Schubert Thematic Catalogue
Schubert, Thematic Catalogue of all his Works in Chronological Order, known as the Deutsch catalogue, is a numbered list of all compositions by Franz Schubert compiled by Otto Erich Deutsch. Since its first publication in 1951, Deutsch numbers are used for the identification of Schuberts compositions. In 1978, as part VIII Supplement / Volume 4 of the New Schubert Edition, in 1995 Dover Publications republished the 1951 edition, with updates derived from scholarship that had been published since 1951. From 1983 compact versions of the catalogue appeared, edited by Werner Aderhold, changes to the numbering of Schuberts works were minor in these editions. Thematisches Verzeignis der im Druck erschienenen Compositionen von Franz Schubert, thematisches Verzeignis der im Druck erschienenen Werke von F. Schubert. Otto Erich Deutsch in collaboration with Donald R. Wakeling, Thematic Catalogue of all his Works in Chronological Order. London, Dent — New York, W. W. Norton,1951, Thematic Catalogue of all his Works in Chronological Order.
By Otto Erich Deutsch. in The Musical Times Vol.92, the Schubert Catalogue and Additions. Franz Schubert List of the Dances in Chronological Order in Revue belge de Musicologie/Belgisch Tijdschrift voor Muziekwetenschap, Vol.25, 1/4, pp. 68–97,1971 Reinhard Van Hoorickx. Thematic Catalogue of Schuberts Works, New Additions and Notes in Revue belge de Musicologie/Belgisch Tijdschrift voor Muziekwetenschap, Vol. 28/30, pp. 136–171, Otto Erich Deutsch, with revisions by Werner Aderhold and others. Franz Schubert, thematisches Verzeichnis seiner Werke in chronologischer Folge, ISMN9790006305148 — ISBN9783761805718 Robert Winter. Cataloguing Schubert in 19th Century Music, November 1979 Eva Badura-Skoda, Schubert Studies, Problems of Style and Chronology. Otto Erich Deutsch, edited by Werner Aderhold, Walther Dürr, Franz Schubert, Werkverzeichnis — Der Kleine Deutsch. Otto Erich Deutsch, The Schubert Thematic Catalogue, ISBN0486286851 – ISBN9780486286853 Barry S. Brook, Richard J. Viano. Thematic Catalogues in Music, An Annotated Bibliography — second edition, ISBN 978-0-918728-86-9 Werner Aderhold Franz Schubert, Deutsch-Verzeichnis — Studienausgabe
In 2009 the total number of concerts reached 100. The season is a significant event in British culture, in classical music, Jiří Bělohlávek described the Proms as the worlds largest and most democratic musical festival. Prom is short for promenade concert, a term originally referred to outdoor concerts in Londons pleasure gardens. In fact this tradition has been revived in parks and stately homes around the UK at promenade concerts such as the Battle Proms. In the context of the BBC Proms, promming refers to the use of the areas inside the hall for which ticket prices are much lower than for the reserved seating. Single-concert standing tickets for either the arena or gallery can be only on the day of the concert. Proms concert-goers, particularly those who stand, are referred to as prommers or promenaders. Prommers can buy full-season tickets instead for guaranteed entry to every concert in the season, some prommers are particularly keen in their attendance. The annual series of Proms continuing today had their roots in that movement and they were inaugurated on 10 August 1895 in the Queens Hall in Langham Place by the impresario Robert Newman, who was fully experienced in running similar concerts at His Majestys Theatre.
Newman wished to generate an audience for concert hall music by offering low ticket prices and an informal atmosphere. He stated his aim to Henry Wood in 1894 as follows, I am going to run nightly concerts, popular at first, gradually raising the standard until I have created a public for classical and modern music. Dr George Cathcart, an otolaryngologist, gave financial backing to Newman for the series on condition that Henry Wood be employed as the sole conductor, aged 26, seized this opportunity and built the Queens Hall Orchestra as the ensemble specially devoted to performing the promenade concerts. This coincided with the adoption of lower pitch by other leading orchestras. Although the concerts gained a following and reputation, Newman went bankrupt in 1902. Wood received a knighthood in 1911, in 1914 anti-German feeling led Speyer to surrender his role, and music publishers Chappell & Co. took control of the concerts. Although Newman remained involved in planning, it was Woods name which became most closely associated with the Proms.
As conductor from the first concert in 1895, Sir Henry was largely responsible for building the repertoire heard as the series continued from year to year. While including many popular and less demanding works, in the first season there were substantial nights devoted to Beethoven or Schubert, distinguished singers including Sims Reeves and Signor Foli appeared
Leipzig is the largest city in the federal state of Saxony, Germany. With a population of 570,087 inhabitants it is Germanys tenth most populous city, Leipzig is located about 160 kilometres southwest of Berlin at the confluence of the White Elster and Parthe rivers at the southern end of the North German Plain. Leipzig has been a city since at least the time of the Holy Roman Empire. The city sits at the intersection of the Via Regia and Via Imperii, Leipzig was once one of the major European centers of learning and culture in fields such as music and publishing. Leipzig became an urban center within the German Democratic Republic after the Second World War. Leipzig played a significant role in instigating the fall of communism in Eastern Europe, through events which took place in, Leipzig today is an economic center and the most livable city in Germany, according to the GfK marketing research institution. Since the opening of the Leipzig City Tunnel in 2013, Leipzig forms the centerpiece of the S-Bahn Mitteldeutschland public transit system, Leipzig is currently listed as Gamma World City and Germanys Boomtown.
Outside of Leipzig the Neuseenland district forms a lake area of approximately 300 square kilometres. Leipzig is derived from the Slavic word Lipsk, which means settlement where the linden trees stand, an older spelling of the name in English is Leipsic. The Latin name Lipsia was used, the name is cognate with Lipetsk in Russia and Liepāja in Latvia. In 1937 the Nazi government officially renamed the city Reichsmessestadt Leipzig, the common usage of this nickname for Leipzig up until the present is reflected, for example, in the name of a popular blog for local arts and culture, Heldenstadt. de. Leipzig was first documented in 1015 in the chronicles of Bishop Thietmar of Merseburg as urbs Libzi and endowed with city, Leipzig Trade Fair, started in the Middle Ages, became an event of international importance and is the oldest remaining trade fair in the world. During the Thirty Years War, two battles took place in Breitenfeld, about 8 kilometres outside Leipzig city walls, the first Battle of Breitenfeld took place in 1631 and the second in 1642.
Both battles resulted in victories for the Swedish-led side, on 24 December 1701, an oil-fueled street lighting system was introduced. The city employed light guards who had to follow a schedule to ensure the punctual lighting of the 700 lanterns. The Leipzig region was the arena of the 1813 Battle of Leipzig between Napoleonic France and a coalition of Prussia, Russia and Sweden. It was the largest battle in Europe prior to the First World War, in 1913 the Monument to the Battle of the Nations celebrating the centenary of this event was completed. The railway station has two entrance halls, the eastern one for the Royal Saxon State Railways and the western one for the Prussian state railways
Royal Albert Hall
The Royal Albert Hall is a concert hall on the northern edge of South Kensington, which holds the Proms concerts annually each summer since 1941. It has a capacity of up to 5,272 seats, the Hall is a registered charity held in trust for the nation and receives no public or government funding. A further 400 events are each year in the non-auditorium spaces. In 1851, the Great Exhibition was held in Hyde Park, the Exhibitions Royal Commission bought Gore House and its grounds on the advice of the Prince. Progress on the scheme was slow and in 1861 Prince Albert died, however, a memorial was proposed for Hyde Park, with a Great Hall opposite. The proposal was approved and the site was purchased with some of the profits from the Exhibition, the Hall was designed by civil engineers Captain Francis Fowke and Major-General Henry Y. D. Scott of the Royal Engineers and built by Lucas Brothers. The designers were heavily influenced by ancient amphitheatres, but had exposed to the ideas of Gottfried Semper while he was working at the South Kensington Museum.
The recently opened Cirque dHiver in Paris was seen in the press as the design to outdo. The Hall was constructed mainly of Fareham Red brick, with terra cotta block decoration made by Gibbs, the dome on top was made of wrought iron and glazed. There was an assembly made of the iron framework of the dome in Manchester, it was taken apart again and transported to London via horse. When the time came for the structure to be removed from the dome after reassembly in situ. It did drop – but only by five-sixteenths of an inch, the Hall was scheduled to be completed by Christmas Day 1870 and the Queen visited a few weeks beforehand to inspect. The official opening ceremony of the Hall was on 29 March 1871, a welcoming speech was given by Edward, the Prince of Wales, Queen Victoria was too overcome to speak. At some point, the Queen remarked that the Hall reminded her of the British constitution, a concert followed, when the Halls acoustic problems became immediately apparent. Engineers first attempted to solve the strong echo by suspending a canvas awning below the dome, in July 1871, French organist Camille Saint-Saëns performed Church Scene from the Faust by Charles Gounod, The Orchestra described his performance as an exceptional and distinguished performer.
Initially lit by gas, the Hall contained a system where its thousands of gas jets were lit within ten seconds. Though it was demonstrated as early as 1873 in the Hall, full electric lighting was not installed until 1888, during an early trial when a partial installation was made, one disgruntled patron wrote to The Times declaring it to be a very ghastly and unpleasant innovation. In May 1877, Richard Wagner himself conducted the first half of each of the eight concerts which made up the Grand Wagner Festival
Leonard Bernstein was an American composer, author, music lecturer, and pianist. He was among the first conductors born and educated in the US to receive worldwide acclaim, according to music critic Donal Henahan, he was one of the most prodigiously talented and successful musicians in American history. Bernstein was the first conductor to give a series of lectures on classical music, starting in 1954. He was a skilled pianist, often conducting piano concertos from the keyboard, as a composer he wrote in many styles encompassing symphonic and orchestral music, ballet and theatre music, choral works, chamber music and pieces for the piano. Many of his works are performed around the world, although none has matched the tremendous popular. He was born Louis Bernstein in Lawrence, the son of Ukrainian-Jewish parents Jennie and Samuel Joseph Bernstein and he was not related to film composer Elmer Bernstein, but the two men were friends, and even shared a certain physical similarity. Within the world of music, they were distinguished from each other by the use of the nicknames Bernstein West.
His family spent their summers at their home in Sharon. His grandmother insisted that his first name be Louis, but his parents called him Leonard. He officially changed his name to Leonard when he was fifteen, to his friends and many others he was simply known as Lenny. His father, Sam Bernstein, was a businessman and owner of a hair product store in downtown Lawrence, it is no longer standing on the corners of Amesbury, Sam initially opposed young Leonards interest in music. Despite this, the elder Bernstein took him to concerts in his teenage years. As a child, Bernstein attended the Garrison Grammar School and Boston Latin School, as a child he was very close to his younger sister Shirley, and would often play entire operas or Beethoven symphonies with her at the piano. He had a variety of teachers in his youth, including Helen Coates. After graduation from Boston Latin School in 1935, Bernstein attended Harvard University, one of his friends at Harvard was philosopher Donald Davidson, with whom he played piano four hands.
Bernstein wrote and conducted the score for the production Davidson mounted of Aristophanes play The Birds in the original Greek. Bernstein reused some of this music in the ballet Fancy Free, during his time at Harvard he was briefly an accompanist for the Harvard Glee Club. Bernstein mounted a student production of The Cradle Will Rock, who heard about the production, subsequently became a friend and influence on Bernstein
Anthem of Europe
Ode to Joy is the anthem of both the Council of Europe and the European Union. It is based on the movement of Beethovens 9th Symphony composed in 1823. Friedrich Schiller wrote the poem An die Freude in 1785 as a celebration of the brotherhood of man, in life, the poet was contemptuous of this popularity and dismissed the poem as typical of the bad taste of the age in which it had been written. After Schillers death, the poem provided the words for the movement of Ludwig van Beethovens 9th Symphony. Beethoven was generally seen as the choice for a European anthem. In 1974 the same piece of music was adopted as the National Anthem of Rhodesia and he wrote his decisions on the score, notably those concerning the tempo. Karajan decided on minim =80 whereas Beethoven had written crotchet =120, the anthem was launched via a major information campaign on Europe Day in 1972. In 1985, it was adopted by EU heads of State and it is not intended to replace the national anthems of the member states but rather to celebrate the values they all share and their unity in diversity.
It expresses the ideals of a united Europe, peace, a declaration was attached to the treaty, in which sixteen member states formally recognised the proposed symbols. In response, the European Parliament decided that it would make use of the anthem. In October 2008, the Parliament changed its rules of procedure to have the anthem played at the opening of Parliament after elections and at formal sittings. Ode to Joy is the anthem of the Council of Europe and it is used on occasions such as Europe Day and formal events such as the signing of treaties. In 2008 it was used by Kosovo as its national anthem until it adopted its own, in 1992 the anthem was used by CIS national football team at the 1992 UEFA European Football Championship. On 4 October 2010 the anthem was used when a European team beat a team representing the United States of America to win the Ryder Cup golf tournament. The European Ryder Cup captain Colin Montgomerie decided to break with tradition and it was similarly employed at the 2014 Ryder Cup prizegiving ceremony on 28 September, after Europe had beaten America under its captain, Paul McGinley.
Ode to Joy is used as the song to the 2016 UEFA Euro qualifying. In 2017, MPs from Scotland National Party first whistled and sang Ode to Joy at the House of Commons to protest against the Brexit referendum. Aside from this, several translations of the used by Beethoven as well as original works have attempted to provide lyrics to the anthem in various languages
It is the largest of the Japanese new religions and holds the largest membership among Nichiren Buddhist groups. The Gakkai bases its teachings on Nichirens interpretation of the Lotus Sutra, the organization promotes its goals as supporting peace and education. The movement was founded by educators Makiguchi and Toda in November 18,1930 and it was disbanded during World War II when much of the leadership was imprisoned on the Peace Preservation Law violations and charges of lèse-majesté. After the war it expanded from an estimate of 3,000 members to a claimed total of 750,000 households in 1958 through explosive recruitment. Further expansion of the movement was led by its third president Daisaku Ikeda, according to its own account, it has 12 million members in 192 countries and territories around the world. From 1952 to 1991 it shared an association with the Nichiren Shōshū Buddhist sect, Komeito, a centre-right political party closely aligned with Soka Gakkai, joined the ruling government coalition in 1999.
Further, a persons social actions at every moment can lead to soka, societal change is facilitated through human revolution, a way of living in the world that creates value. The doctrine of the Soka Gakkai derives from Nichiren, who promulgated the Lotus Sutra as he perceived its application to the epoch in which he and this theory demonstrates that the entire phenomenal world exists in a single moment of life. From this, he concluded that Buddha is life, or life force and our health, wisdom, desire to improve, self-discipline, and so on, could all be said to depend on our life force, Ikeda says. Toda considered that the concept of Buddha as life means that Buddhism entails transforming society, according to religious historian Susumu Shimazono, Ikeda says Faith is firm belief in the universe and the life force. Only a person of faith can lead a good and vigorous life. Soka Gakkai teaches that this change in each individual – which Josei Toda began referring to as human revolution—is what leads to happiness.
While older schools taught the attainment of Buddhahood in this life through the Gohonzon, the Soka Gakkai liturgy refers to all of its first three presidents—Tsunesabura Makiguchi, Josei Toda and Daisaku Ikeda—as the eternal mentors of kosen-rufu. Chilson reports that as Soka Gakkais long-time leader, Ikeda is revered by Gakkai members, the relationship between members and their mentors is referred to as the oneness of mentor and disciple. The mentor is to lead and thereby improve the lives of his disciples, the mentors actions is seen as giving disciples confidence in their own unrealized potential. The role of disciples is seen as supporting their mentor and realizing his vision using their abilities and circumstances. The relationship is seen as non-hierarchical and mutually weighted, disciples are encouraged to be active creators rather than passive followers. Seager writes, The oneness of the relationship is described not in terms of demands and duties as many critics imagine it to be
Council of Europe
The Council of Europe is an international organisation focused on protecting human rights, rule of law in Europe and promoting European culture. Founded in 1949, it has 47 member states, covers approximately 820 million people, No country has ever joined the EU without first belonging to the Council of Europe. Unlike the EU, the Council of Europe cannot make binding laws, the best known body of the Council of Europe is the European Court of Human Rights, which enforces the European Convention on Human Rights. The Commissioner for Human Rights is an independent institution within the Council of Europe, mandated to promote awareness of, the Secretary General heads the secretariat of the organisation. Other major CoE bodies include the European Directorate for the Quality of Medicines, the headquarters of the Council of Europe are in Strasbourg, France. English and French are its two official languages, the Committee of Ministers, the Parliamentary Assembly and the Congress use German, Italian and Turkish for some of their work.
In a speech at the University of Zurich on 19 September 1946, Sir Winston Churchill called for a kind of United States of Europe and he had spoken of a Council of Europe as early as 1943 in a radio broadcast. There were two schools of thought competing, some favoured a classical international organisation with representatives of governments, both approaches were finally combined through the creation of the Committee of Ministers and the Parliamentary Assembly under the Statute of the Council of Europe. The Council of Europe was founded on 5 May 1949 by the Treaty of London and those conventions and decisions are developed by the member states working together at the Council of Europe. Both organizations function as concentric circles around the foundations for European co-operation and harmony. The European Union could be seen as the circle with a much higher level of integration through the transfer of powers from the national to the EU level. The Council of Europe and the European Union, different roles, Council of Europe conventions/treaties are open for signature to non-member states, thus facilitating equal co-operation with countries outside Europe.
The Convention created the European Court of Human Rights in Strasbourg, the Court supervises compliance with the European Convention on Human Rights and thus functions as the highest European court. It is to court that Europeans can bring cases if they believe that a member country has violated their fundamental rights. The various activities and achievements of the Council of Europe can be found in detail on its official website, Promotion of the right to education under Article 2 of the first Protocol to the European Convention on Human Rights and several conventions on the recognition of university studies and diplomas. Promotion of fair sport through the Anti-Doping Convention Promotion of European youth exchanges and co-operation through European Youth Centres in Strasbourg and Budapest, Promotion of the quality of medicines throughout Europe by the European Directorate for the Quality of Medicines and its European Pharmacopoeia. The institutions of the Council of Europe are, The Secretary General, mr Thorbjørn Jagland, the former Prime Minister of Norway was elected Secretary General of the Council of Europe in September 2009.
In June 2014, he was re-elected, and his term in office commenced on 1 October 2014