to protect the mesh from corrosive elements.

Non-corrosive carbon fibre eliminates the need for extra concrete. Improved thermal performance - The low thermal conductivity of carbon fibre permits CarbonCast components to provide higher R-values than conventional precast concrete. Improved strength - Carbon fibre is four times stronger than steel by weight providing better surface crack control when used as secondary reinforcing and 100% composite action when used as a truss in insulated wall panels. Comparable cost - Many applications receive savings in foundation and superstructure, energy costs and maintenance. There are more than 700 projects totaling more than 30,000,000 square feet of surface area of CarbonCast technology in these markets: Education Industrial / Warehouse Commercial Office Parking Structure Multi-Family Residential Retail Prominent structures that have used CarbonCast technology include: Proximity Hotel, Greensboro, NC Lucas Oil Stadium, Indianapolis, IN University Commons at Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA Carbon fiber-reinforced polymer Precast concrete Official website for CarbonCast

Harriet Anderson Stubbs Murphy

Harriet Anderson Stubbs Murphy was a British-American portrait artist. Harriet Anderson Stubbs was born in Liverpool, England in 1853. After leaving England, she spent some time in Montreal, before coming to New York City. Harriet, a self-taught painter who began when she was only twelve years old, painted more than 1,000 portraits, including many prominent figures of the day, including Presidents Ulysses S. Grant, Theodore Roosevelt, William McKinley, Woodrow Wilson. One of her portraits of McKinley hung in The Union League Club, the other in the White House, she painted portraits of Margaret Olivia Slocum Sage, Admiral George Dewey and Governor William Dillingham, Senator Mark Hanna, Joseph H. Choate, John Hay, John Stewart Kennedy, J. Pierpont Morgan, John D. Rockefeller, Laura Spelman Rockefeller, Bessie Rockefeller, E. H. Harriman, Cornelius N. Bliss, General Daniel Butterfield, Adrian Georg Iselin, Thomas Edison, Chauncey Depew, New York mayors Abram Hewitt, Seth Low, William Lafayette Strong.

She painted Chief Justice of the United States Supreme Court, Melville Fuller. One of the few woman working in portraiture at the time, Harriet could command better rates through her husbands name, therefore, "her portraits were signed W. D. Murphy." After discovering that his wife was a better artist than him, William abandoned his own work and became her business agent. In 1886, she married fellow artist William Daniel Murphy. Together, they were the parents of: Jean Una Murphy, who became a commercial artist Albert J. Murphy, an educator and author. After the death of her husband in 1928, she moved to the Hotel Irvin for Women at 308 West 30th Street in New York City. After a two month illness, Harried died on September 23, 1935 at the Home for Incurables in the Bronx. After a service at the Chapel of the Home for Incurables, she was buried in St. Michael's Cemetery on Astoria Boulevard in Queens. Harriet Anderson Stubbs and William Daniel Murphy papers, 1858-1969 at the Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution

Monomictic lake

Monomictic lakes are holomictic lakes that mix from top to bottom during one mixing period each year. Monomictic lakes may be subdivided into warm types. Cold monomictic lakes are lakes. During their brief "summer", the surface waters remain at or below 4°C; the ice prevents these lakes from mixing in winter. During summer, these lakes lack significant thermal stratification, they mix from top to bottom; these lakes are typical of cold-climate regions. Warm monomictic lakes are lakes that never freeze, are thermally stratified throughout much of the year; the density difference between the warm surface waters and the colder bottom waters prevents these lakes from mixing in summer. During winter, the surface waters cool to a temperature equal to the bottom waters. Lacking significant thermal stratification, these lakes mix each winter from top to bottom; these lakes are distributed from temperate to tropical climatic regions. One example is South Australia's Blue Lake, where the change in circulation is signaled by a striking change in colour

Perry Township, Ashland County, Ohio

Perry Township is one of the fifteen townships of Ashland County, United States. As of the 2010 census the population was 1,990. Located in the eastern part of the county, it borders the following townships: Jackson Township - north Congress Township, Wayne County - northeast corner Chester Township, Wayne County - east Plain Township, Wayne County - southeast corner Mohican Township - south Vermillion Township - southwest corner Montgomery Township - westNo municipalities are located in Perry Township. Perry Township was organized in 1814, it is one of twenty-six Perry Townships statewide. The township is governed by a three-member board of trustees, who are elected in November of odd-numbered years to a four-year term beginning on the following January 1. Two are elected in the year after the presidential election and one is elected in the year before it. There is an elected township fiscal officer, who serves a four-year term beginning on April 1 of the year after the election, held in November of the year before the presidential election.

Vacancies in the fiscal officership or on the board of trustees are filled by the remaining trustees. County website


A stirrup is a light frame or ring that holds the foot of a rider, attached to the saddle by a strap called a stirrup leather. Stirrups are paired and are used to aid in mounting and as a support while using a riding animal, they increase the rider's ability to stay in the saddle and control the mount, increasing the animal's usefulness to humans in areas such as communication and warfare. In antiquity, the earliest foot supports consisted of riders placing their feet under a girth or using a simple toe loop. A single stirrup was used as a mounting aid, paired stirrups appeared after the invention of the treed saddle; the stirrup appeared in China in the first few centuries AD and spread westward through the nomadic peoples of Central Eurasia. The use of paired stirrups is credited to the Chinese Jin Dynasty and came to Europe during the Middle Ages; some argue that the stirrup was one of the basic tools used to create and spread modern civilization as important as the wheel or printing press.

The English word "stirrup" stems from Old English stirap, Middle English stirop, styrope, i.e. a mounting or climbing-rope. Compare Old English stīgan "to ascend" and rap "rope, cord"; the stirrup, which gives greater stability to a rider, has been described as one of the most significant inventions in the history of warfare, prior to gunpowder. As a tool allowing expanded use of horses in warfare, the stirrup is called the third revolutionary step in equipment, after the chariot and the saddle; the basic tactics of mounted warfare were altered by the stirrup. A rider supported by stirrups was less to fall off while fighting, could deliver a blow with a weapon that more employed the weight and momentum of horse and rider. Among other advantages, stirrups provided greater balance and support to the rider, which allowed the knight to use a sword more efficiently without falling against infantry adversaries. Contrary to common modern belief, however, it has been asserted that stirrups did not enable the horseman to use a lance more though the cantled saddle did.

The invention of the stirrup occurred late in history, considering that horses were domesticated in 4500 BC, the earliest known saddle-like equipment were fringed cloths or pads with breast pads and cruppers used by Assyrian cavalry around 700 BC. The earliest manifestation of the stirrup was a toe loop that held the big toe and was used in India late in the second century BC, though may have appeared as early as 500 BC; this ancient foot support consisted of a looped rope for the big toe, at the bottom of a saddle made of fibre or leather. Such a configuration was suitable for the warm climate of south and central India where people used to ride horses barefoot. A pair of megalithic double bent iron bars with curvature at each end, excavated in Junapani in the central Indian state of Madhya Pradesh have been regarded as stirrups although they could as well be something else. Buddhist carvings in the temples of Sanchi and the Bhaja caves dating back between the 1st and 2nd century BC figure horsemen riding with elaborate saddles with feet slipped under girths.

In this regard archaeologist John Marshall described the Sanchi relief as "the earliest example by some five centuries of the use of stirrups in any part of the world". Some credit the nomadic Central Asian group known as the Sarmatians as developing the first stirrups; the invention of the solid saddle tree allowed development of the true stirrup. Without a solid tree, the rider's weight in the stirrups creates abnormal pressure points and make the horse's back sore. Modern thermography studies on "treeless" and flexible-tree saddle designs have found that there is considerable friction across the center line of a horse's back. A coin of Quintus Labienus, in service of Parthia, minted circa 39 BC depicts on its reverse a saddled horse with hanging objects. Smith suggests they are pendant cloths, while Thayer suggests that, considering the fact that the Parthians were famous for their mounted archery, the objects are stirrups, but adds that it is difficult to imagine why the Romans would never have adopted the technology.

In Asia, early solid-treed saddles were made of felt. These designs date to 200 BC One of the earliest solid-treed saddles in the west was first used by the Romans as early as the 1st century BC, but this design did not have stirrups, it is speculated. Stirrups were used in China at the latest by the early 4th century AD. A funerary figurine depicting a stirrup dated 302 AD was unearthed from a Western Jin dynasty tomb near Changsha; the stirrup depicted is a mounting stirrup, only placed on one side of the horse, too short for riding. The earliest reliable representation of a full-length, double-sided riding stirrup was unearthed from a Jin tomb, this time near Nanjing, dating to the Eastern Jin period, 322 AD; the earliest extant double stirrups were discovered in the tomb of a Northern Yan noble, Feng Sufu, who died in 415 AD. Stirrups have been found in Goguryeo tombs dating to the 4th and 5th centuries AD, but these do not contain any specific date; the stirrup appeared to be in widespread use across China by 477 AD.

The appearance of the stirrup in China coincided with the rise of armoured cavalry in the region. Dated to 357 AD, the tomb of Dong Shou shows armoured riders as well as horses. References to "iron cavalr