A dowry is a transfer of parental property, gifts or money at the marriage of a daughter. Dowry contrasts with the related concepts of bride dower. While bride price or bride service is a payment by the groom or his family to the bride's parents, dowry is the wealth transferred from the bride's family to the groom or his family, ostensibly for the bride. Dower is the property settled on the bride herself, by the groom at the time of marriage, which remains under her ownership and control. Dowry is an ancient custom, its existence may well predate records of it. Dowries continue to be expected and demanded as a condition to accept a marriage proposal in some parts of the world in parts of Asia, Northern Africa and the Balkans. In some parts of the world, disputes related to dowry sometimes result in acts of violence against women, including killings and acid attacks; the custom of dowry is most common in cultures that are patrilineal and that expect women to reside with or near their husband's family.
Dowries have long histories in Europe, South Asia and other parts of the world. A dowry is the transfer of parental property to a daughter at her marriage rather than at the owner's death. A dowry establishes a type of conjugal fund; this fund may provide an element of financial security in widowhood or against a negligent husband, may go to provide for her children. Dowries may go toward establishing a marital household, therefore might include furnishings such as linens and furniture. Locally, dowry is called dahej in Hindi, varadhachanai in Tamil, jehaz in Urdu and Arabic, joutuk in Bengali, jiazhuang in Mandarin, çeyiz in Turkish, dot in French, daijo in Nepali, in various parts of Africa as serotwana, saduquat, or mugtaf. Anthropologist Jack Goody's comparative study of dowry systems around the world utilizing the Ethnographic Atlas demonstrated that dowry is a form of inheritance found in the broad swath of Eurasian societies from Japan to Ireland that practice "diverging devolution", i.e. that transmit property to children of both sexes.
This practice differs from the majority of Sub-Saharan African societies that practice "homogenous inheritance" in which property is transmitted only to children of the same sex as the property holder. These latter African societies are characterized by the transmission of the "bride price," the money, goods or property given by the groom or his family to the parents of the bride. Goody has demonstrated a historical correlation between the practices of "diverging devolution" and the development of intensive plough agriculture on the one hand, homogeneous inheritance and extensive hoe agriculture on the other. Drawing on the work of Ester Boserup, Goody notes that the sexual division of labour varies in intensive plough agriculture and extensive shifting horticulture. In sparsely populated regions where shifting cultivation takes place, most of the work is done by women; these are the societies. Boserup further associates shifting horticulture with the practice of polygamy, hence bridewealth is paid as a compensation to her family for the loss of her labour.
In plough agriculture farming is men's work. In contrast, plough agriculture is associated with private property and marriage tends to be monogamous, to keep the property within the nuclear family. Close family are the preferred marriage partners. There is a scholarly debate on Goody's theory. Sylvia Yanagisko argues, for example, that there are a number of societies including parts of Japan, Southern Italy, China, that do not support Goody's claim that dowry is a form of female inheritance of male property, she notes that Goody's is an evolutionary model in which these historical variables may not be the decisive factors today. Susan Mann argues, in contrast, with examples where in late Imperial China, dowry was a form of female inheritance. Stanley J. Tambiah argued that Goody's overall thesis remained pertinent in North India, although it required modification to meet local circumstances, he points out that dowry in North India is only used as a bride's conjugal fund, that a large part goes directly to the groom's joint family.
This would seem to discount Goody's model, except that in North India, the joint family is composed of the groom's parents, his married brothers and unmarried sisters, their third generation children. This joint family controlled this part of the dowry, which they used to help fund their own daughter/sister's dowries, but when the parents die, the joint family partitions, this jointly held wealth was divided among the married sons, such that the bride's dowry given to the joint family returned to her and her husband as their "conjugal fund."Schlegel and Eloul expanded on Goody's model through further statistical analysis of the Ethnographic atlas. They argue that a major factor in determining the type of marriage transaction is the type of property controlled by the household. Bridewealth circulates property and women, is typical of societies where property is limited. Dowry concentrates property and is found in property owning classes or commercial or landed pastoral peoples; when families give dowry, they not only ensure their daughter's economic security, they "buy" the best possible husband for her, son-in-law for themselves.
In the oldest available records, such as the Code of Hammurabi in ancient Babylon, the dowry is described as an already-existing custom. Daughters did not inherit anything fr
Integrated Authority File
The Integrated Authority File or GND is an international authority file for the organisation of personal names, subject headings and corporate bodies from catalogues. It is used for documentation in libraries and also by archives and museums; the GND is managed by the German National Library in cooperation with various regional library networks in German-speaking Europe and other partners. The GND falls under the Creative Commons Zero licence; the GND specification provides a hierarchy of high-level entities and sub-classes, useful in library classification, an approach to unambiguous identification of single elements. It comprises an ontology intended for knowledge representation in the semantic web, available in the RDF format; the Integrated Authority File became operational in April 2012 and integrates the content of the following authority files, which have since been discontinued: Name Authority File Corporate Bodies Authority File Subject Headings Authority File Uniform Title File of the Deutsches Musikarchiv At the time of its introduction on 5 April 2012, the GND held 9,493,860 files, including 2,650,000 personalised names.
There are seven main types of GND entities: LIBRIS Virtual International Authority File Information pages about the GND from the German National Library Search via OGND Bereitstellung des ersten GND-Grundbestandes DNB, 19 April 2012 From Authority Control to Linked Authority Data Presentation given by Reinhold Heuvelmann to the ALA MARC Formats Interest Group, June 2012
Kingdom of Italy
The Kingdom of Italy was a state which existed from 1861—when King Victor Emmanuel II of Sardinia was proclaimed King of Italy—until 1946—when civil discontent led a constitutional referendum to abandon the monarchy and form the modern Italian Republic. The state was founded as a result of the unification of Italy under the influence of the Kingdom of Sardinia, which can be considered its legal predecessor state. Italy declared war on Austria in alliance with Prussia in 1866 and received the region of Veneto following their victory. Italian troops entered Rome in 1870, thereby ending more than one thousand years of Papal temporal power. Italy entered into a Triple Alliance with Germany and Austria-Hungary in 1882, following strong disagreements with France about the respective colonial expansions; however if relations with Berlin became friendly, the alliance with Vienna remained purely formal as the Italians were keen to acquire Trentino and Trieste, corners of Austria-Hungary populated by Italians.
So in 1915, Italy accepted the British invitation to join the Allied Powers, as the western powers promised territorial compensation for participation, more generous than Vienna's offer in exchange for Italian neutrality. Victory in the war gave Italy a permanent seat in the Council of the League of Nations. "Fascist Italy" is the era of National Fascist Party government from 1922 to 1943 with Benito Mussolini as head of government. The fascists imposed totalitarian rule and crushed the political and intellectual opposition, while promoting economic modernization, traditional social values and a rapprochement with the Roman Catholic Church. According to Payne, " Fascist government passed through several distinct phases"; the first phase was nominally a continuation of the parliamentary system, albeit with a "legally-organized executive dictatorship". Came the second phase, "the construction of the Fascist dictatorship proper, from 1925 to 1929"; the third phase, with less activism, was 1929 to 1934.
The fourth phase, 1935–1940, was characterized by an aggressive foreign policy: war against Ethiopia, launched from Italian Eritrea and Italian Somaliland, which resulted in its annexation. The war itself was the fifth phase with its disasters and defeats, while the rump Salò Government under German control was the final stage. Italy was an important member of the Axis powers in World War II, battling on several fronts with initial success. However, after the German-Italian defeat in Africa and Soviet Union and the subsequent Allied landings in Sicily, King Victor Emmanuel III placed Mussolini under arrest, the Fascist Party in areas controlled by the Allied invaders was shut down; the new government signed an armistice on September 1943. German forces occupied northern Italy with Fascists' help, setting up the Italian Social Republic, a collaborationist puppet state still led by Mussolini and his Fascist loyalists; as conseguence, the country descended into civil war, with the Italian Co-belligerent Army and the resistance movement contended the Social Republic's forces and its German allies.
Shortly after the war and the liberation of the country, civil discontent led to the constitutional referendum of 1946 on whether Italy would remain a monarchy or become a republic. Italians decided to abandon the monarchy and form the Italian Republic, the present-day Italian state; the Kingdom of Italy claimed all of the territory which covers present-day Italy and more. The development of the Kingdom's territory progressed under Italian re-unification until 1870; the state for a long period of time did not include Trieste or Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol, which were annexed in 1919 and remain Italian territories today. The Triple Entente promised to grant to Italy – if the state joined the Allies in World War I – several territories including former Austrian Littoral, western parts of former Duchy of Carniola, Northern Dalmazia and notably Zara and most of the Dalmatian islands, according to the secret London Pact of 1915. After the compromise was nullified under pressure of President Woodrow Wilson with the Treaty of Versailles, Italian claims on Northern Dalmazia were voided.
During World War II, the Kingdom gained additional territory: it gained Corsica and Savoia from France after its surrender in 1940, territory in Slovenia and Dalmazia from Yugoslavia after its breakup in 1941 and Monaco in 1942. After World War II, the borders of present-day Italy were founded and the Kingdom abandoned its land claims; the Italian Empire gained territory until the end of World War II through colonies, military occupations and puppet states. These included Eritrea, Italian Somaliland, Ethiopia, British Somaliland, Tunisia, Kosovo, Montenegro and a 46-hectare concession from China in Tianjin; the Kingdom of Italy was theoretically a constitutional monarchy. Executive power belonged to the monarch; the legislative branch was a bicameral Parliament comprising an appointive Senate and an elective Chamber of Deputies. The kingdom's constitution was the Statuto Albertino, the former governing document of the Kingdom of Sardinia. In theory, ministers were responsible to the king. However, by this time it was impossible for a king to appoint a government of his ow
Bertha of Blois
Bertha of Blois, was a Duchess consort of Brittany and a countess consort of Maine, married in 1018 to Alain III, Duke of Brittany, in 1046 to Hugh IV, Count of Maine. She was Count of Blois and Ermengarde of Auvergne. Bertha bore a son, Conan II, Duke of Brittany, a daughter, Duchess of Brittany to Alain, she bore Herbert II, Count of Maine, to her second spouse
Bertha of Burgundy
Bertha of Burgundy was the daughter of Conrad the Peaceful, King of Burgundy and his wife Matilda, daughter of Louis IV, King of France and Gerberga of Saxony. She was named for Bertha of Swabia, she first married Odo I, Count of Blois in about 983. They had several children, including Odo II. After the death of her husband in 996, Bertha's second cousin Robert, co-King of France wished to marry her, in place of his repudiated first wife Rozala, many years his senior; the union was opposed by Robert's father, Hugh Capet, due to the potential political problem that could be caused by religious authorities due to their consanguinity. However, the marriage went ahead after Hugh's death in October 996; the closeness of Robert and Bertha by blood was such that Church authorities considered the marriage illegal since they had not received a dispensation, nor had they requested one. Accordingly, Pope Gregory V declared. This, the lack of children, caused Robert to agree with Pope Silvester II to have the marriage annulled in 1000.
Robert next married Constance of Arles while Bertha may have been the Bertha who married Arduin of Ivrea, King of Italy, Marquis of Ivrea
Châteaudun is a commune in the Eure-et-Loir department in northern France. It is a sub-prefecture of the department. Châteaudun is located about 45 km northwest of Orléans, about 50 km south-southwest of Chartres, it lies on a tributary of the Sarthe. The area is rich agricultural land, but a major local employer is the Châteaudun Air Base just to the east of the town and much larger than it, its château is known for being the first on the road to Loire Valley, from Paris. Châteaudun was the birthplace of: Pierre Guédron, composer Nicolas Chaperon painter Edmond Modeste Lescarbault and amateur astronomer Romain Feillu road racing cyclist Brice Feillu road racing cyclist Châteaudun is twinned with: Schweinfurt, Germany Cap-de-la-Madeleine, Québec, Canada Arklow, County Wicklow, Ireland Marchena, Andalusia, Spain Kroměříž, Czech Republic Stranraer and Galloway, United Kingdom Communes of the Eure-et-Loir department INSEE "Châteaudun". Encyclopædia Britannica. 5. 1911. Official website Tourist office website
Alan III, Duke of Brittany
Alan III of Rennes was Count of Rennes and duke of Brittany, by right of succession from 1008 to his death. He was Hawise of Normandy. Alan succeeded his father as Duke of Brittany in 1008; because he was still a minor at his father's death, his mother acted as regent of Brittany while her brother Richard II, Duke of Normandy assumed guardianship over Brittany. In 1018 Alan married Bertha of Blois, daughter of Odo II, Count of Blois and his second wife Ermengarde of Auvergne; when Richard III, Duke of Normandy died in August 1026, his brother Robert I succeeded him. Alan took advantage of the resulting turmoil to break free of Norman suzerainty. In the early 1030s Robert I attacked Dol and Alan's retaliatory raid on Avranches was repulsed causing continued raiding back and forth between them. Facing an invasion from Normandy via land and from Duke Robert's fleet, Archbishop of Rouen mediated a truce between his two great-nephews at Mont Saint-Michel where Alan swore fealty to his cousin Robert.
When he left Normandy for the Holy Land Robert I, Duke of Normandy appointed his cousin, Alan III, to be a guardian of his young son William. Alan III assisted Herbert I'Wake-Dog' in his wars with Avesgaud, Bishop of Le Mans and was with the count in his attack on Avesgaud's castle at La Ferté-Bernard destroying the castle and causing Avesgaud to flee. In 1037 at the death of Robert, Archbishop of Rouen, the protection of young William was now left to Alan III and his cousin Gilbert who tentatively held Normandy together, they appointed Mauger to the now vacant see of Rouen and his brother William as count of Arques, attempting to gain their support for Duke William. On 1 October 1040, while besieging a rebel castle near Vimoutiers in Normandy, Alan III died. According to Orderic, he was poisoned by unnamed Normans. By Bertha of Blois, he had three children: Conan II, succeeded his father. Emma of Brittany c 1034 Hawise of Brittany, who married Hoel of Cornouaille. After 14 May 1046 his widow Bertha married secondly Hugh Count of Maine.
Dukes of Brittany family tree