Radio France is a French public service radio broadcaster. Radio France offers seven national networks: France Inter — Radio France's "generalist" station, featuring entertaining and informative talk mixed with a wide variety of music, plus hourly news bulletins with extended news coverage in the morning and early-evening peaks France Info — 24-hour news France Culture — cultural programming covering the arts, science, etc. together with in-depth news coverage at peak times France Musique — classical music and jazz France Bleu — a network of 44 regional stations, mixing popular music with locally based talk and information, including: France Bleu 107.1 — for the Paris-Île-de-France region France Bleu Béarn — Pyrénées-Atlantiques France Bleu Nord — Nord and Pas de Calais FIP — specialising in a wide range of music – classical, hip hop, chanson, blues, world music – and minimal speech Mouv' — pop music, aimed at a young audience Radio France's two principal missions are: To create and expand the programming on all of their stations.
6 November 1922: Radiola, the first French private radio transmitter, begins regular broadcasts. It changes its name to Radio Paris in 1924, it is followed by Radio Toulouse and Radio Lyon, in 1932/1933 by Radio Luxembourg. Before World War II, 14 commercial and 12 public sector radios operate in France. 1940–44: In both the German Occupied zone and under the Vichy regime in the south, radio is taken over by the State. 1942–43: With the agreement of Vichy, Radio Monte Carlo and its financial holding company la SOFIRAD are born. 1944: At the Liberation of France, the state broadcasting monopoly is retained for practical and ideological reasons. Public service radio broadcasting is ensured by the RDF, soon to be called the RTF the ORTF in 1964. 1955: The commercial station Europe No. 1 begins broadcasting from across the border in the Sarre region of Germany, freed from French occupation in that year. 1965: Under the management of Roland Dhordain, the four French radio stations are reorganised: France I and II are merged to "RTF Inter" renamed "France Inter".
1975: When the ORTF is broken up into separate TV channels, technical services, archive services and professional training and audiovisual creation services and radio, Radio France gains its independence from other media institutions as the state controlled public service radio broadcaster. 1981: Following pressure from the independent and commercial radio lobbies and pirate broadcasters, the newly elected President François Mitterrand allows the licensing of "free" radio stations, to become "radios locales privées" with a state subsidy and financed by commercial advertising, to group themselves into national networks. A private radio sector broadcasting from within French borders is reborn. 1999: The daily radio audience is 83%. They listen on average for over three hours a day. 99% of French homes have a radio. 80% of French households have a car radio, 26.8% a personal stereo. 2000: Radio France re-organises its radio network. France Bleu becomes a regional-only network on FM and several FIP stations in large cities were closed down and replaced with youth station Le Mouv'.
2015: Radio France announced the end of its Medium Wave broadcasts at the end of December 31. Radio France has its headquarters at the Maison de la Radio, a circular building designed by the architect Henry Bernard and inaugurated in December 1963 by President Charles de Gaulle, which stands beside the River Seine in the 16th arrondissement of Paris. In addition to housing Radio France's central services and the studios of several of its channels, the building is home to the Musée de Radio France, a museum of radio and television broadcasting and recording techniques; the building caught fire in October 2014. Radio France Internationale Public Francophone Radios Information from Geoff Hare, Newcastle University Radio France Radio France Streaming Online
In radio, long wave or long-wave, abbreviated LW, refers to parts of the radio spectrum with wavelengths longer than what was called the medium-wave broadcasting band. The term is historic, dating from the early 20th century, when the radio spectrum was considered to consist of longwave, medium-wave, short-wave radio bands. Most modern radio systems and devices use wavelengths which would have been considered'ultra-short'. In contemporary usage, the term longwave is not defined and its intended meaning varies, it may be used for radio wavelengths longer than 1,000 m i.e. frequencies up to 300 kilohertz, including the International Telecommunications Union's low frequency and low frequency bands. Sometimes the upper limit is taken to be higher than 300 kHz, but not above the start of the medium wave broadcast band at 525 kHz. In Europe and large parts of Asia, where a range of frequencies between 148.5 and 283.5 kHz is used for AM broadcasting in addition to the medium-wave band, the term longwave refers to this broadcasting band, which falls wholly within the low frequency band of the radio spectrum.
The "Longwave Club of America" is interested in "frequencies below the AM broadcast band". Because of their long wavelength, radio waves in this frequency range can diffract over obstacles like mountain ranges and travel beyond the horizon, following the contour of the Earth; this mode of propagation, called ground wave, is the main mode in the longwave band. The attenuation of signal strength with distance by absorption in the ground is lower than at higher frequencies, falls with frequency. Low frequency ground waves can be received up to 2,000 kilometres from the transmitting antenna. Low frequency waves below 30 kHz can be used to communicate at transcontinental distances, can penetrate saltwater to depths of hundreds of feet, is used by the military to communicate with submerged submarines. Low frequency waves can occasionally travel long distances by reflecting from the ionosphere, although this method, called skywave or "skip" propagation, is not as common as at higher frequencies. Reflection occurs at F layers.
Skywave signals can be detected at distances exceeding 300 kilometres from the transmitting antenna. Non-directional beacons transmit continuously for the benefit of radio direction finders in marine and aeronautical navigation, they identify themselves by a callsign in Morse code. They can occupy any frequency in the range 190–1750 kHz. In North America, they occupy 190–535 kHz. In ITU Region 1 the lower limit is 280 kHz. There are institutional broadcast stations in the range that transmit coded time signals to radio clocks. For example: WWVB in Colorado, United States, on 60 kHz DCF77 in Frankfurt, Germany, on 77.5 kHz JJY in Japan, on 40 & 60 kHz 66.66 kHz in Taldom transmitter, Russia BPC in Lintong, China, 68.5 kHz MSF time and 60 kHz frequency standard transmitted from Anthorn in the UK. TDF from Allouis, France, on 162 kHzRadio-controlled clocks receive their time calibration signals with built-in long-wave receivers, they use long-wave, rather than short-wave or medium-wave, because long-wave signals from the transmitter to the receiver always travel along the same direct path across the surface of the Earth, so the time delay correction for the signal travel time from the transmitting station to the receiver is always the same for any one receiving location.
Longwaves travel by groundwaves that hug the surface of the earth, unlike mediumwaves and shortwaves. Those higher-frequency signals do not follow the surface of the Earth beyond a few kilometers, but can travel as skywaves, ‘bouncing’ off different layers of the ionosphere at different times of day; these different propagation paths can make the time lag different for every signal received. The delay between when the long-wave signal was sent from the transmitter and when the signal is received by the clock depends on the overland distance between the clock and the transmitter and the speed of light through the air, very nearly constant. Since the time lag is the same, a single constant shift forward from the time coded in the signal can compensate for all long-wave signals received at any one location from the same time signal station; the militaries of the United Kingdom, Russian Federation, United States, Germany and Sweden use frequencies below 50 kHz to communicate with submerged submarines.
In North America during the 1970s, the frequencies 167, 179 and 191 kHz were assigned to the short-lived Public Emergency Radio of the United States. Nowadays, in the United States, Part 15 of FCC regulations allows unlicensed use of 136 kHz and the 160–190 kHz band at output power up to 1 watt with up to a 15-meter antenna; this is called Low Frequency Experimental Radio. The 190–435 kHz band is used for navigational beacons. Swedish station SAQ, located at the Varberg Radio Station facility in Grimeton, is the last remaining operational Alexanderson alternator long-wave transmitter. Although the station ended regular service in 1996, it has been maintained as a World Heritage Site, makes at least two demonstration transmissions yearly, on 17.2 kHz. Longwave is used for broadcasting only within ITU Region 1; the long-wave broadcasters are located in western, northern and southeastern Europe, the former Soviet Union, Mongolia and Morocco. A larger geographic area can be covered by a long-w
Europe 1 known as Europe n° 1, is a owned radio station created in 1955. Owned and operated by Lagardère Active, a subsidiary of the Lagardère Group, it is one of the leading radio broadcasting stations in France and its programmes can be received throughout the country. In 1955, to circumvent the prohibition of commercial broadcasting in France after the Second World War, Europe n° 1 was established in the Saarland, a German state that borders France and Luxembourg. Transmissions were not authorised, until France's post-war administration of the Saarland ceased and sovereignty returned to West Germany in 1957. In 1959 the French government bought part of the broadcasting corporation, this interest is administered today by the Lagardère Group. All programming has always been produced in Paris. For the few parts of France who can't receive the FM signal, longwave broadcast still exists: the programme feed is transferred over ISDN lines to the transmitting station situated on the territory of the villages of Berus and Felsberg in the Saarland, Germany.
From its beginning, Europe n°1's priorities were two-fold: first and cultural information with an emphasis on eyewitness accounts rather than an announcer with a script. In both respects, it was a departure from radio formats of the day. In the 1960s, Europe 1 achieved success in capturing a young audience, due to Patrick Topaloff, the comedian and actor, it pioneered a new tone in French radio. Salut les copains became an icon of the baby boom generation. Europe 1 played a role in the May 68 political crisis by being the principal source of information untainted by government sanction. In the 1970s, President Giscard d'Estaing criticized its "mocking" tone; when the industrialist Jean-Luc Lagardère became president of Europe 1 group, some feared the network might lose its independent point of view. Since the 1980s, Europe 1 has experienced decreases in audience, average age of listeners has increased. Both can be traced to the proliferation of FM radio, after socialist President François Mitterrand made FM private radio legal in 1981.
In 1986, for equality, the regulation authorities gave FM frequencies to Europe 1 and other peripheral radios still emitting from outside France. A network of Europe 1 FM transmitters was established within France, they had to be shared with Europe 2, now Virgin Radio. In the 1990s, Europe 1 became a talk network. Jean-Pierre Elkabbach became president in 2005, he was dismissed by the CSA after announcing the death of Pascal Sevran prematurely in June 2008 and was replaced by Alexandre Bompard, former Director of the Sports at Canal+. Today, Europe 1 is France's fifth most popular network, with the other four being RTL, France Inter, NRJ and France Info. Europe 1 became a supplementary active member of the European Broadcasting Union in 1978 and in 1982, an active member. Over the last fifty years, the best-known programs on Europe 1 have included:'Pour ceux qui aiment le jazz' hosted by Daniel Filipacchi and Franck Ténot,'Signé Furax','Salut les copains','Campus','Vous êtes formidables','Bonjour, monsieur le maire','L'horoscope de Madame Soleil','Top 50', and'Le club de la presse'.
BBC Radio 5 had a translated version of Top 50 called Le Top from 1990 to 1994. Noted journalists and performers have included: Patrick Topaloff, Maurice Siegel, Jean Gorini, André Arnaud, Pierre Bouteiller, Pierre Bellemare, Francis Blanche, Daniel Filipacchi, Frank Ténot, Lucien Morisse, Robert Willar, Albert Simon, Laurent Ferrari and Madame Soleil. Former is Wendy Bouchard, she was succeeded by Laurence Ferrari in 2014. Europe 1 is broadcast in France, from France, through a dense FM network since 1986, but the station is still broadcast on longwave by Europe 1's longwave transmitter. In this case, the feed is transmitted by Europäische Rundfunk- und Fernseh-AG, broadcasting on longwave at 183 kHz from Felsberg in the Saarland.car radios in France scan in 3 khtz steps making it easy to hit 183 kHz the nearest legal frequencybelow 183 khtz was used by. A transmitter in East berlin. For longwave, the Felsberg antenna system beams Europe 1's signal southwestward towards France. In the easterly direction, transmissions are attenuated, so, in Eastern Europe, only a weak signal can be heard.
However, because of a defect in the antenna system, only the carrier frequency is properly screened to the east. Following the collapse of one mast in the four-mast phased array on October 8, 2012, the two-mast reserve antenna has been in use, resulting in a reduced signal in parts of France but a stronger and undistorted signal in northern Europe and the British Isles. Carrier frequencies on the longwave band are assigned as integer multiples of nine kHz ranging from 153
Conseil supérieur de l'audiovisuel
The Conseil supérieur de l'audiovisuel, abbreviated CSA, is a French institution created in 1989 whose role is to regulate the various electronic media in France, such as radio and television. The creation of the Haute Autorité de la Communication Audiovisuelle was a measure found in the Socialist Party's electoral program of 1981, called 110 Propositions for France; the CSA replaced the Commission Nationale de la Communication et des Libertés, which itself replaced the Haute Autorité de la Communication Audiovisuelle, created in 1982 to supervise the attribution of radio frequencies to the private radio sector, judged better than allowing the anarchic creation of the radios libres composed of amateurs and NGOs. The CSA always acts after content has been shown on a TV channel or heard on a radio, so it is not a censorship instance. For example, the CSA asked the French government to forbid Al-Manar TV in 2005 because of charges of hate speech. Roch-Olivier Maistre Carole Bienaimé-Besse Nicolas Curien Hervé Godechot Michèle Léridon Jean-François Mary Nathalie Sonnac The following pictograms are proposed to the different TV channels.
Channels are responsible for displaying the right pictogram depending on the show and its time of broadcast. Note that -18 can be either non-pornographic or pornographic. Pirate radio in France Official web site of the CSA
RTL (French radio)
RTL Radio Luxembourg, is a French commercial radio network owned by the RTL Group. Founded in 1933 as Radio Luxembourg, the station's name was changed to RTL in 1966, it broadcast from outside France until 1981, because only public stations had been allowed until then. It is a general-interest, news and music station, broadcasting nationally. On 19 December 1929 the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg established a state monopoly on broadcasting, but the law provided for possible concessions to private companies who wanted to use radio bandwidth, with the state charging a fixed amount for private use of radio; the Société Luxembourgeoise d'Études Radiophoniques was founded on 11 May 1929 with the aim of obtaining an eventual broadcasting contract from the Luxembourg government. This company was run by Luxembourger François Anen, French publisher Henry Etienne, French engineer Jean le Duc representing the Compagnie des Compteurs de Montrouge, which possessed 84% of the project's capital and which had signed a secret agreement to work with the group CSF, the main stockholder in Radio Paris.
Radio Paris wanted to set up a powerful peripheral radio station in Luxembourg, outside of the strict French regulations, which only allowed public stations. An agreement between the SLER and the Luxembourg government signed on 29 September 1930 with a duration of 25 years ensured the Luxembourg government a fee of 30% on future profits of the station; the agreement set up a committee for programming and a technical committee which allowed the government to regulate the private station. The Compagnie Luxembourgeoise de Radiodiffusion was founded on 30 May 1931 replacing the SLER. On 14 January 1933 experimental broadcasts by Radio Luxembourg began, at 1191 mètres, an unauthorized wavelength, from the longwave transmitter at Junglinster; the official opening of broadcast was on 15 March 1933 at 19:00 with a pre-recorded concert of light music. Radio Luxembourg broadcast each evening from 19:00 to 23:00, in German and Dutch and was therefore the only French-language private broadcaster available in France and Belgium.
Programmes in English débuted on 3 December 1933 under the editorial guidance of Stephen Williams. The station closed down at the outbreak of World War II in 1939, but it resumed service after the War. Beginning in 1946, it could be heard in France; until the 1980s, only the French public radio networks could transmit from France itself. Radio Luxembourg was one of private "peripheral" networks transmitting from abroad. Radio Luxembourg gained a large audience in France. In the 1960s, it was faced with the success of another peripheral network from Germany, Europe 1, which adopted a modern tone and gained a young audience. Radio Luxembourg's changing environment led to the station being renamed "RTL" on 11 October 1966, less mentioning its connection with Luxembourg. During the May 1968 crisis, the French public radio networks were on strike and TV was not independent from the government. RTL and Europe 1 were the main ways of obtaining independent information for the French people, they were nicknamed "barricades radio".
Unlike the British government's treatment of the Luxembourg English service, never allowed to have a landline from London, the French service has long had its main studios in Paris, with a landline from there to the transmitter. It appears to the listener to be a big French national radio station, the Luxembourg connection is played down. In 1981, under president François Mitterrand run radio stations were allowed to broadcast in France. RTL, now broadcasting in France at 104.3 MHz, was the radio network with the most listeners from 1981 to 2002. Whereas Luxembourg's English service was always centred on light entertainment and popular music, RTL in French is a mixed station: about 50% of its output is speech-based, with a strong focus on news and current affairs and a large team of respected journalists. Radio Luxembourg's two main national competitors are the state-owned France Inter. All three stations have high-powered transmitters occupying long-wave frequencies that date back many decades.
The French service has called itself RTL for many years. It still broadcasts on 234 kHz long wave using the Beidweiler Longwave Transmitter, but nowadays on a network of FM transmitters throughout France, as well as on the internet and satellite. In 1991 a separate RTL Belgian service in French, called Bel-RTL, was established. Intended for the French-speaking part of Belgium and with studios in Brussels, this station is licensed by the Belgian Government, with a network of FM transmitters covering Brussels and Wallonia, no particular connection with the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg other than its ownership by the RTL parent company. Since 2000, it has gone through a crisis. Indeed, in order to stop the aging of RTL's audience, station managers imposed changes which have annoyed many listeners. From 2000 to 2002, RTL lost a third of its listeners, falling to second in the ratings behind NRJ. In November 2006, it re-took the lead in the French radio ratings only to succumb again in July 2012 to NRJ.
RTL features a popular daily talk show named Les Grosses Têtes, broadcast since 1977. Other past or current programmes on RTL include: RTL Matin, the morning news session Ça peut vous arriver La Tête dans les étoiles, game with a star RTL Soir, the evening news Les Nocturnes, night-time broadcast on US music Stop ou Encore, a musical broadcast Le Journal Inattendu (the
Musique concrète is a type of music composition that utilizes recorded sounds as raw material, assembling them into a form of montage. It can feature sounds derived from recordings of musical instruments, the human voice, the natural environment as well as those created using synthesizers and computer-based digital signal processing. Compositions in this idiom are not restricted to the normal musical rules of melody, rhythm, so on, it exploits acousmatic listening, meaning sound identities can be intentionally obscured or appear unconnected to their source cause. Contrasted with "pure" elektronische Musik, the theoretical basis of musique concrète as a compositional practice was developed by Pierre Schaeffer, beginning in the early 1940s. From the late 1960s onward, in France, the term acousmatic music started to be used in reference to fixed media compositions that utilized both musique concrète based techniques and live sound spatialisation. In 1928 music critic André Cœuroy wrote in his book Panorama of Contemporary Music that "perhaps the time is not far off when a composer will be able to represent through recording, music composed for the gramophone".
In the same period the American composer Henry Cowell, in referring to the projects of Nikolai Lopatnikoff, believed that "there was a wide field open for the composition of music for phonographic discs." This sentiment was echoed further in 1930 by Igor Stravinsky, when he stated in the revue Kultur und Schallplatte that "there will be a greater interest in creating music in a way that will be peculiar to the gramophone record." The following year, 1931, Boris de Schloezer expressed the opinion that one could write for the gramophone or for the wireless just as one can for the piano or the violin. Shortly after, German art theorist Rudolf Arnheim discussed the effects of microphonic recording in an essay entitled "Radio", published in 1936. In it the idea of a creative role for the recording medium was introduced and Arnheim stated that: "The rediscovery of the musicality of sound in noise and in language, the reunification of music and language in order to obtain a unity of material:, one of the chief artistic tasks of radio".
In 1942 French composer and theoretician Pierre Schaeffer began his exploration of radiophony when he joined Jacques Copeau and his pupils in the foundation of the Studio d'Essai de la Radiodiffusion nationale. The studio functioned as a center for the Resistance movement in French radio, which in August 1944 was responsible for the first broadcasts in liberated Paris, it was here that Schaeffer began to experiment with creative radiophonic techniques using the sound technologies of the time. The development of Schaeffer's practice was informed by encounters with voice actors, microphone usage and radiophonic art played an important part in inspiring and consolidating Schaeffer's conception of sound-based composition. Another important influence on Schaeffer's practice was cinema, the techniques of recording and montage, which were associated with cinematographic practice, came to "serve as the substrate of musique concrète." Marc Battier notes that, prior to Schaeffer, Jean Epstein drew attention to the manner in which sound recording revealed what was hidden in the act of basic acoustic listening.
Epstein's reference to this "phenomenon of an epiphanic being", which appears through the transduction of sound, proved influential on Schaeffer's concept of reduced listening. Schaeffer would explicitly cite Jean Epstein with reference to his use of extra-musical sound material. Epstein had imagined that "through the transposition of natural sounds, it becomes possible to create chords and dissonances and symphonies of noise, which are a new and cinematographic music". Earlier than Schaeffer conducting his preliminary experiments into sound manipulation was the activity of Egyptian composer Halim El-Dabh; as a student in Cairo in the early to mid-1940s he began experimenting with "tape music" using a cumbersome wire recorder. He recorded the sounds of an ancient zaar ceremony and at the Middle East Radio studios processed the material using reverberation, voltage controls, re-recording; the resulting tape-based composition, entitled The Expression of Zaar, was presented in 1944 at an art gallery event in Cairo.
El-Dabh has described his initial activities as an attempt to unlock "the inner sound" of the recordings. While his early compositional work was not known outside of Egypt at the time, El-Dabh would gain recognition for his influential work at the Columbia-Princeton Electronic Music Center in the late 1950s. Following Schaeffer's work with Studio d'Essai at Radiodiffusion Nationale during the early 1940s he was credited with originating the theory and practice of musique concrète; the Studio d'Essai was renamed Club d'Essai de la Radiodiffusion-Télévision Française in 1946 and in the same year Schaeffer discussed, in writing, the question surrounding the transformation of time perceived through recording. The essay evidenced knowledge of sound manipulation techniques he would further exploit compositionally. In 1948 Schaeffer formally initiated "research in to noises" at the Club d'Essai and on 5 October 1948 the results of his ini
Monaco the Principality of Monaco, is a sovereign city-state and microstate on the French Riviera in Western Europe. France borders the country on three sides. Monaco has an area of 2.020 km2, making it the second-smallest country in the world after the Vatican. Its population was about 38,400 based on the last census of 2016. With 19,009 inhabitants per km², it is the most densely-populated sovereign state in the world. Monaco has a land border of 5.47 km, a coastline of 3.83 km, a width that varies between 1,700 and 349 m. The highest point in the country is a narrow pathway named Chemin des Révoires on the slopes of Mont Agel, in the Les Révoires Ward, 161 metres above sea level. Monaco's most populous Quartier is Monte Carlo and the most populous Ward is Larvotto/Bas Moulins. Through land reclamation, Monaco's land mass has expanded by 20 percent. Monaco is known as a playground for the famous, due to its tax laws. In 2014, it was noted. Monaco is a principality governed under a form of constitutional monarchy, with Prince Albert II as head of state.
Although Prince Albert II is a constitutional monarch, he wields immense political power. The House of Grimaldi has ruled Monaco, with brief interruptions, since 1297; the official language is French, but Monégasque and English are spoken and understood. The state's sovereignty was recognized by the Franco-Monegasque Treaty of 1861, with Monaco becoming a full United Nations voting member in 1993. Despite Monaco's independence and separate foreign policy, its defense is the responsibility of France. However, Monaco does maintain two small military units. Economic development was spurred in the late 19th century with the opening of the country's first casino, Monte Carlo, a railway connection to Paris. Since Monaco's mild climate and gambling facilities have contributed to the principality's status as a tourist destination and recreation centre for the rich. In more recent years, Monaco has become a major banking centre and has sought to diversify its economy into the services sector and small, high-value-added, non-polluting industries.
The state has no income tax, low business taxes, is well known for being a tax haven. It is the host of the annual street circuit motor race Monaco Grand Prix, one of the original Grands Prix of Formula One; the principality has a club football team. Monaco is not formally a part of the European Union, but it participates in certain EU policies, including customs and border controls. Through its relationship with France, Monaco uses the euro as its sole currency. Monaco joined the Council of Europe in 2004, it is a member of the Organisation Internationale de la Francophonie. Monaco's name comes from the nearby 6th-century BC Phocaean Greek colony. Referred to by the Ligurians as Monoikos, from the Greek "μόνοικος", "single house", from "μόνος" "alone, single" + "οἶκος" "house", which bears the sense of a people either settled in a "single habitation" or of "living apart" from others. According to an ancient myth, Hercules passed through the Monaco area and turned away the previous gods; as a result, a temple was constructed there, the temple of Hercules Monoikos.
Because the only temple of this area was the "House" of Hercules, the city was called Monoikos. It ended up in the hands of the Holy Roman Empire. An ousted branch of a Genoese family, the Grimaldi, contested it for a hundred years before gaining control. Though the Republic of Genoa would last until the 19th century, they allowed the Grimaldi family to keep Monaco, both France and Spain left it alone for hundreds of years. France did not annex it until the French Revolution, but after the defeat of Napoleon it was put under the care of the Kingdom of Sardinia. In the 19th century, when Sardinia became a part of Italy, the region came under French influence again but France allowed it to remain independent. Like France, Monaco was overrun by the Axis powers during the Second World War and for a short time was administered by Italy the Third Reich, before being liberated. Although the occupation lasted for just a short time, it meant the deportation of the Jewish population and execution of several resistance members from Monaco.
Since Monaco has been independent. It has taken some steps towards integration with the European Union. Following a land grant from Emperor Henry VI in 1191, Monaco was refounded in 1215 as a colony of Genoa. Monaco was first ruled by a member of the House of Grimaldi in 1297, when Francesco Grimaldi, known as "Il Malizia", his men captured the fortress protecting the Rock of Monaco while dressed as Franciscan monks—a monaco in Italian, although this is a coincidence as the area was known by this name. Francesco, was evicted only a few years afterwards by the Genoese forces, the struggle over "the Rock" continued for another century; the Grimaldi family was Genoese and the struggle was something of a family feud. However, the Genoese became engaged in other conflicts, in the late 1300s Genoa became involved in a conflict with the Crown of Aragon over Corsica; the Crown of Aragon became a part of Spain through marriage and other parts drifted into various pieces of other